Clinical Trials Experience With VIMOVO
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The adverse reactions reported below are specific to the clinical trials with VIMOVO.
The safety of VIMOVO was evaluated in clinical studies involving 2317 patients (aged 27 to 90 years) and ranging from 3 to 12 months. Patients received either 500 mg/20 mg of VIMOVO twice daily (n=1157), 500 mg of enteric-coated naproxen twice daily (n=426), or placebo (n=246). The average number of VIMOVO doses taken over 12 months was 696+44.
The table below lists adverse reactions, regardless of causality, occurring in > 2% of patients receiving VIMOVO and higher in the VIMOVO group than control from two clinical studies (Study 1 and Study 2). Both of these studies were randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel studies. The majority of patients were female (67%), white (86%). The majority of patients were 50-69 years of age (83%). Approximately one quarter were on low-dose aspirin.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions* in Study 1 and Study 2
|Preferred term||VIMOVO 500 mg/20 mg twice daily
|EC-Naproxen 500 mg twice daily
|Upper respiratory tract infection||5||4|
|Urinary tract infection||2||1|
|*reported in > 2% of patients and higher in the VIMOVO group than control|
In Study 1 and Study 2, patients taking VIMOVO had fewer premature discontinuations due to adverse reactions compared to patients taking enteric-coated naproxen alone (7.9% vs. 12.5% respectively). The most common reasons for discontinuations due to adverse events in the VIMOVO treatment group were upper abdominal pain (1.2%, n=5), duodenal ulcer (0.7%, n=3) and erosive gastritis (0.7%, n=3). Among patients receiving enteric-coated naproxen, the most common reasons for discontinuations due to adverse events were duodenal ulcer 5.4% (n=23), dyspepsia 2.8% (n=12) and upper abdominal pain 1.2% (n=5). The proportion of patients discontinuing treatment due to any upper gastrointestinal adverse events (including duodenal ulcers) in patients treated with VIMOVO was 4% compared to 12% for patients taking enteric-coated naproxen.
The table below lists adverse reactions, regardless of causality, occurring in > 2% of patients and higher in the VIMOVO group than placebo from 2 clinical studies conducted in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee (Study 3 and Study 4).
Table 2: Adverse Reactions*
in Study 3 and Study 4
|Preferred term||VIMOVO 500 mg/20 mg twice daily
|Abdominal Pain Upper||4||3|
|*reported in ≥ 2% of patients and higher in the VIMOVO group than placebo|
The percentage of subjects who withdrew from the VIMOVO treatment group in these studies due to treatment-emergent adverse events was 7%. There were no preferred terms in which more than 1% of subjects withdrew from any treatment group.
The long-term safety of VIMOVO was evaluated in an open-label clinical trial of 239 patients, of which 135 patients received 500 mg/20 mg of VIMOVO for 12 months. There were no differences in frequency or types of adverse reactions seen in the long-term safety study compared to shorter-term treatment in the randomized controlled studies.
