"Oct. 24, 2012 -- One of the oldest and cheapest drugs around may be highly effective against colon cancer, a new study shows.
Some of the most cutting-edge cancer therapies involve targeted treatments used in patients with specific gene mut"...
Dermatologic And Soft Tissue Toxicity
In Study 1, dermatologic toxicities occurred in 90% of patients and were severe (NCI-CTC grade 3 and higher) in 15% of patients with mCRC receiving Vectibix. The clinical manifestations included, but were not limited to, acneiform dermatitis, pruritus, erythema, rash, skin exfoliation, paronychia, dry skin, and skin fissures.
Monitor patients who develop dermatologic or soft tissue toxicities while receiving Vectibix for the development of inflammatory or infectious sequelae. Life-threatening and fatal infectious complications including necrotizing fasciitis, abscesses, and sepsis have been observed in patients treated with Vectibix. Life-threatening and fatal bullous mucocutaneous skin disease has also been observed in patients treated with Vectibix. Withhold or discontinue Vectibix for dermatologic or soft tissue toxicity associated with severe or life-threatening inflammatory or infectious complications [see BOXED WARNING and ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Dose modifications for Vectibix concerning dermatologic toxicity are provided [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Increased Tumor Progression, Increased Mortality, Or Lack Of Benefit In Patients With KRAS-Mutant mCRC
Determination of KRAS mutational status in colorectal tumors using an FDA-approved test indicated for this use is necessary for selection of patients for treatment with Vectibix. Vectibix is indicated only for the treatment of patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC. Vectibix is not indicated for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer that harbor somatic mutations in codons 12 and 13 (exon 2) as determined by an FDA-approved test for this use [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Clinical Studies]. In Study 3, 221 patients with KRAS-mutant mCRC tumors receiving Vectibix in combination with FOLFOX experienced shorter overall survival (OS) compared to 219 patients receiving FOLFOX alone (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.98-1.57). Perform the assessment for KRAS mutational status in colorectal cancer in laboratories with demonstrated proficiency in the specific technology being utilized. Improper assay performance can lead to unreliable test results. Refer to an FDA-approved test's package insert for instructions on the identification of patients eligible for the treatment of Vectibix.
Progressively decreasing serum magnesium levels leading to severe (grade 3-4) hypomagnesemia occurred in up to 7% (in Study 2) of patients across clinical trials. Monitor patients for hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia prior to initiating Vectibix treatment, periodically during Vectibix treatment, and for up to 8 weeks after the completion of treatment. Other electrolyte disturbances, including hypokalemia, have also been observed. Replete magnesium and other electrolytes as appropriate.
In Study 1, 4% of patients experienced infusion reactions and 1% of patients experienced severe infusion reactions (NCI-CTC grade 3-4).
Infusion reactions, manifesting as fever, chills, dyspnea, bronchospasm, and hypotension, can occur following Vectibix administration [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Fatal infusion reactions occurred in postmarketing experience. Terminate the infusion for severe infusion reactions [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Acute Renal Failure In Combination With Chemotherapy
Severe diarrhea and dehydration, leading to acute renal failure and other complications, have been observed in patients treated with Vectibix in combination with chemotherapy.
Pulmonary Fibrosis/Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)
Fatal and nonfatal cases of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (1%) and pulmonary fibrosis have been observed in patients treated with Vectibix. Pulmonary fibrosis occurred in less than 1% (2/1467) of patients enrolled in clinical studies of Vectibix. In the event of acute onset or worsening of pulmonary symptoms, interrupt Vectibix therapy. Discontinue Vectibix therapy if ILD is confirmed.
In patients with a history of interstitial pneumonitis or pulmonary fibrosis, or evidence of interstitial pneumonitis or pulmonary fibrosis, the benefits of therapy with Vectibix versus the risk of pulmonary complications must be carefully considered.
Exposure to sunlight can exacerbate dermatologic toxicity. Advise patients to wear sunscreen and hats and limit sun exposure while receiving Vectibix.
Keratitis and ulcerative keratitis, known risk factors for corneal perforation, have been reported with Vectibix use. Monitor for evidence of keratitis or ulcerative keratitis. Interrupt or discontinue Vectibix therapy for acute or worsening keratitis.
