Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDS, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use.
Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10–14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
NSAIDs, including naproxen, a component of VIMOVO, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Congestive Heart Failure And Edema
Fluid retention, edema, and peripheral edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs and should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.
Gastrointestinal Effects — Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, And Perforation
NSAIDs, including naproxen, a component of VIMOVO, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. While VIMOVO has been shown to significantly decrease the occurrence of gastric ulcers compared to naproxen alone, ulceration and associated complications can still occur.
These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3–6 months, and in about 2–4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk. The utility of periodic laboratory monitoring has not been demonstrated, nor has it been adequately assessed.
VIMOVO should be prescribed with caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk of developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants or antiplatelets (including low-dose aspirin), longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients, and therefore special care should be taken in treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID or NSAID-containing product, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.
Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In two studies, concurrent use of an NSAID, COX-2 inhibitor, or aspirin potentiated the risk of bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Although these studies focused on upper gastrointestinal bleeding, bleeding at other sites cannot be ruled out.
Gastrointestinal symptomatic response to therapy with VIMOVO does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.
When active and clinically significant bleeding from any source occurs in patients receiving VIMOVO, the treatment should be withdrawn.
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver dysfunction, salt depletion, those taking diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor antagonists and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
Advanced Renal Disease
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of VIMOVO in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with VIMOVO is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If VIMOVO therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient's renal function is advisable [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Use In Specific Populations and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Anaphylactic reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to either component of VIMOVO. NSAIDs should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactic reaction occurs. Anaphylactic reactions, like anaphylaxis, may have a fatal outcome.
NSAIDs can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
Starting at 30 weeks gestation, VIMOVO, as with other NSAID-containing products, should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus [see Use In Specific Populations].
Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including naproxen, a component of VIMOVO. Hepatic abnormalities may be the result of hypersensitivity rather than direct toxicity. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain essentially unchanged, or may be transient with continued therapy. The SGPT (ALT) test is probably the most sensitive indicator of liver dysfunction. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes, have been reported.
A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with VIMOVO.
If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), VIMOVO should be discontinued.
Chronic alcoholic liver disease and probably other diseases with decreased or abnormal plasma proteins (albumin) reduce the total plasma concentration of naproxen, but the plasma concentration of unbound naproxen is increased. Caution is advised when high doses are required and some adjustment of dosage may be required in these patients. It is prudent to use the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration of adequate treatment.
Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.
NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving VIMOVO who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants or antiplatelets, should be carefully monitored.
Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm, which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, VIMOVO should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with pre-existing asthma.
Use VIMOVO contains naproxen as one of its active ingredients. It should not be used with other naproxen-containing products since they all circulate in the plasma as the naproxen anion.
The concomitant use of VIMOVO with any dose of a non-aspirin NSAID should be avoided due to the potential for increased risk of adverse reactions.
VIMOVO cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids and the patient should be observed closely for any evidence of adverse effects, including adrenal insufficiency and exacerbation of symptoms of arthritis.
Acute Interstitial Nephritis
Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including VIMOVO. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue VIMOVO if acute interstitial nephritis develops [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) Deficiency
Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo-or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed.
Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea Published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy like VIMOVO may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Interaction With Clopidogrel
Avoid concomitant use of esomeprazole with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is entirely due to an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by use with concomitant medications, such as esomeprazole, that inhibit CYP2C19 activity. Concomitant use of clopidogrel with 40 mg esomeprazole reduces the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel. When using esomeprazole, a component of VIMOVO, consider alternative anti-platelet therapy [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and Pharmacokinetics]
Several published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to the established treatment guidelines. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
VIMOVO (a combination PPI/NSAID) is approved for use twice a day and does not allow for administration of a lower daily dose of the PPI. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Masking Of Inflammation and Fever
The pharmacological activity of VIMOVO in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, noninflammatory painful conditions.
Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, VIMOVO should be discontinued.
