"Analysis of three biomarkers in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can diagnose — and even predict — transplant rejection, according to results from a clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infect"...
Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic-type reactions, some of which have been life-threatening and fatal, have been reported in patients receiving Venofer. Patients may present with shock, clinically significant hypotension, loss of consciousness, and/or collapse. If hypersensitivity reactions or signs of intolerance occur during administration, stop Venofer immediately. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity during and after Venofer administration for at least 30 minutes and until clinically stable following completion of the infusion. Only administer Venofer when personnel and therapies are immediately available for the treatment of serious hypersensitivity reactions. Most reactions associated with intravenous iron preparations occur within 30 minutes of the completion of the infusion [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Venofer may cause clinically significant hypotension. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension following each administration of Venofer. Hypotension following administration of Venofer may be related to the rate of administration and/or total dose administered [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Excessive therapy with parenteral iron can lead to excess storage of iron with the possibility of iatrogenic hemosiderosis. All adult and pediatric patients receiving Venofer require periodic monitoring of hematologic and iron parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation). Do not administer Venofer to patients with evidence of iron overload. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) values increase rapidly after intravenous administration of iron sucrose; do not perform serum iron measurements for at least 48 hours after intravenous dosing [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and OVERDOSAGE].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies have not been performed with iron sucrose.
Iron sucrose was not mutagenic in vitro in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) or the mouse lymphoma assay. Iron sucrose was not clastogenic in the in vitro chromosome aberration assay using human lymphocytes or in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.
Iron sucrose at intravenous doses up to 15 mg/kg/day of elemental iron (1.2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) had no effect on fertility and reproductive function of male and female rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, iron sucrose was administered intravenously to rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 13 mg/kg/day of elemental iron (half or equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area, respectively) and revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to iron sucrose. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, Venofer should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether iron sucrose is excreted in human milk. Iron sucrose is secreted into the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Venofer is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of Venofer for iron replacement treatment in pediatric patients with dialysis-dependent or non-dialysis-dependent CKD have not been established.
Safety and effectiveness of Venofer for iron maintenance treatment in pediatric patients 2 years of age and older with dialysis-dependent or non-dialysis-dependent CKD receiving erythropoietin therapy were studied. Venofer at doses of 0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, and 2.0 mg/kg was administered. All three doses maintained hemoglobin between 10.5 g/dL and 14.0 g/dL in about 50% of subjects over the 12week treatment period with stable EPO dosing. [See Clinical Studies]
Venofer has not been studied in patients younger than 2 years of age.
In a country where Venofer is available for use in children, at a single site, five premature infants (weight less than 1,250 g) developed necrotizing enterocolitis and two of the five died during or following a period when they received Venofer, several other medications and erythropoietin. Necrotizing enterocolitis may be a complication of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. No causal relationship to Venofer or any other drugs could be established.
Clinical studies of Venofer did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Of the 1,051 patients in two post-marketing safety studies of Venofer, 40% were 65 years and older. No overall differences in safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. In general, dose administration to an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/10/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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