- Minocycline, like other tetracycline-class drugs, can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking these drugs, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Ximino should not be used during pregnancy or by individuals of either gender who are attempting to conceive a child [see Nonclinical Toxicology and Use In Specific Populations].
- The use of drugs of the tetracycline class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy, and childhood up to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown).
Permanent discoloration of the teeth is more common during long-term use of the drug but has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Tetracycline drugs, therefore, should not be used during tooth development.
- All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in premature human infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours. The decrease in fibula growth rate was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.
Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can cause retardation of skeletal development on the developing fetus. Evidence of embryotoxicity has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy [see Use In Specific Populations].
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including minocycline, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CD AD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CD AD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CD AD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Postmarketing cases of serious liver injury, including irreversible drug-induced hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure (sometimes fatal) have been reported with minocycline use in the treatment of acne.
The anti-anabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. While this is not a problem in those with normal renal function, in patients with significantly impaired function, higher serum levels of tetracycline-class drugs may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis. If renal impairment exists, even usual oral or parenteral doses may lead to excessive systemic accumulations of the drug and possible liver toxicity. Under such conditions, lower than usual total doses are indicated, and if therapy is prolonged, serum level determinations of the drug may be advisable.
Central Nervous System Effects
Central nervous system side effects including light-headedness, dizziness or vertigo have been reported with minocycline therapy. Patients who experience these symptoms should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy. These symptoms may disappear during therapy and usually disappear when the drug is discontinued.
Benign Intracranial Hypertension
Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension) in adults and adolescents has been associated with the use of tetracyclines. Minocycline has been reported to cause or precipitate pseudotumor cerebri, the hallmark of which is papilledema. Clinical manifestations include headache and blurred vision. Bulging fontanels have been associated with the use of tetracyclines in infants. Although signs and symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri resolve after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent sequelae such as visual loss that may be severe exists.
Patients should be questioned for visual disturbances prior to initiation of treatment with tetracyclines. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, patients should be checked for papilledema. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and minocycline should be avoided because isotretinoin, a systemic retinoid, is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri.
Tetracyclines have been associated with the development of autoimmune syndromes. The long-term use of minocycline in the treatment of acne has been associated with drug-induced lupus-like syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis and vasculitis. Sporadic cases of serum sickness have presented shortly after minocycline use. Symptoms may be manifested by fever, rash, arthralgia, and malaise. In symptomatic patients, liver function tests, ANA, CBC, and other appropriate tests should be performed to evaluate the patients. Use of all tetracycline-class drugs should be discontinued immediately.
Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines, including minocycline. Patients should minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while using minocycline. If patients need to be outdoors while using minocycline, they should wear loose-fitting clothes that protect skin from sun exposure and discuss other sun protection measures with their physician.
Serious Skin/Hypersensitivity Reaction
Cases of anaphylaxis, serious skin reactions (e.g. Stevens Johnson syndrome), erythema multiforme, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome have been reported postmarketing with minocycline use in patients with acne. DRESS syndrome consists of cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, and one or more of the following visceral complications such as: hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. Fever and lymphadenopathy may be present. In some cases, death has been reported. If this syndrome is recognized, the drug should be discontinued immediately.
Tetracycline class antibiotics are known to cause hyperpigmentation. Tetracycline therapy may induce hyperpigmentation in many organs, including nails, bone, skin, eyes, thyroid, visceral tissue, oral cavity (teeth, mucosa, alveolar bone), sclerae and heart valves. Skin and oral pigmentation has been reported to occur independently of time or amount of drug administration, whereas other tissue pigmentation has been reported to occur upon prolonged administration. Skin pigmentation includes diffuse pigmentation as well as over sites of scars or injury.
Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria
Bacterial resistance to the tetracyclines may develop in patients using Ximino, therefore, the susceptibility of bacteria associated with infection should be considered in selecting antimicrobial therapy. Because of the potential for drug-resistant bacteria to develop during the use of Ximino, it should be used only as indicated.
As with other antibiotic preparations, use of Ximino may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, Ximino should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
Periodic laboratory evaluations of organ systems, including hematopoetic, renal and hepatic studies should be performed. Appropriate tests for autoimmune syndromes should be performed as indicated.
Patient Counseling Information
"See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION)"
Patients taking Ximino should receive the following information and instructions:
- Ximino should not be used by pregnant women or women attempting to conceive a child [see Use in Specific Populations, Nonclinical Toxicology].
- It is recommended that Ximino not be used by men who are attempting to father a child [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
- Patients should be advised that pseudomembranous colitis can occur with minocycline therapy. If patients develop watery or bloody stools, they should seek medical attention
- Patients should be counseled about the possibility of hepatotoxicity. Patients should seek medical advice if they experience symptoms which can include loss of appetite, tiredness, diarrhea, skin turning yellow, bleeding easily, confusion, and sleepiness.
