"Jan. 12, 2011 -- A new study weighs in on the debate over the relative safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), commonly used to treat joint and muscle aches and pain.
The study, published online in the BMJ,"...
(Generic versions may still be available.)
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events (see WARNINGS)
- GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation (see WARNINGS)
- Hepatotoxicity (see WARNINGS)
- Hypertension (see WARNINGS)
- Heart Failure and Edema (see WARNINGS))
- Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia (see WARNINGS)
- Anaphylactic Reactions (see WARNINGS)
- Serious Skin Reactions (see WARNINGS)
- Hematologic Toxicity (see WARNINGS)
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In patients taking VOLTAREN® (diclofenac sodium enteric-coated tablets), or other NSAIDs, the most frequently reported adverse experiences occurring in approximately 1%-10% of patients are:
Additional adverse experiences reported occasionally include:
Body as a Whole: fever, infection, sepsis
Metabolic and Nutritional: weight changes
Special Senses: blurred vision
Other adverse reactions, which occur rarely are:
Body as a Whole: anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death
Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia
Nervous System: convulsions, coma, hallucinations, meningitis
Respiratory System: respiratory depression, pneumonia
Special Senses: conjunctivitis, hearing impairment
Read the Voltaren (diclofenac sodium) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
See Table 2 for clinically significant drug interactions with diclofenac.
Table 2: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Diclofenac
|Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of VOLTAREN with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for signs of bleeding (see PRECAUTIONS; Hematological Toxicity).|
|Clinical Impact:||Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone (see WARNINGS; Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation).|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of VOLTAREN and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding (see PRECAUTIONS: Hematological Toxicity). VOLTAREN is not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection.|
|ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers|
|Clinical Impact:||Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of VOLTAREN with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects (see WARNINGS; Renal Toxicity And Hyperkalemia).|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of diclofenac with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of VOLTAREN and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.|
|Clinical Impact:||NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of VOLTAREN and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of VOLTAREN and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of VOLTAREN and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of VOLTAREN and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.|
|NSAIDs and Salicylates|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of diclofenac with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy (see WARNINGS; Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation).|
|Intervention:||The concomitant use of diclofenac with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of VOLTAREN and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexedassociated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).|
During concomitant use of VOLTAREN and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity.
NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed.
In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.
|CYP2C9 Inhibitors or Inducers:|
|Clinical Impact:||Diclofenac is metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, predominantly by CYP2C9. Co-administration of diclofenac with CYP2C9 inhibitors (e.g. voriconazole) may enhance the exposure and toxicity of diclofenac whereas coadministration with CYP2C9 inducers (e.g. rifampin) may lead to compromised efficacy of diclofenac.|
|Intervention:||A dosage adjustment may be warranted when diclofenac is administered with CYP2C9 inhibitors or inducers (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY; Pharmacokinetics).|
Read the Voltaren Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/18/2016
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