"Jan. 23, 2013 -- Worrying about what may trigger a migraine attack adds to the discomfort of many people with migraines. But according to a new study from Denmark, much of that worry may be unfounded.
The researchers studied the effect of l"...
Risk of Injury During Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Procedure
Zecuity contains metal parts and must be removed before an MRI procedure.
Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Use of ZECUITY may lead to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In two long-term open-label studies where patients were allowed to treat multiple migraine attacks for up to 1 year, the overall adverse event rate of ACD was 4%. ZECUITY should be discontinued if ACD is suspected. Erythema is commonly seen with use of ZECUITY and is not by itself an indication of sensitization. Following sensitization with ZECUITY, erythematous plaque and/or erythemato-vesicular or erythemato-bullous eruptions may develop. Clinical course is characterized by crescendo phenomenon of worsening pruritus and appearance over time with slower resolution to normal of affected skin areas.
Patients sensitized from use of ZECUITY, as evidenced by development of ACD, may develop systemic sensitization or other systemic reactions if sumatriptan-containing products are taken via other routes, e.g., orally or subcutaneously. It is possible that some patients who developed ACD with sumatriptan by exposure to ZECUITY, and who have developed systemic sensitization, may not be able to take sumatriptan in any form.
Patients who develop ACD with ZECUITY and require treatment with sumatriptan via other routes should receive their first subsequent dose under close medical supervision.
Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardial Infarction, and Prinzmetal's Angina
The use of ZECUITY is contraindicated in patients with ischemic or vasospastic CAD. There have been rare reports of serious cardiac adverse reactions, including acute myocardial infarction, occurring within a few hours following administration of sumatriptan. Some of these reactions occurred in patients without known CAD. 5-HT1 agonists, including ZECUITY, may cause coronary artery vasospasm (Prinzmetal's angina), even in patients without a history of CAD.
Perform a cardiovascular evaluation in triptan-naive patients who have multiple cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., increased age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) prior to using ZECUITY. Do not use ZECUITY if there is evidence of CAD or coronary artery vasospasm [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. For patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who have a negative cardiovascular evaluation, consider using the first ZECUITY TDS in a medically supervised setting and performing an electrocardiogram (ECG) upon activation of ZECUITY. For such patients, consider periodic cardiovascular evaluation in intermittent long-term users of ZECUITY.
Life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation leading to death, have been reported within a few hours following the administration of 5-HT1 agonists. Discontinue ZECUITY if these disturbances occur. ZECUITY is contraindicated in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or arrhythmias associated with other cardiac accessory conduction pathway disorders [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Chest, Throat, Neck and/or Jaw Pain/Tightness/Pressure
Sensations of tightness, pain, pressure, and heaviness in the chest, throat, neck, and jaw commonly occur after treatment with sumatriptan and are usually non-cardiac in origin. However, perform a cardiac evaluation if these patients are at high cardiac risk. The use of ZECUITY is contraindicated in patients shown with CAD and those with Prinzmetal's variant angina [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke have occurred in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, and some have resulted in fatalities. In a number of cases, it appears possible that the cerebrovascular events were primary, the 5-HT1 agonist having been administered in the incorrect belief that the symptoms experienced were a consequence of migraine when they were not.
As with other acute migraine therapies, before treating headaches in patients not previously diagnosed as migraineurs, and in migraineurs who present with atypical symptoms, exclude other potentially serious neurological conditions. ZECUITY is contraindicated in patients with a history of stroke or TIA [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Other Vasospasm Reactions
5-HT1 agonists, including ZECUITY, may cause non-coronary vasospastic reactions, such as peripheral vascular ischemia, gastrointestinal vascular ischemia and infarction (presenting with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea), splenic infarction, and Raynaud's syndrome. In patients who experience symptoms or signs suggestive of a vasospastic reaction following the use of any 5-HT1 agonist, rule out a vasospastic reaction before using ZECUITY [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Reports of transient and permanent blindness and significant partial vision loss have been reported with the use of 5-HT1 agonists. Since visual disorders may be part of a migraine attack, a causal relationship between these events and the use of 5-HT1 agonists have not been clearly established.
Medication Overuse Headache
Overuse of acute migraine drugs (e.g., ergotamine, triptans, opioids, combination of drugs for 10 or more days per month) may lead to exacerbation of headache (medication overuse headache). Medication overuse headache may present as migraine-like daily headaches or as a marked increase in frequency of migraine attacks. Detoxification of patients, including withdrawal of the overused drugs, and treatment of withdrawal symptoms (which often includes a transient worsening of headache) may be necessary.
Serotonin syndrome may occur with triptans, including ZECUITY, particularly during coadministration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and MAO inhibitors [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). The onset of symptoms usually occurs within minutes to hours of receiving a new or a greater dose of a serotonergic medication. Discontinue ZECUITY if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Increase in Blood Pressure
Significant elevation in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis with acute impairment of organ systems, has been reported on rare occasions in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, including patients without a history of hypertension. Monitor blood pressure in patients treated with ZECUITY. ZECUITY is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients receiving sumatriptan. Such reactions can be life threatening or fatal. In general, anaphylactic reactions to drugs are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. ZECUITY is contraindicated in patients with prior serious anaphylactic reaction.