Patients with initial hemoglobin values of 10 g or less who are to receive long-term therapy should have hemoglobin values determined periodically.
Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Providers should temporarily stop esomeprazole treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g. for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.
For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Concomitant Use Of St John's Wort Or Rifampin With VIMOVO
Drugs that induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as St John's Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease esomeprazole concentrations. Avoid concomitant use of VIMOVO with St John's Wort or rifampin [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Concomitant Use Of VIMOVO With Methotrexate
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Patient Counseling Information
“See FDA-Approved Medication Guide”
Patients should be informed of the following before initiating therapy with VIMOVO and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.
- VIMOVO, like other NSAID-containing products, may cause serious cardiovascular side effects, such as myocardial infarction or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious cardiovascular events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- VIMOVO has been developed with esomeprazole to decrease incidence of ulceration from naproxen. NSAIDs, including naproxen, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- VIMOVO, like other NSAID-containing products, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Patients should promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians.
- Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Starting at 30 weeks gestation, VIMOVO, as with other NSAIDs, should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations].
- Caution should be exercised by patients whose activities require alertness if they experience drowsiness, dizziness, vertigo or depression during therapy with VIMOVO.
- Patients should be instructed to tell their physicians if they have a history of asthma or aspirin-sensitive asthma because the use of NSAIDs in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm, which can be fatal. Patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity should be instructed not to take VIMOVO. Patients with preexisting asthma should be instructed to seek immediate medical attention if their asthma worsens after taking VIMOVO [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Antacids may be used while taking VIMOVO.
- VIMOVO tablets should be swallowed whole with liquid. Tablets should not be split, chewed, crushed or dissolved. VIMOVO tablets should be taken at least 30 minutes before meals [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
- Advise patients to immediately report and seek care for diarrhea that does not improve. This may be a sign of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Advise patients to immediately report and seek care for any cardiovascular or neurological symptoms including palpitations, dizziness, seizures, and tetany as these may be signs of hypomagnesemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
A 2-year study was performed in rats to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of naproxen at rat doses of 8, 16, and 24 mg/kg/day (50, 100, and 150 mg/m²). The maximum dose used was 0.28 times the highest recommended human dose. No evidence of tumorigenicity was found.
The carcinogenic potential of esomeprazole was assessed using omeprazole studies, of which esomeprazole is an enantiomer. In two 24-month oral carcinogenicity studies in rats, omeprazole at daily doses of 1.7, 3.4, 13.8, 44 and 140.8 mg/kg/day (about 0.41 to 34.2 times the human dose of 40 mg/day expressed on a body surface area basis) produced gastric ECL cell carcinoids in a dose-related manner in both male and female rats; the incidence of this effect was markedly higher in female rats, which had higher blood levels of omeprazole. Gastric carcinoids seldom occur in the untreated rat. In addition, ECL cell hyperplasia was present in all treated groups of both sexes. In one of these studies, female rats were treated with 13.8 mg omeprazole/kg/day (about 3.36times the human dose of 40 mg/day on a body surface area basis) for 1 year, then followed for an additional year without the drug. No carcinoids were seen in these rats. An increased incidence of treatment-related ECL cell hyperplasia was observed at the end of 1 year (94% treated vs 10% controls). By the second year the difference between treated and control rats was much smaller (46% vs 26%) but still showed more hyperplasia in the treated group. Gastric adenocarcinoma was seen in one rat (2%). No similar tumor was seen in male or female rats treated for 2 years. For this strain of rat no similar tumor has been noted historically, but a finding involving only one tumor is difficult to interpret. A 78-week mouse carcinogenicity study of omeprazole did not show increased tumor occurrence, but the study was not conclusive.
