"Sept. 8, 2011 -- An FDA advisory panel has voted to recommend approval of a new blood thinner to prevent strokes and dangerous blood clots in patients with the heart rhythm disorder atrial fibrillation.
In a vote of nine to two, with "...
Increased Risk Of Thrombotic Events After Premature Discontinuation
Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO, in the absence of adequate alternative anticoagulation increases the risk of thrombotic events. An increased rate of stroke was observed during the transition from XARELTO to warfarin in clinical trials in atrial fibrillation patients. If XARELTO is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Clinical Studies].
Risk Of Bleeding
XARELTO increases the risk of bleeding and can cause serious or fatal bleeding. In deciding whether to prescribe XARELTO to patients at increased risk of bleeding, the risk of thrombotic events should be weighed against the risk of bleeding.
Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss and consider the need for blood replacement. Discontinue XARELTO in patients with active pathological hemorrhage. The terminal elimination half-life of rivaroxaban is 5 to 9 hours in healthy subjects aged 20 to 45 years.
Concomitant use of other drugs that impair hemostasis increases the risk of bleeding. These include aspirin, P2Y12 platelet inhibitors, other antithrombotic agents, fibrinolytic therapy, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Concomitant use of drugs that are combined P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole and ritonavir) increases rivaroxaban exposure and may increase bleeding risk[see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Reversal of Anticoagulant Effect
A specific antidote for rivaroxaban is not available. Because of high plasma protein binding, rivaroxaban is not expected to be dialyzable[see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Protamine sulfate and vitamin K are not expected to affect the anticoagulant activity of rivaroxaban. Partial reversal of prothrombin time prolongation has been seen after administration of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) in healthy volunteers. The use of other procoagulant reversal agents like activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC) or recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) has not been evaluated.
Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia Or Puncture
When neuraxial anesthesia (spinal/epidural anesthesia) or spinal puncture is employed, patients treated with anticoagulant agents for prevention of thromboembolic complications are at risk of developing an epidural or spinal hematoma which can result in long-term or permanent paralysis[see BOXED WARNING].
To reduce the potential risk of bleeding associated with the concurrent use of rivaroxaban and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture, consider the pharmacokinetic profile of rivaroxaban an [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Placement or removal of an epidural catheter or lumbar puncture is best performed when the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban is low; however, the exact timing to reach a sufficiently low anticoagulant effect in each patient is not known.
An epidural catheter should not be removed earlier than 18 hours after the last administration of XARELTO. The next XARELTO dose is not to be administered earlier than 6 hours after the removal of the catheter. If traumatic puncture occurs, the administration of XARELTO is to be delayed for 24 hours.
Should the physician decide to administer anticoagulation in the context of epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or lumbar puncture, monitor frequently to detect any signs or symptoms of neurological impairment, such as midline back pain, sensory and motor deficits (numbness, tingling, or weakness in lower limbs), bowel and/or bladder dysfunction. Instruct patients to immediately report if they experience any of the above signs or symptoms. If signs or symptoms of spinal hematoma are suspected, initiate urgent diagnosis and treatment including consideration for spinal cord decompression even though such treatment may not prevent or reverse neurological sequelae.
Use In Patients With Renal Impairment
Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation
Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl < 15 mL/min since drug exposure is increased. Periodically assess renal function as clinically indicated (i.e., more frequently in situations in which renal function may decline) and adjust therapy accordinglyan . Discontinue XARELTO in patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO[see Use in Specific Populations].
Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), Pulmonary Embolism (PE), and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and of PE
Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl < 30 mL/min due to an expected increase in rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects in this patient population[see Use in Specific Populations].
Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery
Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl < 30 mL/min due to an expected increase in rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects in this patient population. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min. Patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO should discontinue the treatment[see Use in Specific Populations].
Use In Patients With Hepatic Impairment
No clinical data are available for patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Avoid use of XARELTO in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) and severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment or with any hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy since drug exposure and bleeding risk may be increased [see Use In Specific Populations].
