"The Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has recommended restricting the use of codeine for cough and cold in children because there is a risk for serious adverse effects, including respiratory"...
Mechanism of Action
Hydrocodone is a semisynthetic narcotic antitussive and analgesic with multiple actions qualitatively similar to those of codeine. The precise mechanism of action of hydrocodone and other opiates is not known; however, hydrocodone is believed to act directly on the cough center. In excessive doses, hydrocodone will depress respiration. Hydrocodone can produce miosis, euphoria, and physical and physiological dependence.
Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine drug (H1 receptor antagonist) that also possesses anticholinergic and sedative activity. It prevents released histamine from dilating capillaries and causing edema of the respiratory mucosa.
Systemic exposure (in terms of peak plasma concentrations and area under plasma concentration versus time curve) of hydrocodone bitartrate and chlorpheniramine maleate after single dose administration of 5 mL Vituz Oral Solution are equivalent to respective reference solutions of 5 mL hydrocodone bitartrate (5 mg/5 mL), and 5 mL chlorpheniramine maleate (4 mg/5 mL).
Hydrocodone had mean (SD) peak plasma concentration of 10.6 (2.63) ng/mL at 1.4 (0.55) hours. The mean plasma half-life of hydrocodone is approximately 4.9 hours. Chlorpheniramine had a mean (SD) plasma peak concentration of 7.20 (1.98) ng/mL at 3.5 (1.6) hours. The mean plasma half-life of chlorpheniramine is approximately 24 hours.
Efficacy studies were not conducted with Vituz Oral Solution. Efficacy of Vituz Oral Solution is based on demonstration of bioequivalence to the individual reference products [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/1/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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