"Rates of asthma prevalence in the United States are leveling off and possibly declining, but not among the poor, according to a study published online December 28 in Pediatrics.
Overall prevalence of childhood asthma doubled fr"...
Use of VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) may be associated with the following:
- Paradoxical bronchospasm [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS]
- Cardiovascular effects [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS]
- Immediate hypersensitivity reactions [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypokalemia [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
The safety data described below reflects exposure to VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) in 248 patients treated with VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) in 3 placebo-controlled clinical trials of 2 to 12 weeks' duration. The data from adults and adolescents is based upon 2 clinical trials in which 202 patients with asthma 12 years of age and older were treated with VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) 2 inhalations 4 times daily for 12 weeks' duration. The adult/adolescent population was 92 female, 110 male and 163 white, 19 black, 18 Hispanic, 2 other. The data from pediatric patients are based upon 1 clinical trial in which 46 patients with asthma 4 to 11 years of age were treated with VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) 2 inhalations 4 times daily for 2 weeks' duration. The population was 21 female, 25 male and 25 white, 17 black, 3 Hispanic, 1 other.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Adults and Adolescents 12 Years of Age and Older: The two 12-week, randomized, double-blind studies in 610 adolescent and adult patients with asthma that compared VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) , a CFC 11/12-propelled albuterol inhaler, and an HFA-134a placebo inhaler. Overall, the incidence and nature of the adverse reactions reported for VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) and a CFC 11/12-propelled albuterol inhaler were comparable. Table 1 lists the incidence of all adverse reactions (whether considered by the investigator to be related or unrelated to drug) from these studies that occurred at a rate of 3% or greater in the group treated with VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) and more frequently in the group treated with VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) than in the HFA-134a placebo inhaler group.
Table 1. Overall Adverse Reactions With ≥ 3% Incidence
in 2 Large 12-Week Clinical Trials in Adolescents and Adults*
|Adverse Reaction||Percent of Patients|
|VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol)
(n = 202)
(n = 207)
(n = 201)
|Ear, nose<, and throat|
|Upper respiratory inflammation||5||5||2|
|Viral respiratory infections||7||4||4|
|*This table includes all adverse reactions (whether considered by the investigator to be drug-related or unrelated to drug) that occurred at an incidence rate of at least 3.0% in the group treated with VENTOLIN HFA and more frequently in the group treated with VENTOLIN HFA than in the HFA-134a placebo inhaler group.|
Adverse reactions reported by less than 3% of the adolescent and adult patients receiving VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) and by a greater proportion of patients receiving VENTOLIN HFA than receiving HFA-134a placebo inhaler and that have the potential to be related to VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) include diarrhea, laryngitis, oropharyngeal edema, cough, lung disorders, tachycardia, and extrasystoles. Palpitation and dizziness have also been observed with VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) .
Pediatric Patients: Results from the 2-week pediatric clinical study in patients with asthma 4 to 11 years of age showed that this pediatric population had an adverse reaction profile similar to that of the adolescent and adult populations.
Three studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of VENTOLIN HFA in patients between birth and 4 years of age. The results of these studies did not establish the efficacy of VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) in this age-group [see Pediatric Use]. Since the efficacy of VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) has not been demonstrated in children between birth and 48 months of age, the safety of VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) in this age-group cannot be established. However, the safety profile observed in the pediatric population under 4 years of age was comparable to that observed in the older pediatric patients and in adolescents and adults. Where adverse reaction incidence rates were greater in patients under 4 years of age compared with older patients, the higher incidence rates were noted in all treatment arms, including placebo. These adverse reactions included upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, pyrexia, and tachycardia.
In addition to the adverse reactions listed in section 6.1, the following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) . Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cases of paradoxical bronchospasm, hoarseness, arrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia), and hypersensitivity reactions (including urticaria, angioedema, rash) have been reported after the use of VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) .
In addition, albuterol, like other sympathomimetic agents, can cause adverse reactions such as hypokalemia, hypertension, peripheral vasodilatation, angina, tremor, central nervous system stimulation, hyperactivity, sleeplessness, headache, muscle cramps, and drying or irritation of the oropharynx.
Read the Ventolin HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Other short-acting sympathomimetic aerosol bronchodilators should not be used concomitantly with albuterol. If additional adrenergic drugs are to be administered by any route, they should be used with caution to avoid deleterious cardiovascular effects.
Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents not only block the pulmonary effect of beta-agonists, such as VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) , but may produce severe bronchospasm in patients with asthma. Therefore, patients with asthma should not normally be treated with beta-blockers. However, under certain circumstances, e.g., as prophylaxis after myocardial infarction, there may be no acceptable alternatives to the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in patients with asthma. In this setting, cardioselective beta-blockers should be considered, although they should be administered with caution.
The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from the administration of nonpotassium-sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical relevance of these effects is not known, caution is advised in the coadministration of beta-agonists with nonpotassium-sparing diuretics. Consider monitoring potassium levels.
Mean decreases of 16% to 22% in serum digoxin levels were demonstrated after single-dose intravenous and oral administration of albuterol, respectively, to normal volunteers who had received digoxin for 10 days. The clinical relevance of these findings for patients with obstructive airway disease who are receiving inhaled albuterol and digoxin on a chronic basis is unclear. Nevertheless, it would be prudent to carefully evaluate the serum digoxin levels in patients who are currently receiving digoxin and albuterol.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors or Tricyclic Antidepressants
VENTOLIN HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol) should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants, or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of such agents, because the action of albuterol on the vascular system may be potentiated. Consider alternative therapy< in patients taking MAOs or tricyclic antidepressants.
Read the Ventolin HFA Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/17/2008
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