Use With P-gp And Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors Or Inducers
Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO with combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, lopinavir/ritonavir, ritonavir, indinavir, and conivaptan) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO with drugs that are combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin, St. John's wort) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Risk Of Pregnancy-Related Hemorrhage
In pregnant women, XARELTO should be used only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the mother and fetus. XARELTO dosing in pregnancy has not been studied. The anticoagulant effect of XARELTO cannot be monitored with standard laboratory testing nor readily reversed. Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms suggesting blood loss (e.g., a drop in hemoglobin and/or hematocrit, hypotension, or fetal distress).
Patients With Prosthetic Heart Valves
The safety and efficacy of XARELTO have not been studied in patients with prosthetic heart valves. Therefore, use of XARELTO is not recommended in these patients.
Acute PE In Hemodynamically Unstable Patients Or Patients Who Require Thrombolysis Or Pulmonary Embolectomy
Initiation of XARELTO is not recommended acutely as an alternative to unfractionated heparin in patients with pulmonary embolism who present with hemodynamic instability or who may receive thrombolysis or pulmonary embolectomy.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Instructions For Patient Use
- Advise patients to take XARELTO only as directed.
- Remind patients to not discontinue XARELTO without first talking to their healthcare professional.
- Advise patients with atrial fibrillation to take XARELTO once daily with the evening meal.
- Advise patients with DVT and/or PE to take XARELTO 15 mg or 20 mg tablets with food at approximately the same time every day [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
- Advise patients who cannot swallow the tablet whole to crush XARELTO and combine with a small amount of applesauce followed by food [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
- For patients requiring an NG tube or gastric feeding tube, instruct the patient or caregiver to crush the XARELTO tablet and mix it with a small amount of water before administering via the tube [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
- If a dose is missed, advise the patient to take XARELTO as soon as possible on the same day and continue on the following day with their recommended daily dose regimen.
- Advise patients to report any unusual bleeding or bruising to their physician. Inform patients that it might take them longer than usual to stop bleeding, and that they may bruise and/or bleed more easily when they are treated with XARELTO [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- If patients have had neuraxial anesthesia or spinal puncture, and particularly, if they are taking concomitant NSAIDs or platelet inhibitors, advise patients to watch for signs and symptoms of spinal or epidural hematoma, such as back pain, tingling, numbness (especially in the lower limbs), muscle weakness, and stool or urine incontinence. If any of these symptoms occur, advise the patient to contact his or her physician immediately [see BOXED WARNING].
Invasive Or Surgical Procedures
Instruct patients to inform their healthcare professional that they are taking XARELTO before any invasive procedure (including dental procedures) is scheduled.
Concomitant Medication And Herbals
Advise patients to inform their physicians and dentists if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs or herbals, so their healthcare professionals can evaluate potential interactions [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Pregnancy And Pregnancy-Related Hemorrhage
- Advise patients to inform their physician immediately if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during treatment with XARELTO [see Use in Specific Populations].
- Advise pregnant women receiving XARELTO to immediately report to their physician any bleeding or symptoms of blood loss [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients to discuss with their physician if they are nursing or intend to nurse during anticoagulant treatment [see Use In Specific Populations].
Females Of Reproductive Potential
Advise patients who can become pregnant to discuss pregnancy planning with their physician [see Use in Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Rivaroxaban was not carcinogenic when administered by oral gavage to mice or rats for up to 2 years. The systemic exposures (AUCs) of unbound rivaroxaban in male and female mice at the highest dose tested (60 mg/kg/day) were 1- and 2-times, respectively, the human exposure of unbound drug at the human dose of 20 mg/day. Systemic exposures of unbound drug in male and female rats at the highest dose tested (60 mg/kg/day) were 2- and 4-times, respectively, the human exposure.
Rivaroxaban was not mutagenic in bacteria (Ames-Test) or clastogenic in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells in vitro or in the mouse micronucleus test an in vivo.