Esomeprazole was negative in the Ames mutation test, in the in vivo rat bone marrow cell chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo mouse micronucleus test. Esomeprazole, however, was positive in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test. Omeprazole was positive in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test, the in vivo mouse bone marrow cell chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
The potential effects of esomeprazole on fertility and reproductive performance were assessed using omeprazole studies. Omeprazole at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day in rats (about 33.6 times the human dose of 40 mg/day on a body surface area basis) was found to have no effect on reproductive performance of parental animals.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C prior to 30 weeks gestation; Category D starting 30 weeks gestation.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with VIMOVO in pregnant women. VIMOVO contains naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole. Available epidemiologic data fail to demonstrate an increased risk of major congenital malformations or other adverse pregnancy outcomes with first trimester omeprazole use. However, starting at 30 weeks gestation VIMOVO, as with other NSAID-containing products, should be avoided because NSAIDs can cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. Animal reproduction studies with naproxen conducted in rats and rabbits at 0.23 and 0.27 times the human systemic exposure showed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus. Teratogenicity was not observed in animal reproduction studies with esomeprazole magnesium at doses about 68 times and 42 times a human dose of 40 mg (based on a body surface area basis for a 60 kg person) in rats and rabbits, respectively. However, changes in bone morphology and physeal dysplasia were observed in offspring of rats dosed through most of pregnancy and lactation at doses equal to or greater than approximately 33.6 times an oral human dose of 40 mg (see Animal Data). Because of the observed effect at high doses of esomeprazole magnesium on developing bone in rat studies, Vimovo should be used prior to 30 weeks gestation only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Starting at 30 weeks gestation, if this drug is used, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
There is some evidence to suggest that when inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, such as an NSAID, naproxen, a component of VIMOVO, are used to delay preterm labor there is an increased risk of neonatal complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus and intracranial hemorrhage. Naproxen treatment given in late pregnancy to delay parturition has been associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension, renal dysfunction and abnormal prostaglandin E levels in preterm infants.
Labor or Delivery
Naproxen-containing products are not recommended in labor and delivery because, through its prostaglandin synthesis inhibitory effect, naproxen may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions, thus increasing the risk of uterine hemorrhage. In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred.
Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole. Four epidemiological studies compared the frequency of congenital abnormalities among infants born to women who used omeprazole during pregnancy with the frequency of abnormalities among infants of women exposed to H2-receptor antagonists or other controls.
A population-based retrospective cohort epidemiological study from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, covering approximately 99% of pregnancies, from 1995-99, reported on 955 infants (824 exposed during the first trimester with 39 of these exposed beyond first trimester, and 131 exposed after the first trimester) whose mothers used omeprazole during pregnancy. The number of infants exposed in utero to omeprazole that had any malformation, low birth weight, low Apgar score, or hospitalization was similar to the number observed in this population. The number of infants born with ventricular septal defects and the number of stillborn infants was slightly higher in the omeprazole-exposed infants than the expected number in this population.
A population-based retrospective cohort study covering all live births in Denmark from 1996-2009, reported on 1,800 live births whose mothers used omeprazole during the first trimester of pregnancy and 837, 317 live births whose mothers did not use any proton pump inhibitor. The overall rate of birth defects in infants born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole was 2.9% and 2.6% in infants born to mothers not exposed to any proton pump inhibitor during the first trimester.
A retrospective cohort study reported on 689 pregnant women exposed to either H2-blockers or omeprazole in the first trimester (134 exposed to omeprazole) and 1,572 pregnant women unexposed to either during the first trimester. The overall malformation rate in offspring born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole, an H2-blocker, or were unexposed was 3.6%, 5.5%, and 4.1% respectively.
A small prospective observational cohort study followed 113 women exposed to omeprazole during pregnancy (89% first trimester exposures). The reported rate of major congenital malformations was 4% in the omeprazole group, 2% in controls exposed to non-teratogens, and 2.8% in disease-paired controls. Rates of spontaneous and elective abortions, preterm deliveries, gestational age at delivery, and mean birth weight were similar among the groups.
Several studies have reported no apparent adverse short-term effects on the infant when single dose oral or intravenous omeprazole was administered to over 200 pregnant women as premedication for cesarean section under general anesthesia.
