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Xofigo

"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Xofigo (radium Ra 223 dichloride) to treat men with symptomatic late-stage (metastatic) castration-resistant prostate cancer that has spread to bones but not to other organs. It is intended for"...

Xofigo

Side Effects
Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in another section of the label:

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In the randomized clinical trial in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases, 600 patients received intravenous injections of 50 kBq/kg (1.35 microcurie/kg) of Xofigo and best standard of care and 301 patients received placebo and best standard of care once every 4 weeks for up to 6 injections. Prior to randomization, 58% and 57% of patients had received docetaxel in the Xofigo and placebo arms, respectively. The median duration of treatment was 20 weeks (6 cycles) for Xofigo and 18 weeks (5 cycles) for placebo.

The most common adverse reactions ( ≥ 10%) in patients receiving Xofigo were nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and peripheral edema (Table 3). Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were reported among 57% of Xofigo-treated patients and 63% of placebo-treated patients. The most common hematologic laboratory abnormalities in Xofigo-treated patients ( ≥ 10%) were anemia, lymphocytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia (Table 4).

Treatment discontinuations due to adverse events occurred in 17% of patients who received Xofigo and 21% of patients who received placebo. The most common hematologic laboratory abnormalities leading to discontinuation for Xofigo were anemia (2%) and thrombocytopenia (2%).

Table 3 shows adverse reactions occurring in ≥ 2% of patients and for which the incidence for Xofigo exceeds the incidence for placebo.

Table 3: Adverse Reactions in the Randomized Trial

System/Organ Class Preferred Term Xofigo (n=600) Placebo (n=301)
Grades 1-4 % Grades 3-4 % Grades 1-4 % Grades 3-4 %
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Pancytopenia 2 1 0 0
Gastrointestinal disorders
Nausea 36 2 35 2
Diarrhea 25 2 15 2
Vomiting 19 2 14 2
General disorders and administration site conditions
Peripheral edema 13 2 10 1
Renal and urinary disorders
Renal failure and impairment 3 1 1 1

Laboratory Abnormalities

Table 4 shows hematologic laboratory abnormalities occurring in ≥ 10% of patients and for which the incidence for Xofigo exceeds the incidence for placebo.

Table 4: Hematologic Laboratory Abnormalities

Hematologic Laboratory Abnormalities Xofigo (n=600) Placebo (n=301)
Grades 1-4 % Grades 3-4 % Grades 1-4 % Grades 3-4 %
Anemia 93 6 88 6
Lymphocytopenia 72 20 53 7
Leukopenia 35 3 10 < 1
Thrombocytopenia 31 3 22 < 1
Neutropenia 18 2 5 < 1

Laboratory values were obtained at baseline and prior to each 4-week cycle.

As an adverse reaction, grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia was reported in 6% of patients on Xofigo and in 2% of patients on placebo. Among patients who received Xofigo, the laboratory abnormality grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 1% of docetaxel na´ve patients and in 4% of patients who had received prior docetaxel. Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 1% of docetaxel na´ve patients and in 3% of patients who have received prior docetaxel.

Fluid Status

Dehydration occurred in 3% of patients on Xofigo and 1% of patients on placebo. Xofigo increases adverse reactions such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting which may result in dehydration. Monitor patients' oral intake and fluid status carefully and promptly treat patients who display signs or symptoms of dehydration or hypovolemia.

Injection Site Reactions

Erythema, pain, and edema at the injection site were reported in 1% of patients on Xofigo.

Secondary Malignant Neoplasms

Xofigo contributes to a patient's overall long-term cumulative radiation exposure. Long-term cumulative radiation exposure may be associated with an increased risk of cancer and hereditary defects. Due to its mechanism of action and neoplastic changes, including osteosarcomas, in rats following administration of radium-223 dichloride, Xofigo may increase the risk of osteosarcoma or other secondary malignant neoplasms [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. However, the overall incidence of new malignancies in the randomized trial was lower on the Xofigo arm compared to placebo ( < 1% vs. 2%; respectively), but the expected latency period for the development of secondary malignancies exceeds the duration of follow up for patients on the trial.

Subsequent Treatment with Cytotoxic Chemotherapy

In the randomized clinical trial, 16% patients in the Xofigo group and 18% patients in the placebo group received cytotoxic chemotherapy after completion of study treatments. Adequate safety monitoring and laboratory testing was not performed to assess how patients treated with Xofigo will tolerate subsequent cytotoxic chemotherapy.

Read the Xofigo (radium ra 223 dichloride) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

No formal clinical drug interaction studies have been performed.

Subgroup analyses indicated that the concurrent use of bisphosphonates or calcium channel blockers did not affect the safety and efficacy of Xofigo in the randomized clinical trial.

Last reviewed on RxList: 5/24/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects
Interactions
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