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Xgeva

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Xgeva

Xgeva Side Effects Center

Medical Editor: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP

Xgeva (denosumab) Injection is used to treat bone problems that may occur with cancer that has spread (metastasized) to the bones. It is a human IgG2 monoclonal antibody. Common side effects include tiredness, weakness, headache, diarrhea, or nausea.

The recommended dose of Xgeva is 120 mg administered as a subcutaneous injection every 4 weeks in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. No formal drug-drug interaction trials have been conducted with Xgeva. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use. Xgeva must not be used during pregnancy. It may harm a fetus. Discuss birth control with your doctor. If you become pregnant or think you may be pregnant, tell your doctor. It is unknown if this medication passes into breast milk. Because of the possible risk to the infant, breastfeeding while using this medication is not recommended.

Our Xgeva (denosumab) Injection Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What is Patient Information in Detail?

Easy-to-read and understand detailed drug information and pill images for the patient or caregiver from Cerner Multum.

Xgeva in Detail - Patient Information: Side Effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • numbness or tingly feeling around your mouth or in your fingers or toes, fast or slow heart rate, muscle cramps or contraction, overactive reflexes; or
  • trouble breathing.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • feeling weak or tired;
  • diarrhea, nausea; or
  • headache.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the entire detailed patient monograph for Xgeva (Denosumab) »

What is Patient Information Overview?

A concise overview of the drug for the patient or caregiver from First DataBank.

Xgeva Overview - Patient Information: Side Effects

SIDE EFFECTS: Tiredness, weakness, headache, back pain, joint pain, diarrhea, or nausea may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: jaw pain, new or unusual thigh/hip/groin pain, shortness of breath.

Denosumab may cause very serious (rarely fatal) low levels of calcium in the blood, especially if you have kidney problems. Take calcium and vitamin D as directed by your doctor. (See also How to Use section.) Get medical help right away if you have any symptoms of low calcium such as: severe muscle spasms/cramps, mental/mood changes (such as irritability or confusion), numbness/tingling (especially around lips/mouth or in fingers/toes), seizures, severe dizziness/fainting.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Read the entire patient information overview for Xgeva (Denosumab)»

What is Prescribing information?

The FDA package insert formatted in easy-to-find categories for health professionals and clinicians.

Xgeva FDA Prescribing Information: Side Effects
(Adverse Reactions)

SIDE EFFECTS

The following adverse reactions are discussed below and elsewhere in the labeling:

The most common adverse reactions in patients (per-patient incidence greater than or equal to 25%) were fatigue/asthenia, hypophosphatemia, and nausea (see Table 1). The most common serious adverse reaction was dyspnea. The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of Xgeva were osteonecrosis and hypocalcemia.

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Bone Metastasis from Solid Tumors

The safety of Xgeva was evaluated in three randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trials [see Clinical Trials] in which a total of 2841 patients with bone metastasis from prostate cancer, breast cancer, or other solid tumors, or lytic bony lesions from multiple myeloma received at least one dose of Xgeva.

In Trials 1, 2, and 3, patients were randomized to receive either 120 mg of Xgeva every 4 weeks as a subcutaneous injection or 4 mg (dose adjusted for reduced renal function) of zoledronic acid every 4 weeks by intravenous (IV) infusion. Entry criteria included serum calcium (corrected) from 8 to 11.5 mg/dL (2 to 2.9 mmol/L) and creatinine clearance 30 mL/min or greater. Patients who had received IV bisphosphonates were excluded, as were patients with prior history of ONJ or osteomyelitis of the jaw, an active dental or jaw condition requiring oral surgery, non-healed dental/oral surgery, or any planned invasive dental procedure. During the study, serum chemistries including calcium and phosphorus were monitored every 4 weeks. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation was recommended but not required. The median duration of exposure to Xgeva was 12 months (range: 0.1 - 41) and median duration on-study was 13 months (range: 0.1 - 41). Of patients who received Xgeva, 46% were female. Eighty-five percent were White, 5% Hispanic/Latino, 6% Asian, and 3% Black. The median age was 63 years (range: 18 - 93). Seventy-five percent of patients who received Xgeva received concomitant chemotherapy.

Table 1: Per-patient Incidence of Selecteda Adverse Reactions of Any Severity (Trials 1, 2, and 3)

Body System Xgeva
n = 2841 %
Zoledronic Acid
n = 2836 %
GASTROINTESTINAL
  Nausea 31 32
  Diarrhea 20 19
GENERAL
  Fatigue/Asthenia 45 46
INVESTIGATIONS
  Hypocalcemiab 18 9
  Hypophosphatemiab 32 20
NEUROLOGICAL
  Headache 13 14
RESPIRATORY
  Dyspnea 21 18
  Cough 15 15
aAdverse reactions reported in at least 10% of patients receiving Xgeva in Trials 1, 2, and 3, and meeting one of the following criteria:
  • At least 1% greater incidence in Xgeva-treated patients, or
  • Between-group difference (either direction) of less than 1% and more than 5% greater incidence in patients treated with zoledronic acid compared to placebo (US Prescribing Information for zoledronic acid)
bLaboratory-derived and below the central laboratory lower limit of normal [8.3 - 8.5 mg/dL (2.075 - 2.125 mmol/L) for calcium and 2.2 - 2.8 mg/dL (0.71 - 0.9 mmol/L) for phosphorus]

Severe Mineral/Electrolyte Abnormalities

Severe hypocalcemia (corrected serum calcium less than 7 mg/dL or less than 1.75 mmol/L) occurred in 3.1% of patients treated with Xgeva and 1.3% of patients treated with zoledronic acid. Of patients who experienced severe hypocalcemia, 33% experienced 2 or more episodes of severe hypocalcemia and 16% experienced 3 or more episodes [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].

