Women's Health (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Introduction to women's health
- Women's general health and wellness
- Female anatomy
- The female reproductive system
- Female hormones
- Diseases more common in women
- Cancer in women
- Women's cosmetic concerns
- Fertility, birth control, and infertility
- The mature woman - post menopause
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
For about 40 years of her life, a woman experiences a normal phenomenon called the menstrual cycle. Regular loss of blood and tissues from natural sloughing of the inner lining of the uterus (menstruation) occurs every 26 to 35 days (more or less monthly) in every normal non-pregnant woman prior to menopause. Each monthly cycle can be divided into a follicular phase (an egg develops), ovulation (egg release) at mid-month, and a luteal phase (during which the uterine lining readies itself to receive a fertilized egg). If the egg is not fertilized, the uterine lining is shed, and a woman has her menstrual period. Then, the entire sequence of events starts over again.
Most women do not have difficulties during the first half of their menstrual cycle, but once the egg has been released, there may be problems such as pelvic pain. During the second half of the cycle, a woman may experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and she may have menstrual cramps at the onset of her menstrual flow.
Approximately 70%-90% of women suffer from premenstrual syndrome. PMS symptoms include irritability, nervousness, cramps, bloating, and headaches. A particularly severe condition, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is even more troublesome than PMS.
Every step of a woman's menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones. The production of these hormones relies on the general good health of the woman. The loss of too much body weight can result in the cessation of menstruation. There are a number of disorders marked either by absent periods or by periods that are too long, heavy, irregular, or painful. Underlying conditions, which may include polycystic ovary syndrome and endometriosis, need to be medically evaluated.
Ironically, there is a medical condition in which affected women benefit from menstruation. The disease is hemochromatosis, characterized by too much iron in the blood. Menstruating women with hemochromatosis can lose enough blood during their periods that they may not need the usual treatment to remove the excess iron.
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