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The following adverse reactions are discussed below and elsewhere in the labeling:
The most common serious adverse reaction in patients receiving Xgeva was dyspnea.
The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of Xgeva were osteonecrosis and hypocalcemia.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in other clinical trials and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety of Xgeva was evaluated in three randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trials [see Clinical Trials] in which a total of 2841 patients with bone metastasis from prostate cancer, breast cancer, or other solid tumors, or lytic bony lesions from multiple myeloma received at least one dose of Xgeva. In Trials 1, 2, and 3, patients were randomized to receive either 120 mg of Xgeva every 4 weeks as a subcutaneous injection or 4 mg (dose adjusted for reduced renal function) of zoledronic acid every 4 weeks by intravenous (IV) infusion. Entry criteria included serum calcium (corrected) from 8 to 11.5 mg/dL (2 to 2.9 mmol/L) and creatinine clearance 30 mL/min or greater. Patients who had received IV bisphosphonates were excluded, as were patients with prior history of ONJ or osteomyelitis of the jaw, an active dental or jaw condition requiring oral surgery, non-healed dental/oral surgery, or any planned invasive dental procedure. During the study, serum chemistries including calcium and phosphorus were monitored every 4 weeks. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation was recommended but not required.
The median duration of exposure to Xgeva was 12 months (range: 0.1 – 41) and median duration on-study was 13 months (range: 0.1 – 41). Of patients who received Xgeva, 46% were female. Eighty-five percent were White, 5% Hispanic/Latino, 6% Asian, and 3% Black. The median age was 63 years (range: 18 – 93). Seventy-five percent of patients who received Xgeva received concomitant chemotherapy.
Table 1: Per-patient
Incidence of Selecteda Adverse Reactions of Any Severity (Trials 1,
2, and 3)
n = 2841
n = 2836
|aAdverse reactions reported in at least 10% of
patients receiving Xgeva in Trials 1, 2, and 3, and meeting one of the
Severe Mineral/Electrolyte Abnormalities
- Severe hypocalcemia (corrected serum calcium less than 7 mg/dL or less than 1.75 mmol/L) occurred in 3.1% of patients treated with Xgeva and 1.3% of patients treated with zoledronic acid. Of patients who experienced severe hypocalcemia, 33% experienced 2 or more episodes of severe hypocalcemia and 16% experienced 3 or more episodes [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations].
- Severe hypophosphatemia (serum phosphorus less than 2 mg/dL or less than 0.6 mmol/L) occurred in 15.4% of patients treated with Xgeva and 7.4% of patients treated with zoledronic acid.
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
In the primary treatment phases of Trials 1, 2, and 3, ONJ was confirmed in 1.8% of patients in the Xgeva group and 1.3% of patients in the zoledronic acid group [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. When events occurring during an extended treatment phase of approximately 4 months in each trial are included, the incidence of confirmed ONJ was 2.2% in patients who received Xgeva. The median time to ONJ was 14 months (range: 4 – 25).
Because postmarketing reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of Xgeva:
- Hypocalcemia: Severe symptomatic hypocalcemia, including fatal cases.
As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. Using an electrochemiluminescent bridging immunoassay, less than 1% (7/2758) of patients with osseous metastases treated with denosumab doses ranging from 30-180 mg every 4 weeks or every 12 weeks for up to 3 years tested positive for binding antibodies. No patient with positive binding antibodies tested positive for neutralizing antibodies as assessed using a chemiluminescent cell-based in vitro biological assay. There was no evidence of altered pharmacokinetic profile, toxicity profile, or clinical response associated with binding antibody development.
The incidence of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of a positive antibody (including neutralizing antibody) test result may be influenced by several factors, including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of antibodies to denosumab with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.
Read the Xgeva (denosumab) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »
No formal drug-drug interaction trials have been conducted with Xgeva.
In clinical trials in patients with breast cancer metastatic to bone, Xgeva was administered in combination with standard anticancer treatment. Serum denosumab concentrations at 1 and 3 months and reductions in the bone turnover marker uNTx/Cr (urinary N-terminal telopeptide corrected for creatinine) at 3 months were similar in patients with and without prior intravenous bisphosphonate therapy.
There was no evidence that various anticancer treatments affected denosumab systemic exposure and pharmacodynamic effect. Serum denosumab concentrations at 1 and 3 months were not altered by concomitant chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy. The median reduction in uNTx/Cr from baseline to month 3 was similar between patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/4/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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