West Nile Encephalitis (cont.)
John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- West Nile virus facts
- What is the history of West Nile virus?
- Where did the West Nile virus come from?
- How do people get West Nile virus?
- How do mosquitoes get infected with the West Nile virus?
- Can one person contract the virus from another?
- Besides mosquitoes, can other insects transmit the West Nile virus?
- Are there any other viruses around like the West Nile virus?
- What are West Nile virus symptoms and signs?
- When is there an increased risk for infection?
- Who is at risk for getting West Nile virus?
- What is the treatment for West Nile virus? Can West Nile virus be prevented with a vaccine?
- Is a woman's pregnancy at risk if she gets West Nile virus?
- What can a community do to reduce the risk of an outbreak of the West Nile virus?
- What can a person do to reduce the risk of becoming infected with the West Nile virus?
- West Nile Virus Slideshow Pictures
- Take the MRSA Quiz
- Infectious Mononucleosis Slideshow Pictures
What can a community do to reduce the risk of an outbreak of the West Nile virus?
First, a community can monitor the bird population, including surveillance of birds that are sick or have died of disease, for the virus.
Second, the community can watch out for stagnant water, particularly if it is nutrient-laden; it is inviting for Culex mosquitoes.
Third, widespread mosquito-control efforts, including the use of spraying and larvacide, may be warranted. However, even with rigorous surveillance, spraying, and larvaciding, the virus may still infect people.
What can a person do to reduce the risk of becoming infected with the West Nile virus?
The following recommendations can help reduce the risk of becoming infected with the virus:
- Stay indoors at dawn, dusk, and in the early evening.
- Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants whenever you are outdoors.
- Apply insect repellent sparingly to exposed skin. An effective repellent contains 20%-30% DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). DEET in high concentrations (greater than 30%) may cause side effects, particularly in children. Avoid products containing more than 30% DEET.
- Repellents may irritate the eyes and mouth, so avoid applying repellent to the hands of children. Insect repellents should not be applied to very young children (under 3 years of age).
- Spray clothing with repellents containing permethrin or DEET since mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing.
- Whenever you use an insecticide or insect repellent, be sure to read and follow the manufacturer's directions for use, as printed on the product.
- Take preventive measures in and around your home. Repair or install door and window screens, use air conditioning, and reduce breeding sites (eliminate standing water).
- If you find a dead bird, the CDC recommends you not handle the carcass with bare hands. Contact your local health department for instructions for the notification procedure and disposing of the carcass. They may tell you to dispose of the bird after they log your report.
- Note: Vitamin B and "ultrasonic" devices are not effective in preventing mosquito bites.
Dunham, Will. "U.S. West Nile Virus Cases, Deaths Rose in 2006." June 7, 2007." <http://www.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idUSN0718979120070607>.
Johnston, B. Lynn, and John M. Conly. "West Nile Virus - Where Did It Come From and Where Might It Go?" Can J Infect Dis. 11.4 July-Aug. 2000: 175-178. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2094770/>.
Kennedy, Kristy. "Calming West Nile Fears." American Academy of Pediatrics. Sept. 2002. <http://www.aap.org/family/wnv-sept02.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Long-Term Prognosis for Clinical West Nile Virus Infection." <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/Eid/vol10no8/03-0879.htm#table3>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "2011 West Nile Virus Human Infections in the United States." Aug. 16, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/surv&controlCaseCount11_detailed.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "2012 West Nile Virus Update: As of August 21." Aug. 24, 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "West Nile, a Pregnancy Danger?" Feb. 28, 2004. <http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=31127>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "West Nile Virus." Aug. 8, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/Features/WestNileVirus/>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "West Nile Virus (WNV) Activity Reported to ArboNET, by State, United States, 2011." Aug. 16, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/Mapsactivity/surv&control11MapsAnybyState.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "West Nile Virus and Dead Birds." Feb. 25, 2010. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/qa/wnv_birds.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "West Nile Virus, Pregnancy and Breastfeeding." Feb. 25, 2010. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/qa/breastfeeding.htm>.
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