No impairment of fertility was observed in male or female rats when given up to 200 mg/kg/day of rivaroxaban orally. This dose resulted in exposure levels, based on the unbound AUC, at least 13 times the exposure in humans given 20 mg rivaroxaban daily.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate or well-controlled studies of XARELTO in pregnant women, and dosing for pregnant women has not been established. Use XARELTO with caution in pregnant patients because of the potential for pregnancy related hemorrhage and/or emergent delivery with an anticoagulant that is not readily reversible. The anticoagulant effect of XARELTO cannot be reliably monitored with standard laboratory testing. Animal reproduction studies showed no increased risk of structural malformations, but increased post-implantation pregnancy loss occurred in rabbits. XARELTO should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to mother and fetus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Rivaroxaban crosses the placenta in animals. Animal reproduction studies have shown pronounced maternal hemorrhagic complications in rats and an increased incidence of post-implantation pregnancy loss in rabbits. Rivaroxaban increased fetal toxicity (increased resorptions, decreased number of live fetuses, and decreased fetal body weight) when pregnant rabbits were given oral doses of ≥ 10 mg/kg rivaroxaban during the period of organogenesis. This dose corresponds to about 4 times the human exposure of unbound drug, based on AUC comparisons at the highest recommended human dose of 20 mg/day. Fetal body weights decreased when pregnant rats were given oral doses of 120 mg/kg. This dose corresponds to about 14 times the human exposure of unbound drug.
Labor And Delivery
Safety and effectiveness of XARELTO during labor and delivery have not been studied in clinical trials. However, in animal studies maternal bleeding and maternal and fetal death occurred at the rivaroxaban dose of 40 mg/kg (about 6 times maximum human exposure of the unbound drug at the human dose of 20 mg/day).
It is not known if rivaroxaban is excreted in human milk. Rivaroxaban and/or its metabolites were excreted into the milk of rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from rivaroxaban, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue XARELTO, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the total number of patients in the RECORD 1-3 clinical studies evaluating XARELTO, about 54% were 65 years and over, while about 15% were > 75 years. In ROCKET AF, approximately 77% were 65 years and over and about 38% were > 75 years. In the EINSTEIN DVT, PE and Extension clinical studies approximately 37% were 65 years and over and about 16% were > 75 years. In clinical trials the efficacy of XARELTO in the elderly (65 years or older) was similar to that seen in patients younger than 65 years. Both thrombotic and bleeding event rates were higher in these older patients, but the risk-benefit profile was favorable in all age groups an [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Clinical Studies].
Females Of Reproductive Potential
Females of reproductive potential requiring anticoagulation should discuss pregnancy planning with their physician.
In a pharmacokinetic study, compared to healthy subjects with normal creatinine clearance, rivaroxaban exposure increased by approximately 44 to 64% in subjects with renal impairment. Increases in pharmacodynamic effects were also observed [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation
In the ROCKET AF trial, patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min were administered XARELTO 15 mg once daily resulting in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban and clinical outcomes similar to those in patients with better renal function administered XARELTO 20 mg once daily. Patients with CrCl 15 to 30 mL/min were not studied, but administration of XARELTO 15 mg once daily is also expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with normal renal function [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Treatment of DVT and/or PE, and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and of PE
In the EINSTEIN trials, patients with CrCl values < 30 mL/min at screening were excluded from the studies. Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl < 30 mL/min.
Prophylaxis of DVT Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery
The combined analysis of the RECORD 1-3 clinical efficacy studies did not show an increase in bleeding risk for patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min and reported a possible increase in total venous thromboemboli in this population. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min. Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl < 30 mL/min.
In a pharmacokinetic study, compared to healthy subjects with normal liver function, AUC increases of 127% were observed in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B).
The safety or PK of XARELTO in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) has not been evaluated [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) and severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment or with any hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/25/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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