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Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a for Oral Administration
Vivotif (Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a) is a live attenuated vaccine for oral administration only. The vaccine contains the attenuated strain Salmonella typhi Ty21a1,2.
Vivotif is manufactured by the Crucell Switzerland LTD. The vaccine strain is grown in fermentors under controlled conditions in medium containing a digest of yeast extract, an acid digest of casein, dextrose and galactose. The bacteria are collected by centrifugation, mixed with a stabilizer containing sucrose, ascorbic acid and amino acids, and lyophilized. The lyophilized bacteria are mixed with lactose and magnesium stearate and filled into gelatin capsules which are coated with an organic solution to render them resistant to dissolution in stomach acid. The enteric-coated, salmon/white capsules are then packaged in 4-capsule blisters for distribution. The contents of each enteric-coated capsule are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Contents of one enteric-coated capsule of
Vivotif (Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a)
|Viable S. typhi Ty21a||2.0-10.0x109 colony-forming units*|
|Non-viable S. typhi Ty21a||5-50 x 109 bacterial cells|
|Sucrose||3.3 - 34.2 mg|
|Ascorbic acid||0.2 - 2.4 mg|
|Amino acid mixture||0.3 - 3.0 mg|
|Lactose||up to 180 - 200 mg|
|Magnesium stearate||3.6-4.0 mg|
|*Vaccine potency (viable cell counts per capsule) is determined by inoculation of agar plates with appropriate dilutions of the vaccine suspended in physiological saline.|
1. Germanier R., E. Fürer. Isolation and characterisation of Gal E mutant Ty21a of Salmonella typhi: a candidate strain for a live, oral typhoid vaccine. J. Infect. Dis. 131: 553–558, 1975.
2. Germanier R., E. Fürer. Characteristics of the attenuated oral vaccine strain S. typhi Ty21a. Develop. Biol. Standard 53: 3–7, 1983.
What are the possible side effects of typhoid vaccine (Vivotif Berna)?
You should not receive a booster dose if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after taking a typhoid vaccine capsule.
Becoming infected with typhoid fever is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Less serious side effects include:
What are the precautions when taking typhoid vaccine (Vivotif Oral)?
Before taking the typhoid vaccine, tell your health care professional if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before taking this vaccine, tell your health care professional your medical history, especially of: current fever/illness, current stomach problems (such as persistent diarrhea/vomiting), immune system problems (such as HIV infection), cancer (such as leukemia, lymphoma).
During pregnancy, this vaccine should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.
It is unknown if this vaccine passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before...
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/10/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Vivotif Oral Information
Vivotif Oral - User Reviews
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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