"The European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has recommended the marketing of selexipag (Uptravi, Actelion Registration Ltd) for the treatment of adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)./"...
Verapamil has a negative inotropic effect which, in most patients, is compensated by its afterload reduction (decreased systemic vascular resistance) properties without a net impairment of ventricular performance. In previous clinical experience with 4,954 patients primarily with immediate-release verapamil, 87 (1.8%) developed congestive heart failure or pulmonary edema. Avoid verapamil in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (e.g., ejection fraction less than 30% or moderate to severe symptoms of cardiac failure) and in patients with any degree of ventricular dysfunction if they are receiving a beta-adrenergic blocker [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Control patients with milder ventricular dysfunction, if possible, with optimum doses of digitalis and/or diuretics before verapamil treatment is started [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Occasionally, the pharmacologic action of verapamil may produce a decrease in blood pressure below normal levels which may result in dizziness or symptomatic hypotension. In hypertensive patients, decreases in blood pressure below normal are unusual. The incidence of hypotension observed in 4,954 patients enrolled in clinical trials of other verapamil formulations was 2.5% [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. In clinical studies of Verelan PM, 1.7% of the patients developed significant hypotension. Tilt table testing (60 degrees) was not able to induce orthostatic hypotension.
Elevated Liver Enzymes
Elevations of transaminases with and without concomitant elevations in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin have been reported. Such elevations have sometimes been transient and may disappear even in the face of continued verapamil treatment.
Several cases of hepatocellular injury related to verapamil have been proven by rechallenge; half of these had clinical symptoms (malaise, fever, and/or right upper quadrant pain) in addition to elevations of SGOT, SGPT and alkaline phosphatase. Periodic monitoring of liver function in patients receiving verapamil is therefore prudent.
Accessory Bypass Tract (Wolff-Parkinson-White or Lown-Ganong Levine)
Some patients with paroxysmal and/or chronic atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation and a coexisting accessory AV pathway have developed increased antegrade conduction across the accessory pathway bypassing the AV node, producing a very rapid ventricular response or ventricular fibrillation after receiving intravenous verapamil (or digitalis). Although a risk of this occurring with oral verapamil has not been established, such patients receiving oral verapamil may be at risk and its use in these patients is contraindicated [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Treatment is usually DC-cardioversion. Cardioversion has been used safely and effectively after oral verapamil.
The effect of verapamil on AV conduction and the SA node may lead to asymptomatic first-degree AV block and transient bradycardia, sometimes accompanied by nodal escape rhythms. PR interval prolongation is correlated with verapamil plasma concentrations, especially during the early titration phase of therapy. Higher degrees of AV block, however, were infrequently (0.8%) observed in previous verapamil clinical trials [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Marked first-degree block or progressive development to second-or third-degree AV block requires a reduction in dosage or, in rare instances, discontinuation of verapamil and institution of appropriate therapy depending upon the clinical situation.
Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
In 120 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS) (most of them refractory or intolerant to propranolol) who received therapy with verapamil at doses up to 720 mg/day, a variety of serious adverse effects were seen. Three patients died in pulmonary edema; all had severe left ventricular outflow obstruction and a history of left ventricular dysfunction. Eight other patients had pulmonary edema and/or severe hypotension; abnormally high (over 20 mm Hg) pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and a marked left ventricular outflow obstruction were present in most of these patients. Concomitant administration of quinidine [see DRUG INTERACTIONS] preceded the severe hypotension in 3 of the 8 patients (2 of whom developed pulmonary edema). Sinus bradycardia occurred in 11% of the patients, second-degree AV block in 4% and sinus arrest in 2% [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. It must be appreciated that this group of patients had a serious disease with a high mortality rate. Most adverse effects responded well to dose reduction and only rarely did verapamil have to be discontinued.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
An 18-month toxicity study in rats, at a low multiple (6-fold) of the maximum recommended human dose, and not the maximum tolerated dose, did not suggest a tumorigenic potential. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic potential of verapamil administered in the diet of rats for two years at doses of 10, 35 and 120 mg/kg/day or approximately 1.3, 4.4 and 15 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human daily dose (400 mg/day or 8 mg/kg/day).
Verapamil was not mutagenic in the Ames test in 5 test strains at 3 mg per plate, with or without metabolic activation. Studies in female rats at daily dietary doses up to 6.9 times (55 mg/kg/day) the maximum recommended human dose did not show impaired fertility. Effects on male fertility have not been determined.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Reproduction studies have been performed in rabbits and rats at oral doses up to 1.9 (15 mg/kg/day) and 7.5 (60 mg/kg/day) times the human oral daily dose, respectively, and have revealed no evidence of teratogenicity. In the rat, however, this multiple of the human dose was embryocidal and retarded fetal growth and development, probably because of adverse maternal effects reflected in reduced weight gains of the dams. This oral dose has also been shown to cause hypotension in rats. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Verapamil should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Verapamil crosses the placental barrier and can be detected in umbilical vein blood at delivery.
Labor And Delivery
It is not known whether the use of verapamil during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, or whether it prolongs the duration of labor or increases the need for forceps delivery or other obstetric intervention. Such adverse experiences have not been reported in the literature, despite a long history of use of verapamil in Europe in the treatment of cardiac side effects of beta-adrenergic agonist agents used to treat premature labor.
Verapamil is excreted into human milk. In case studies where verapamil concentration in human milk was calculated, the nursing infant doses ranged from less than 0.01% to 0.1% of the mother's verapamil dose. Consider possible infant exposure when verapamil is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of Verelan PM were not adequate to determine if subjects aged 65 or over respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients; however, greater sensitivity to Verelan PM by some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Aging may affect the pharmacokinetics of verapamil. Elimination half-life may be prolonged in the elderly [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Verapamil is highly metabolized by the liver, and about 70% of the administered dose is excreted as metabolites in the urine. Clinical circumstances, some of which may be more common in the elderly, such as hepatic or renal impairment, should be considered [see Use In Specific Populations]. In general, lower initial doses of Verelan PM may be warranted in the elderly [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Impaired Hepatic Function
Since verapamil is highly metabolized by the liver, consider lower dosages and closely monitor responses to the drug in patients with impaired hepatic function. Severe liver dysfunction prolongs the elimination half-life of immediate-release verapamil to about 14 to 16 hours; hence, approximately 30% of the dose given to patients with normal liver function should be administered to these patients. Monitor for abnormal prolongation of the PR interval or other signs of excessive pharmacologic effects [see OVERDOSAGE] .
Impaired Renal Function
About 70% of an administered dose of verapamil is excreted as metabolites in the urine. Until further data are available, monitor these patients for abnormal prolongation of the PR interval or other signs of overdosage [see OVERDOSAGE].
Attenuated (decreased) Neuromuscular Transmission
It has been reported that verapamil decreases neuromuscular transmission in patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, and that verapamil prolongs recovery from the neuromuscular blocking agent vecuronium and causes a worsening of myasthenia gravis. It may be necessary to decrease the dosage of verapamil when it is administered to patients with attenuated neuromuscular transmission.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/27/2014
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