Clinical Trials Experience With Naproxen And Other NSAIDs
In patients taking naproxen in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1% to 10% of patients are:
Gastrointestinal: heartburn, nausea, dyspepsia, stomatitis
Special Senses: tinnitus, visual disturbances, hearing disturbances
General: dyspnea, thirst
In patients taking NSAIDs, the following adverse experiences have also been reported in approximately 1% to 10% of patients:
General: abnormal renal function, anemia, elevated liver enzymes, increased bleeding time, rashes
The following are additional adverse experiences reported in < 1% of patients taking naproxen during clinical trials:
Nervous System: inability to concentrate
Dermatologic: skin rashes
In patients taking NSAIDs, the following adverse experiences have also been reported in < 1% of patients:
Body as a Whole: fever, infection, sepsis, anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death
Hepatobilitary: hepatitis, liver failure
Metabolic and Nutritional: weight changes
Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis
Special Senses: blurred vision, conjunctivitis
Clinical Trials Experience With Esomeprazole Magnesium
Additional adverse reactions that were reported as possibly or probably related to NEXIUM with an incidence < 1% are listed below by body system:
Body as a Whole: abdomen enlarged, allergic reaction, asthenia, back pain, chest pain, substernal chest pain, facial edema, hot flushes, fatigue, fever, flu-like disorder, generalized edema, , malaise, pain, rigors
Cardiovascular: flushing, hypertension, tachycardia
Gastrointestinal:, dyspepsia, dysphagia, dysplasia GI, epigastric pain, eructation, esophageal disorder, , gastroenteritis, GI hemorrhage, GI symptoms not otherwise specified, hiccup, melena, mouth disorder, pharynx disorder, rectal disorder, serum gastrin increased, tongue disorder, tongue edema, ulcerative stomatitis, vomiting
Hearing: earache, tinnitus
Nervous System/Psychiatric: anorexia, apathy, appetite increased, confusion, depression aggravated, hypertonia, nervousness, hypoesthesia, impotence, insomnia, migraine, migraine aggravated, paresthesia, sleep disorder, somnolence, tremor, vertigo, visual field defect
Reproductive: dysmenorrhea, menstrual disorder, vaginitis
Special Senses: otitis media, parosmia, taste loss
Visual: conjunctivitis, vision abnormal
The following potentially clinically significant laboratory changes in clinical trials, irrespective of relationship to esomeprazole, were reported in ≤ 1% of patients: increased creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, ALT, AST, hemoglobin, white blood cell count, platelets, serum gastrin, potassium, sodium, thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone. Decreases were seen in hemoglobin, white blood cell count, platelets, potassium, sodium, and thyroxine.
Endoscopic findings that were reported as adverse reactions include: duodenitis, esophagitis, esophageal stricture, esophageal ulceration, esophageal varices, gastric ulcer, hernia, benign polyps or nodules, Barrett's esophagus, and mucosal discoloration.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably ensure their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body as a Whole: gait disturbance
Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications: contusion, fall
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue: joint swelling, muscle spasms
Urogenital: renal tubular necrosis
Body as a Whole: angioneurotic edema, menstrual disorders
Gastrointestinal: inflammation, bleeding (sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly), ulceration, and obstruction of the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract, esophagitis, stomatitis, hematemesis, colitis, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease)
Hepatobiliary: hepatitis (some cases have been fatal)
Respiratory: eosinophilic pneumonitis
Dermatologic: alopecia, urticaria, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, fixed drug eruption, lichen planus, pustular reaction, systemic lupus erythematoses, bullous reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, photosensitive dermatitis, photosensitivity reactions, including rare cases resembling porphyria cutanea tarda (pseudoporphyria) or epidermolysis bullosa. If skin fragility, blistering or other symptoms suggestive of pseudoporphyria occur, treatment should be discontinued and the patient monitored.
Reproduction (female): infertility
Blood and Lymphatic: agranulocytosis
Eye: blurred vision
Gastrointestinal: pancreatitis, microscopic colitis
Hepatobiliary: hepatic failure, hepatitis with or without jaundice
Immune System: anaphylactic reaction/shock
Nervous System: hepatic encephalopathy
Psychiatric: aggression, agitation, hallucination
Renal and Urinary: interstitial nephritis
Reproductive System and Breast: gynecomastia
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal: bronchospasm
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue: alopecia, erythema multiforme, photosensitivity, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal)
Read the Vimovo (naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium delayed release tablets) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Several studies conducted with VIMOVO have shown no interaction between the two components, naproxen and esomeprazole.
ACE-inhibitors/Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists
Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. NSAIDs may also increase the risk of renal impairment associated with the use of ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor renal function closely in patients taking VIMOVO concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with impaired renal function [see Use in Specific Populations].
VIMOVO can be administered with low-dose aspirin ( ≤ 325 mg/day) therapy. The concurrent use of aspirin and VIMOVO may increase the risk of serious adverse events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and Clinical Studies].
