"Oct. 23, 2012 -- Wider use of colonoscopy has led to a more dramatic decline in colorectal cancer rates, a new study suggests.
Colorectal cancer cases and deaths have been falling for decades, with the most recent decline likely due t"...
Patients treated with ZALTRAP have an increased risk of hemorrhage, including severe and sometimes fatal hemorrhagic events. In patients with mCRC, bleeding/hemorrhage (all grades) were reported in 38% of patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI compared to 19% of patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI. Grade 3-4 hemorrhagic events, including gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hematuria, and post-procedural hemorrhage, were reported in 3% of patients receiving ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI compared with 1% of patients receiving placebo/FOLFIRI. Severe intracranial hemorrhage and pulmonary hemorrhage/hemoptysis including fatal events have also occurred in patients receiving ZALTRAP.
Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Do not initiate ZALTRAP in patients with severe hemorrhage. Discontinue ZALTRAP in patients who develop severe hemorrhage [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Gastrointestinal (GI) perforation including fatal GI perforation can occur in patients receiving ZALTRAP. Across three Phase 3 placebo-controlled clinical studies (colorectal, pancreatic, and lung cancer populations), the incidence of GI perforation (all grades) was 0.8% for patients treated with ZALTRAP and 0.3% for patients treated with placebo. Grade 3-4 GI perforation events occurred in 0.8% of patients treated with ZALTRAP and 0.2% of patients treated with placebo.
Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of GI perforation. Discontinue ZALTRAP therapy in patients who experience GI perforation [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Compromised Wound Healing
ZALTRAP impairs wound healing in animal models [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. Grade 3 compromised wound healing was reported in 2 patients (0.3%) treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI regimen and in none of the patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI regimen.
Suspend ZALTRAP for at least 4 weeks prior to elective surgery. Do not resume ZALTRAP for at least 4 weeks following major surgery and until the surgical wound is fully healed. For minor surgery such as central venous access port placement, biopsy, and tooth extraction, ZALTRAP may be initiated/resumed once the surgical wound is fully healed. Discontinue ZALTRAP in patients with compromised wound healing [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Fistula formation involving gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal sites occurs at a higher incidence in patients treated with ZALTRAP. In patients with mCRC, fistulas (anal, enterovesical, enterocutaneous, colovaginal, intestinal sites) were reported in 9 of 611 patients (1.5%) treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI regimen and 3 of 605 patients (0.5%) treated with placebo/FOLFIRI regimen. Grade 3 GI fistula formation occurred in 2 patients treated with ZALTRAP (0.3%) and in 1 placebo-treated patient (0.2%).
Discontinue ZALTRAP therapy in patients who develop fistula [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
ZALTRAP increases the risk of Grade 3-4 hypertension. There is no clinical trial experience administering ZALTRAP to patients with NYHA class III or IV heart failure. In patients with mCRC, Grade 3 hypertension (defined as requiring adjustment in existing anti-hypertensive therapy or treatment with more than one drug) was reported in 1.5% of patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI and 19% of patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI. Grade 4 hypertension (hypertensive crisis) was reported in 1 patient (0.2%) treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI. Among those patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI developing Grade 3-4 hypertension, 54% had onset during the first two cycles of treatment.
Monitor blood pressure every two weeks or more frequently as clinically indicated during treatment with ZALTRAP. Treat with appropriate anti-hypertensive therapy and continue monitoring blood pressure regularly. Temporarily suspend ZALTRAP in patients with uncontrolled hypertension until controlled, and permanently reduce ZALTRAP dose to 2 mg per kg for subsequent cycles. Discontinue ZALTRAP in patients with hypertensive crisis or hypertensive encephalopathy [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Arterial Thromboembolic Events
Arterial thromboembolic events (ATE), including transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident, and angina pectoris, occurred more frequently in patients who have received ZALTRAP. In patients with mCRC, ATE was reported in 2.6% of patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI and 1.7% of patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI. Grade 3-4 events occurred in 11 patients (1.8%) treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI and 4 patients (0.7%) treated with placebo/FOLFIRI.
Discontinue ZALTRAP in patients who experience an ATE [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Severe proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) occurred more frequently in patients treated with ZALTRAP. In patients with mCRC, proteinuria was reported in 62% patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI compared to 41% patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI. Grade 3-4 proteinuria occurred in 8% of patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI to 1% of patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Nephrotic syndrome occurred in 2 patients (0.5%) treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI compared to none of the patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI. TMA was reported in 3 of 2258 patients with cancer enrolled across completed studies.
Monitor proteinuria by urine dipstick analysis and/or urinary protein creatinine ratio (UPCR) for the development or worsening of proteinuria during ZALTRAP therapy. Patients with a dipstick of ≥ 2+ for protein or a UPCR greater than 1 should undergo a 24-hour urine collection.