Increased Mortality And Toxicity With Vectibix In Combination With Bevacizumab And Chemotherapy
In an interim analysis of an open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial in the first-line setting in patients with mCRC, the addition of Vectibix to the combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy resulted in decreased OS and increased incidence of NCI-CTC grade 3-5 (87% vs 72%) adverse reactions. NCI-CTC grade 3-4 adverse reactions occurring at a higher rate in Vectibix-treated patients included rash/acneiform dermatitis (26% vs 1%), diarrhea (23% vs 12%), dehydration (16% vs 5%), primarily occurring in patients with diarrhea, hypokalemia (10% vs 4%), stomatitis/mucositis (4% vs < 1%), and hypomagnesemia (4% vs 0).
NCI-CTC grade 3-5 pulmonary embolism occurred at a higher rate in Vectibix-treated patients (7% vs 3%) and included fatal events in three ( < 1%) Vectibix-treated patients.
As a result of the toxicities experienced, patients randomized to Vectibix, bevacizumab, and chemotherapy received a lower mean relative dose intensity of each chemotherapeutic agent (oxaliplatin, irinotecan, bolus 5-FU, and/or infusional 5-FU) over the first 24 weeks on study compared with those randomized to bevacizumab and chemotherapy.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No carcinogenicity or mutagenicity studies of panitumumab have been conducted. It is not known if panitumumab can impair fertility in humans. Prolonged menstrual cycles and/or amenorrhea occurred in normally cycling, female cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with 1.25 to 5 times the recommended human dose of panitumumab (based on body weight). Menstrual cycle irregularities in panitumumab-treated female monkeys were accompanied by both a decrease and delay in peak progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels. Normal menstrual cycling resumed in most animals after discontinuation of panitumumab treatment. A no-effect level for menstrual cycle irregularities and serum hormone levels was not identified. The effects of panitumumab on male fertility have not been studied. However, no adverse effects were observed microscopically in reproductive organs from male cynomolgus monkeys treated for 26 weeks with panitumumab at doses of up to approximately 5-fold the recommended human dose (based on body weight).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no studies of Vectibix in pregnant women. Reproduction studies in cynomolgus monkeys treated with 1.25 to 5 times the recommended human dose of panitumumab resulted in significant embryolethality and abortions; however, no other evidence of teratogenesis was noted in offspring [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. Vectibix should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Based on animal models, EGFR is involved in prenatal development and may be essential for normal organogenesis, proliferation, and differentiation in the developing embryo. Human IgG is known to cross the placental barrier; therefore, panitumumab may be transmitted from the mother to the developing fetus, and has the potential to cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women.
Women who become pregnant during Vectibix treatment are encouraged to enroll in Amgen's Pregnancy Surveillance Program. Patients or their physicians should call 1-800-77-AMGEN (1-800-772-6436) to enroll.
It is not known whether panitumumab is excreted into human milk; however, human IgG is excreted into human milk. Published data suggest that breast milk antibodies do not enter the neonatal and infant circulation in substantial amounts. Because many drugs are excreted into human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Vectibix, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. If nursing is interrupted, based on the mean half-life of panitumumab, nursing should not be resumed earlier than 2 months following the last dose of Vectibix [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Women who are nursing during Vectibix treatment are encouraged to enroll in Amgen's Lactation Surveillance Program. Patients or their physicians should call 1-800-77-AMGEN (1-800-772-6436) to enroll.
The safety and effectiveness of Vectibix have not been established in pediatric patients. The pharmacokinetic profile of Vectibix has not been studied in pediatric patients.
Of the 737 patients who received Vectibix monotherapy in Study 1 and 2, 36% were 65 and over while 8% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed in elderly patients ( ≥ 65 years of age) treated with Vectibix monotherapy.
Of the 322 patients in Study 3 who received Vectibix plus FOLFOX, 128 (40%) were 65 and over while 8% were 75 and over. Patients older than 65 years of age experienced an increased incidence of serious adverse events (52% vs 36%) and an increased incidence of serious diarrhea (15% vs 5%) as compared to younger patients.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/9/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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