When naproxen is administered with doses of aspirin ( > 1 gram/day), its protein binding is reduced. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known. However, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of naproxen and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.
As with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of cholestyramine can delay the absorption of naproxen.
As with all NSAIDs caution is advised when cyclosporin is co-administered because of the increased risk of nephrotoxicity.
Concomitant administration of esomeprazole, a component of VIMOVO, and tacrolimus may increase the serum levels of tacrolimus.
Clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations, have shown that NSAIDs can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely both for signs of renal failure, as well as to monitor to assure diuretic efficacy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.
NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. NSAIDs have been reported to reduce the tubular secretion of methotrexate in an animal model. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.
Case reports, published population pharmacokinetic studies, and retrospective analyses suggest that concomitant administration of PPIs and methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate. However, no formal drug interaction studies of methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Naproxen decreases platelet aggregation and may prolong bleeding time. In addition, because warfarin and NSAIDs are highly protein bound, the free fraction of warfarin and naproxen may increase substantially in some patients.
Concomitant use of VIMOVO and anticoagulants (such as warfarin, dicumarol and heparin) may result in increased risk of bleeding complications.
The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.
Post-marketing reports of changes in prothrombin measures have been reported among patients on concomitant warfarin and esomeprazole therapy. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding when selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are combined with NSAIDs including COX-2 selective inhibitors. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with SSRIs [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Other Information Concerning Drug Interactions
Naproxen is highly bound to plasma albumin; it thus has a theoretical potential for interaction with other albumin-bound drugs such as sulphonylureas, hydantoins, and other NSAIDs. Patients simultaneously receiving VIMOVO and a hydantoin, sulphonamide or sulphonylurea should be observed for adjustment of dose if required.
Naproxen and other NSAIDs can reduce the antihypertensive effect of propranolol and other beta-blockers.
Probenecid given concurrently increases naproxen anion plasma levels and extends its plasma half-life significantly.
Interactions With Investigations Of Neuroendocrine Tumors
Drug-induced decrease in gastric acidity results in enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased Chromogranin A levels which may interfere with investigations for neuroendocrine tumors [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Drug/Laboratory Test Interaction
Naproxen may decrease platelet aggregation and prolong bleeding time. This effect should be kept in mind when bleeding times are determined.
The administration of naproxen may result in increased urinary values for 17-ketogenic steroids because of an interaction between the drug and/or its metabolites with m-dinitrobenzene used in this assay. Although 17-hydroxy-corticosteroid measurements (Porter-Silber test) do not appear to be artifactually altered, it is suggested that therapy with naproxen be temporarily discontinued 72 hours before adrenal function tests are performed if the Porter-Silber test is to be used.
Naproxen may interfere with some urinary assays of 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5HIAA).
Interactions Related To Absorption
Due to its effects on gastric acid secretion, esomeprazole can reduce the absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of their bioavailability. Like with other drugs that decrease the intragastric acidity, the absorption of drugs such as ketoconazole, atazanavir, iron salts, erlotinib, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) can decrease, while the absorption of drugs such as digoxin can increase during treatment with omeprazole. Esomeprazole is an enantiomer of omeprazole.
Concomitant treatment with omeprazole (20 mg daily) and digoxin in healthy subjects increased the bioavailability of digoxin by 10% (30% in two subjects). Coadministration of digoxin with VIMOVO is expected to increase the systemic exposure of digoxin. Therefore, patients may need to be monitored when digoxin is taken concomitantly with VIMOVO.
Co-administration of omeprazole in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving VIMOVO and MMF. Use VIMOVO with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Concomitant use of atazanavir and nelfinavir with proton pump inhibitors such as esomeprazole is not recommended. Co-administration of atazanavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to substantially decrease atazanavir plasma concentrations and thereby reduce its therapeutic effect.