Suspend ZALTRAP administration for proteinuria 2 grams per 24 hours or more, and resume when proteinuria is less than 2 grams per 24 hours. If recurrent, suspend until proteinuria is less than 2 grams per 24 hours and then permanently reduce the ZALTRAP dose to 2 mg per kg. Discontinue ZALTRAP in patients who develop nephrotic syndrome or TMA [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Neutropenia And Neutropenic Complications
A higher incidence of neutropenic complications (febrile neutropenia and neutropenic infection) occurred in patients receiving ZALTRAP. In patients with mCRC, Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 37% of patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI compared to 30% patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Grade 3-4 febrile neutropenia occurred in 4% of patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI compared to 2% of patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI. Grade 3-4 neutropenic infection/sepsis occurred in 1.5% of patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI and 1.2% of patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI.
Diarrhea And Dehydration
The incidence of severe diarrhea is increased in patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI. In patients with mCRC, Grade 3-4 diarrhea was reported in 19% of patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI compared to 8% of patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI. Grade 3-4 dehydration was reported in 4% of patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI compared to 1% of patients treated with placebo/FOLFIRI [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. The incidence of diarrhea is increased in patients who are age 65 years or older as compared to patients younger than 65 years of age [see Geriatric Use]. Monitor elderly patients closely for diarrhea.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS)
Confirm the diagnosis of RPLS with MRI and discontinue ZALTRAP in patients who develop RPLS. Symptoms usually resolve or improve within days, although some patients have experienced ongoing neurologic sequelae or death [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No studies have been conducted to evaluate carcinogenicity or mutagenicity of ziv-aflibercept.
Ziv-aflibercept impaired reproductive function and fertility in monkeys. In a 6-month repeat-dose toxicology study in sexually mature monkeys, ziv-aflibercept inhibited ovarian function and follicular development, as evidenced by: decreased ovary weight, decreased amount of luteal tissue, decreased number of maturing follicles, atrophy of uterine endometrium and myometrium, vaginal atrophy, abrogation of progesterone peaks and menstrual bleeding. Alterations in sperm morphology and decreased sperm motility were noted in male monkeys. These effects were observed at all doses tested including the lowest dose tested, 3 mg per kg. Reversibility was observed within 18 weeks after cessation of treatment. Systemic exposure (AUC) with a 3 mg per kg per dose in monkeys was approximately 60% of the AUC in patients at the recommended dose.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with ZALTRAP in pregnant women. ZALTRAP was embryotoxic and teratogenic in rabbits at exposure levels lower than human exposures at the recommended dose, with increased incidences of external, visceral, and skeletal fetal malformations. ZALTRAP should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Ziv-aflibercept produced embryo-fetal toxicity when administered every 3 days during organogenesis in pregnant rabbits at all intravenous doses tested, ≥ 3 mg per kg. Adverse embryo-fetal effects included increased incidences of postimplantation losses and external (including anasarca, umbilical hernia, diaphragmatic hernia and gastroschisis, cleft palate, ectrodactyly, and atresia), visceral (in the heart, great vessels, and arteries), and skeletal fetal malformations (including fused vertebrae, sternebrae, and ribs; supernumerary arches and ribs, and incomplete ossification). Administration of the 3 mg per kg dose to rabbits resulted in systemic exposure (AUC) that was approximately 30% of the AUC in patients at the recommended dose. The incidence and severity of fetal anomalies increased with increasing dose.
It is not known whether ZALTRAP is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ZALTRAP, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. In a dose-escalation, safety, and tolerability study, 21 patients ages 2 to 21 years (median age 12.9) with solid tumors received ZALTRAP at doses ranging from 2 to 3 mg/kg, IV, every two weeks. The pharmacokinetics of free ziv-aflibercept were evaluated in 8 of these patients (ages 5 to 17 years) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. The maximum tolerated dose in the study was 2.5 mg/kg, below the dose known to be safe and effective in adults with mCRC.
Of the 611 patients with mCRC, patients treated with ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI, 205 (34%) were 65 years or older, and 33 (5%) were 75 years or older. Elderly patients ( ≥ 65 years of age) experienced higher incidences ( ≥ 5%) of diarrhea, dizziness, asthenia, weight decrease, and dehydration when compared to younger patients. Monitor elderly patients more closely for diarrhea and dehydration [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
The effect of ZALTRAP on overall survival was similar in patients < 65 years old and ≥ 65 years old who received ZALTRAP/FOLFIRI.
No dose adjustment of ZALTRAP is recommended for patients greater than or equal to 65 years of age.
No dedicated clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of ziv-aflibercept.
Based on a population PK analysis with data from 1507 patients, ziv-aflibercept exposure in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment were similar to those in patients with normal hepatic function [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. There are no data available for patients with severe hepatic impairment.
No dedicated clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of ziv-aflibercept.
Based on a population PK analysis with data from 1507 patients, ziv-aflibercept exposure in patients with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment were similar to those in patients with normal renal function [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Male and female reproductive function and fertility may be compromised during treatment with ZALTRAP, as suggested by findings in monkeys [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. These animal findings were reversible within 18 weeks after cessation of treatment. Females and males of reproductive potential should use highly effective contraception during and up to a minimum of 3 months after the last dose of treatment.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/28/2016
Additional Zaltrap Information
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Get the latest treatment options.