Severe hypophosphatemia (serum phosphorus less than 2 mg/dL or less than 0.6 mmol/L) occurred in 15.4% of patients treated with Xgeva and 7.4% of patients treated with zoledronic acid.

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ)

In the primary treatment phases of Trials 1, 2, and 3, ONJ was confirmed in 1.8% of patients in the Xgeva group (median exposure of 12.0 months; range 0.1-40.5) and 1.3% of patients in the zoledronic acid group. The trials in patients with breast (Trial 1) or prostate (Trial 3) cancer included an Xgeva open label extension treatment phase where patients were offered Xgeva 120 mg once every 4 weeks (median overall exposure of 14.9 months; range 0.1-67.2). The patient-year adjusted incidence of confirmed ONJ was 1.1% during the first year of treatment and 4.1% thereafter. The median time to ONJ was 20.6 months (range: 4-53) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Fracture

Atypical femoral fracture has been reported with Xgeva [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

The safety of Xgeva was evaluated in two single arm trials (Trials 4 and 5) [see Clinical Trials] in which a total of 304 adult or skeletally mature adolescent patients with giant cell tumor of bone received at least 1 dose of Xgeva. Patients received 120 mg Xgeva subcutaneously every 4 weeks with additional 120 mg doses on Days 8 and 15 of the first month of therapy. Patients receiving concurrent bisphosphonate therapy were excluded from enrollment in both studies. Patients with prior history of ONJ or osteomyelitis of the jaw, an active dental or jaw condition requiring oral surgery, non-healed dental/oral surgery, or any planned invasive dental procedure were excluded from enrollment in Trial 5. During the trial, serum chemistries including calcium and phosphorus were monitored every 4 weeks. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation was recommended but not required.

Of the 304 patients who received Xgeva, 145 patients were treated with Xgeva for ≥ 1 year, 44 patients for ≥ 2 years, and 15 patients for ≥ 3 years. The median number of doses received was 14 (range: 1 to 60 doses) and the median number of months on study was 11 (range: 0 to 54 months). Fifty-eight percent of the enrolled patients were women and 80% were White. The median age was 33 years (range: 13 to 83 years); a total of 10 patients were skeletally mature adolescents (13 to 17 years of age).

The adverse reaction profile of Xgeva in patients with giant cell tumor of bone was similar to that reported in Trials 1, 2, and 3. The most common adverse reactions in patients (per-patient incidence ≥ 10%) were arthralgia, headache, nausea, back pain, fatigue, and pain in extremity. The most common serious adverse reactions were osteonecrosis of the jaw and osteomyelitis (per-patient incidence of 0.7%). The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of Xgeva were osteonecrosis of the jaw (per-patient incidence of 0.7%), and tooth abscess or tooth infection (per-patient incidence of 0.7%). The adverse reaction profile appeared similar in skeletally mature adolescents and adults.

Hypocalcemia and Hypophosphatemia
  • Moderate hypocalcemia (corrected serum calcium less than 8 to 7 mg/dL or less than 2 to 1.75 mmol/L) occurred in 2.6% of patients treated with Xgeva.
  • Severe hypophosphatemia (serum phosphorus less than 2 to 1 mg/dL or less than 0.6 to 0.3 mmol/L) occurred in 29 patients (9.5%).

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) In Trials 4 and 5, ONJ was confirmed in 4 of 304 (1.3%) patients who received Xgeva. The median time to ONJ was 16 months (range: 13 to 20 months) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

Xgeva was evaluated in an open-label, single-arm trial (Trial 6) in which 33 patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy (with or without bone metastases) refractory to treatment with intravenous bisphosphonate therapy were enrolled [see Clinical Trials].

The adverse reaction profile of Xgeva in patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy was similar to that reported in Trials 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Adverse reactions occurring in greater than 20% of patients were nausea (30%), dyspnea (27%), decreased appetite (24%), headache (24%), peripheral edema (24%), vomiting (24%), anemia (21%), constipation (21%), and diarrhea (21%). The following adverse reactions of Grade 3 or greater severity related to study therapy were reported on study: fatigue (3%) and infection (6%). Grade 3 laboratory abnormalities included hypomagnesemia (3%), hypokalemia (3%), and hypophosphatemia (76%) of patients. No deaths on study were related to Xgeva therapy.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of Xgeva. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

  • Hypocalcemia: Severe symptomatic hypocalcemia, including fatal cases [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Hypersensitivity, including anaphylactic reactions [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Musculoskeletal pain, including severe musculoskeletal pain. Positive rechallenge has been reported.

Immunogenicity

As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. Using an electrochemiluminescent bridging immunoassay, less than 1% (7/2758) of patients with osseous metastases treated with denosumab doses ranging from 30-180 mg every 4 weeks or every 12 weeks for up to 3 years and none of the 304 patients with giant cell tumor of bone in Trials 4 and 5 tested positive for binding antibodies. No patient with positive binding antibodies tested positive for neutralizing antibodies as assessed using a chemiluminescent cell-based in vitro biological assay. There was no evidence of altered pharmacokinetic profile, toxicity profile, or clinical response associated with binding antibody development.

The incidence of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of a positive antibody (including neutralizing antibody) test result may be influenced by several factors, including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of antibodies to denosumab with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.

Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Xgeva (Denosumab) »

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Xgeva - User Reviews

Xgeva User Reviews

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You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


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