Omeprazole, the racemate of esomeprazole, has been reported to interact with some antiretroviral drugs. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known. Increased gastric pH during omeprazole treatment may change the absorption of the antiretroviral drug. Other possible interaction mechanisms are via CYP2C19. For some antiretroviral drugs, such as atazanavir and nelfinavir, decreased serum levels have been reported when given together with omeprazole. Following multiple doses of nelfinavir (1250 mg, twice daily) and omeprazole (40 mg once a day), AUC was decreased by 36% and 92%, Cmax by 37% and 89% and Cmin by 39% and 75% respectively for nelfinavir and main oxidative metabolite, hydroxy-t-butylamide (M8). Following multiple doses of atazanavir (400 mg, once a day) and omeprazole (40 mg, once a day, 2 hr before atazanavir), AUC was decreased by 94%, Cmax by 96%, and Cmin by 95%. Concomitant administration with omeprazole and drugs such as atazanavir and nelfinavir is therefore not recommended. For other antiretroviral drugs, such as saquinavir, elevated serum levels have been reported with an increase in AUC by 82% in Cmax by 75% and in Cmin by 106% following multiple dosing of saquinavir/ritonavir (1000/100 mg) twice a day for 15 days with omeprazole 40 mg once a day co-administered on days 11 to 15. Therefore, clinical and laboratory monitoring for saquinavir toxicity is recommended during concurrent use with esomeprazole. Dose reduction of saquinavir should be considered from the safety perspective for individual patients. There are also some antiretroviral drugs of which unchanged serum levels have been reported when given with omeprazole.
Effects On Hepatic Metabolism/Cytochrome P-450 pathways
Esomeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.
In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that esomeprazole is not likely to inhibit CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4. No clinically relevant interactions with drugs metabolized by these CYP enzymes would be expected. Drug interaction studies have shown that esomeprazole does not have any clinically significant interactions with phenytoin, warfarin, quinidine, clarithromycin or amoxicillin.
However, post-marketing reports of changes in prothrombin measures have been received among patients on concomitant warfarin and esomeprazole therapy. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time.
Esomeprazole may potentially interfere with CYP2C19, the major esomeprazole metabolizing enzyme. Co-administration of esomeprazole 30 mg and diazepam, a CYP2C19 substrate, resulted in a 45% decrease in clearance of diazepam.
Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19. Concomitant use of esomeprazole 40 mg results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition. Avoid concomitant administration of esomeprazole with clopidogrel. When using esomeprazole, a component of VIMOVO, consider use of alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Pharmacokinetics].
Concomitant administration of esomeprazole and a combined inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, such as voriconazole, may result in more than doubling of the esomeprazole exposure. Dose adjustment of esomeprazole is not normally required. Omeprazole acts as an inhibitor of CYP2C19. Omeprazole, given in doses of 40 mg daily for one week to 20 healthy subjects in cross-over study, increased Cmax and AUC of cilostazol by 18% and 26% respectively. Cmax and AUC of one of its active metabolites, 3,4-dihydrocilostazol, which has 4-7 times the activity of cilostazol, were increased by 29% and 69% respectively. Co-administration of cilostazol with esomeprazole is expected to increase concentrations of cilostazol and its above mentioned active metabolite. Therefore a dose reduction of cilostazol from 100 mg twice daily to 50 mg twice daily should be considered.
Drugs known to induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as rifampin) may lead to decreased esomeprazole serum levels. Omeprazole, of which esomeprazole is an enantiomer, has been reported to interact with St. John's Wort, an inducer of CYP3A4. In a cross-over study in 12 healthy male subjects, St John's Wort (300 mg three times daily for 14 days) significantly decreased the systemic exposure of omeprazole in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (Cmax and AUC decreased by 37.5% and 37.9%, respectively) and extensive metabolizers (Cmax and AUC decreased by 49.6% and 43.9%, respectively). Avoid concomitant use of St. John's Wort or rifampin with VIMOVO.
Other Pharmacokinetic-based Interactions
Co-administration of oral contraceptives, diazepam, phenytoin, or quinidine does not seem to change the pharmacokinetic profile of esomeprazole.
Read the Vimovo Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/8/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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