- Patients who experience central nervous system symptoms [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy. Patients should seek medical help for persistent headaches or blurred vision.
- Concurrent use of tetracycline may render oral contraceptives less effective. To avoid contraceptive failure, female patients on low dose oral contraceptives should be advised to use a second form of contraception during treatment with minocycline [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
- Autoimmune syndromes, including drug-induced lupus-like syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, vasculitis and serum sickness have been observed with tetracycline-class drugs, including minocycline. Symptoms may be manifested by arthralgia, fever, rash and malaise. Patients who experience such symptoms should be cautioned to stop the drug immediately and seek medical help.
- Patients should be counseled about discoloration of skin, scars, teeth or gums that can arise from minocycline therapy.
- Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines, including minocycline. Patients should minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while using minocycline. If patients need to be outdoors while using minocycline, they should wear loose-fitting clothes that protect skin from sun exposure and discuss other sun protection measures with their physician. Treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.
- Ximino should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may decrease the effectiveness of the current treatment course and increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by other antibacterial drugs in the future.
- Patients should be advised to swallow Ximino whole and not to chew, crush, or split the capsules.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenesis - Long-term animal studies have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of minocycline. A structurally related compound, oxytetracycline, was found to produce adrenal and pituitary tumors in rats.
Mutagenesis - Minocycline was not mutagenic in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) or CHO/HGPRT mammalian cell assay in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. Minocycline was not clastogenic in vitro using human peripheral blood lymphocytes or in vivo in a mouse micronucleus test.
Impairment of Fertility - Male and female reproductive performance in rats was unaffected by oral doses of minocycline of up to 300 mg/kg/day (which resulted in up to approximately 40 times the level of systemic exposure to minocycline observed in patients as a result of use of Ximino). However, oral administration of 100 or 300 mg/kg/day of minocycline to male rats (resulting in approximately 15 to 40 times the level of systemic exposure to minocycline observed in patients as a result of use of Ximino) adversely affected spermatogenesis. Effects observed at 300 mg/kg/day included a reduced number of sperm cells per gram of epididymis, an apparent reduction in the percentage of sperm that were motile, and (at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day) increased numbers of morphologically abnormal sperm cells. Morphological abnormalities observed in sperm samples included absent heads, misshapen heads, and abnormal flagella.
Limited human studies suggest that minocycline may have a deleterious effect on spermatogenesis.
Ximino should not be used by individuals of either gender who are attempting to conceive a child.
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy category D [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Ximino should not be used during pregnancy. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus and stop treatment immediately.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the use of minocycline in pregnant women. Minocycline, like other tetracycline-class drugs, crosses the placenta and can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.
Spontaneous reports of congenital anomalies including limb reduction have been reported with minocycline use in pregnancy in postmarketing experience. Only limited information is available regarding these reports; therefore, no conclusion on causal association can be established.
Minocycline induced skeletal malformations (bent limb bones) in fetuses when administered to pregnant rats and rabbits in doses of 30 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively, (resulting in approximately 3 times and 2 times, respectively, the systemic exposure to minocycline observed in patients as a result of use of Ximino). Reduced mean fetal body weight was observed in studies in which minocycline was administered to pregnant rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day (which resulted in approximately the same level of systemic exposure to minocycline as that observed in patients who use Ximino).
Minocycline was assessed for effects on peri- and post-natal development of rats in a study that involved oral administration to pregnant rats from day 6 of gestation through the period of lactation (postpartum day 20), at dosages of 5, 10, or 50 mg/kg/day. In this study, body weight gain was significantly reduced in pregnant females that received 50 mg/kg/day (resulting in approximately 2.5 times the systemic exposure to minocycline observed in patients as a result of use of Ximino). No effects of treatment on the duration of the gestation period or the number of live pups born per litter were observed. Gross external anomalies observed in Fl pups (offspring of animals that received minocycline) included reduced body size, improperly rotated forelimbs, and reduced size of extremities. No effects were observed on the physical development, behavior, learning ability, or reproduction of Fl pups, and there was no effect on gross appearance of F2 pups (offspring of Fl animals).
Tetracycline-class antibiotics are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse effects on bone and tooth development in nursing infants from the tetracycline-class antibiotics, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Ximino is indicated to treat only inflammatory lesions of non-nodular moderate to severe acne vulgaris in patients 12 years and older. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 12 have not been established.
Use of tetracycline-class antibiotics below the age of 8 is not recommended due to the potential for tooth discoloration [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Clinical studies of minocycline hydrochloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/30/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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