There are no reproduction studies in animals with VIMOVO. Reproduction studies with naproxen have been performed in rats at 20 mg/kg/day (125 mg/m²/day, 0.23 times the human systemic exposure), rabbits at 20 mg/kg/day (220 mg/m²/day, 0.27 times the human systemic exposure), and mice at 170 mg/kg/day (510 mg/m²/day, 0.28 times the human systemic exposure) with no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to the drug. Reproduction studies have been performed with esomeprazole magnesium in rats at oral doses up to 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis and in rabbits at oral doses up to 86 mg/kg/day (about 42 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to esomeprazole magnesium.
A pre-and postnatal developmental toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate bone development were performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times a daily human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Neonatal/early postnatal (birth to weaning) survival was decreased at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 33.6 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Body weight and body weight gain were reduced and neurobehavioral or general developmental delays in the immediate post-weaning timeframe were evident at doses equal to or greater than 69 mg /kg/day (about 16.8 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). In addition, decreased femur length, width and thickness of cortical bone, decreased thickness of the tibial growth plate and minimal to mild bone marrow hypocellularity were noted at doses equal to or greater than 14 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 times a daily human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Physeal dysplasia in the femur was observed in offspring of rats treated with oral doses of esomeprazole magnesium at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 33.6 times the daily human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis).
Effects on maternal bone were observed in pregnant and lactating rats in the pre-and postnatal toxicity study when esomeprazole magnesium was administered at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg /kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). When rats were dosed from gestational day 7 through weaning on postnatal day 21, a statistically significant decrease in maternal femur weight of up to 14% (as compared to placebo treatment) was observed at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 33.6 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis).
A pre-and postnatal development study in rats with esomeprazole strontium (using equimolar doses compared to esomeprazole magnesium study) produced similar results in dams and pups as described above.
VIMOVO is likely present in human milk. The naproxen anion has been found in the milk of lactating women at a concentration equivalent to approximately 1% of maximum naproxen concentration in plasma. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole and limited data indicate that maternal doses of omeprazole 20 mg daily produce low levels in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for VIMOVO and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from the drug or from the underlying maternal condition. Exercise caution when administering VIMOVO to a nursing woman.
The safety and efficacy of VIMOVO has not been established in pediatric patients younger than 18 years.
Juvenile Animal Data
In a juvenile rat toxicity study, esomeprazole was administered with both magnesium and strontium salts at oral doses about 34 to 68 times a daily human dose of 40 mg based on body surface area. Increases in death were seen at the high dose, and at all doses of esomeprazole, there were decreases in body weight, body weight gain, femur weight and femur length, and decreases in overall growth [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
Of the total number of patients who received VIMOVO (n=1157) in clinical trials, 387 were ≥ 65 years of age, of which 85 patients were 75 years and over. No meaningful differences in efficacy or safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Studies indicate that although total plasma concentration of naproxen is unchanged, the unbound plasma fraction of naproxen is increased in the elderly. Caution is advised when high doses are required and some adjustment of dosage may be required in elderly patients. As with other drugs used in the elderly, it is prudent to use the lowest effective dose [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Experience indicates that geriatric patients may be particularly sensitive to certain adverse effects of NSAIDs. Elderly or debilitated patients seem to tolerate peptic ulceration or bleeding less well when these events do occur. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in the geriatric population [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Naproxen is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. Geriatric patients may be at a greater risk for the development of a form of renal toxicity precipitated by reduced prostaglandin formation during administration of NSAIDs [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
VIMOVO should be avoided in patients with severe hepatic impairment because naproxen may increase the risk of renal failure or bleeding and esomeprazole doses should not exceed 20 mg daily in these patients [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Naproxen-containing products, including VIMOVO, are not recommended for use in patients with advanced renal disease [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Data from several small studies in humans and from studies in animals indicate that NSAIDs, including naproxen, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation. Therefore, in women who have difficulties conceiving, or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, use of VIMOVO is not recommended.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/8/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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