"What are birth control pills and how do they work?
Birth control pills are also known as oral contraceptives (OCs) or, simply, “the pill.” They offer protection against pregnancy by blocking the union of sperm and egg, thereby prevent"...
The following serious adverse reactions with the use of COCs are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:
- Serious cardiovascular events and stroke [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Vascular events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Liver disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Adverse reactions commonly reported by COC users are:
- Irregular uterine bleeding
- Breast tenderness
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Contraception and Acne Clinical Trials
The data provided reflect the experience with the use of Yaz in the adequate and well-controlled studies for contraception (N=1,056) and for moderate acne vulgaris (N=536).
For contraception, a Phase 3, multicenter, multinational, open-label study was conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy up to one year in 1,027 women aged 17 – 36 who took at least one dose of Yaz. A second Phase 3 study was a single center, open-label, active-controlled study to evaluate the effect of 7 28-day cycles of Yaz on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids and hemostasis in 29 women aged 18–35. For acne, two multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies, in 536 women aged 14–45 with moderate acne vulgaris who took at least one dose of Yaz, evaluated the safety and efficacy during up to 6 cycles.
The adverse reactions seen across the 2 indications overlapped, and are reported using the frequencies from the pooled dataset. The most common adverse reactions ( ≥ 2% of users) were: headache/migraine (6.7%), menstrual irregularities (including vaginal hemorrhage [primarily spotting] and metrorrhagia (4.7%), nausea/vomiting (4.2%), breast pain/tenderness (4%) and mood changes (mood swings, depression, depressed mood and affect lability) (2.2%).
PMDD Clinical Trials
Safety data from trials for the indication of PMDD are reported separately due to differences in study design and setting in the Contraception and Acne studies as compared to the PMDD clinical program.
Two (one parallel and one crossover designed) multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials for the secondary indication of treating the symptoms of PMDD evaluated safety and efficacy of Yaz during up to 3 cycles among 285 women aged 18–42, diagnosed with PMDD and who took at least one dose of Yaz.
Common adverse reactions ( ≥ 2% of users) were: menstrual irregularities (including vaginal hemorrhage [primarily spotting] and metrorrhagia) (24.9%), nausea (15.8%), headache (13.0%), breast tenderness (10.5%), fatigue (4.2%), irritability (2.8%), decreased libido (2.8%), increased weight (2.5%), and affect lability (2.1%).
Adverse Reactions ( ≥ 1%) Leading to Study Discontinuation
Contraception Clinical Trials
Of 1,056 women, 6.6% discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were headache/migraine (1.6%) and nausea/vomiting (1.0%).
Acne Clinical Trials
Of 536 women, 5.4% discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most frequent adverse reaction leading to discontinuation was menstrual irregularities (including menometrorrhagia, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia and vaginal hemorrhage) (2.2%).
PMDD Clinical Trials
Of 285 women, 11.6% discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were: nausea/vomiting (4.6%), menstrual irregularity (including vaginal hemorrhage, menorrhagia, menstrual disorder, menstruation irregular and metrorrhagia) (4.2%), fatigue (1.8%), breast tenderness (1.4%), depression (1.4%), headache (1.1%), and irritability (1.1%).
Serious Adverse Reactions
Contraception Clinical Trials: migraine and cervical dysplasia
Acne Clinical Trials: none reported in the clinical trials
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of Yaz. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse reactions are grouped into System Organ Classes, and ordered by frequency.
Vascular disorders: Venous and arterial thromboembolic events (including pulmonary emboli, deep vein thrombosis, cerebral thrombosis, retinal thrombosis, myocardial infarction and stroke), hypertension (including hypertensive crisis)
Hepatobiliary disorders: Gallbladder disease, liver function disturbances, liver tumors
Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity (including anaphylactic reaction)
Gastrointestinal disorders: Inflammatory bowel disease
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Systemic lupus erythematosus
Read the Yaz (drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Consult the labeling of all concurrently-used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with hormonal contraceptives or the potential for enzyme alterations.
Effects Of Other Drugs On Combined Oral Contraceptives
Substances Diminishing the Efficacy of COCs
Drugs or herbal products that induce certain enzymes, including cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), may decrease the effectiveness of COCs or increase breakthrough bleeding. Some drugs or herbal products that may decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives include phenytoin, barbiturates, carbamazepine, bosentan, felbamate, griseofulvin, oxcarbazepine, rifampin, topiramate and products containing St. John's wort. Interactions between oral contraceptives and other drugs may lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or contraceptive failure. Counsel women to use an alternative method of contraception or a back-up method when enzyme inducers are used with COCs, and to continue back-up contraception for 28 days after discontinuing the enzyme inducer to ensure contraceptive reliability.
Substances Increasing the Plasma Concentrations of COCs
Co-administration of atorvastatin and certain COCs containing EE increase AUC values for EE by approximately 20%. Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen may increase plasma EE concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation.
Concomitant administration of moderate or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors such as azole antifungals (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole), verapamil, macrolides (e.g., clarithromycin, erythromycin), diltiazem, and grapefruit juice can increase the plasma concentrations of the estrogen or the progestin or both. In a clinical drug-drug interaction study conducted in premenopausal women, once daily co-administration of DRSP 3 mg/EE 0.02 mg containing tablets with strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for 10 days resulted in a moderate increase of DRSP systemic exposure. The exposure of EE was increased mildly [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Protease Inhibitors And Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Significant changes (increase or decrease) in the plasma concentrations of estrogen and progestin have been noted in some cases of co-administration with HIV/HCV protease inhibitors or with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
There have been reports of pregnancy while taking hormonal contraceptives and antibiotics, but clinical pharmacokinetic studies have not shown consistent effects of antibiotics on plasma concentrations of synthetic steroids.
Effects Of Combined Oral Contraceptives On Other Drugs
COCs containing EE may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. COCs have been shown to significantly decrease plasma concentrations of lamotrigine, likely due to induction of lamotrigine glucuronidation. This may reduce seizure control; therefore, dosage adjustments of lamotrigine may be necessary. Consult the labeling of the concurrently-used drug to obtain further information about interactions with COCs or the potential for enzyme alterations.
COCs Increasing the Plasma Concentrations of CYP450 Enzymes
In clinical studies, administration of a hormonal contraceptive containing EE did not lead to any increase or only to a weak increase in plasma concentrations of CYP3A4 substrates (e.g., midazolam) while plasma concentrations of CYP2C19 substrates (e.g., omeprazole and voriconazole) and CYP1A2 substrates (e.g., theophylline and tizanidine) can have a weak or moderate increase.
Clinical studies did not indicate an inhibitory potential of DRSP towards human CYP enzymes at clinically relevant concentrations [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Potential to Increase Serum Potassium Concentration
There is a potential for an increase in serum potassium concentration in women taking Yaz with other drugs that may increase serum potassium concentration [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Interference With Laboratory Tests
The use of contraceptive steroids may influence the results of certain laboratory tests, such as coagulation factors, lipids, glucose tolerance, and binding proteins. DRSP causes an increase in plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone induced by its mild anti-mineralocorticoid activity. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]
Read the Yaz Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/22/2015
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