Seizures have been reported following administration of sumatriptan. Some have occurred in patients with either a history of seizures or concurrent conditions predisposing to seizures. There are also reports in patients where no such predisposing factors are apparent. ZECUITY should be used with caution in patients with a history of epilepsy or conditions associated with a lowered seizure threshold.
Electrically-active Implantable or Body-worn Medical Devices
ZECUITY should not be applied in areas near or over electrically-active implantable or bodyworn medical devices (e.g., implantable cardiac pacemaker, body-worn insulin pump, implantable deep brain stimulator).
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION and Instructions for Use).
How to Use ZECUITY
Advise patients to carefully read the Patient Instructions for Use. Only patients who are able to understand and follow the instructions should use ZECUITY.
Advise patients that the ZECUITY iontophoretic transdermal system (TDS) must be properly applied and activated within 15 minutes of initiating Step 1 (Pull Tabs) of the Patient Instructions for Use, or the TDS will not operate.
Advise patients not to bathe, shower or swim while wearing ZECUITY.
Advise patients that upon removal of the ZECUITY TDS, most patients experience some skin redness under the transdermal system, which usually disappears within 24 hours.
Advise patients that Zecuity is single-use and should not be cut. Advise patients that no more than two ZECUITY TDS should be used in a 24 hour period, and that a second ZECUITY TDS should not be applied until at least 2 hours after activation of the first ZECUITY TDS [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Instruct patients to apply the ZECUITY TDS to the upper arm or thigh and not to other areas of the body. Instruct patients to apply the ZECUITY TDS to dry intact, non-irritated skin on a site that is relatively hair free and without scars, tattoos, abrasions, or other skin conditions (i.e., generalized skin irritation or disease including eczema, psoriasis, melanoma, contact dermatitis).
Advise patients that the ZECUITY TDS should not be applied to a previous application site until the site remains erythema free for 3 days [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Inform patients that the safety of using more than 4 ZECUITY in one month has not been established.
Risk of Injury during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedure
Inform patients that Zecuity contains metal parts and must be removed before an MRI procedure.
Potential for Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Caution patients about the potential for developing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) after use of ZECUITY. Inform patients of the signs and symptoms of ACD, and instruct patients to seek medical advice if they develop skin lesions suggestive of ACD. Inform patients that it is possible that some patients who develop ACD with sumatriptan by exposure to ZECUITY may not be able to take sumatriptan in any form.
Risk of Myocardial Ischemia and/or Infarction, Prinzmetal's Angina, Other Vasospasm-related Events, Arrhythmias, and Cerebrovascular Events
Inform patients that the medication in ZECUITY or other triptans may cause serious cardiovascular side effects such as myocardial infarction or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious cardiovascular events can occur without warning symptoms, advise patients that they should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should seek medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Apprise patients of the importance of this follow-up [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients receiving sumatriptan. Such reactions can be life threatening or fatal. In general, anaphylactic reactions to drugs are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Medication Overuse Headache
Inform patients that use of acute migraine drugs for 10 or more days per month may lead to an exacerbation of headache and encourage patients to record headache frequency and drug use (e.g., by keeping a headache diary) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that ZECUITY should not be used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus [see Use In Specific Populations].
Advise patients to notify their physician if they are breast-feeding or plan to breast-feed [see Use In Specific Populations].
Ability To Perform Complex Tasks
Since migraines or treatment with sumatriptan may cause somnolence and dizziness, instruct patients to evaluate their ability to perform complex tasks during migraine attacks and after using ZECUITY.
Caution patients about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the use of ZECUITY or other triptans, particularly during combined use with SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, and MAO inhibitors [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In carcinogenicity studies, rats and mice were given sumatriptan by oral gavage. Mice were dosed for 78 weeks and rats were dosed for 104 weeks. There was no evidence of an increase in tumors in either species related to sumatriptan administration.
Sumatriptan was not mutagenic in the presence or absence of metabolic activation when tested in two gene mutation assays (the Ames test and the in vitro mammalian Chinese hamster V79/HGPRT assay). It was not clastogenic in two cytogenetics assays (in vitro human lymphocyte assay and in vivo rat micronucleus assay).
Impairment of Fertility
A fertility study by the subcutaneous route, during which male and female rats were dosed daily with sumatriptan prior to and throughout the mating period, demonstrated no evidence of impaired fertility. However, following oral administration, a treatment-related decrease in fertility, secondary to a decrease in mating, was seen for rats treated with 50 and 500 mg/kg/day. It is not clear whether the problem is associated with the treatment of males or females or both.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. ZECUITY should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
When sumatriptan was administered intravenously to pregnant rabbits daily throughout the period of organogenesis, embryolethality was observed at doses at or close to those producing maternal toxicity. Oral administration of sumatriptan to rabbits during organogenesis was associated with increased incidences of fetal vascular and skeletal abnormalities; the highest noeffect dose for these effects was 15 mg/kg/day. The intravenous administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rats throughout organogenesis did not produce evidence of embryolethality. The subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rats prior to and throughout pregnancy did not produce evidence of embryolethality or teratogenicity.
It is not known whether sumatriptan is excreted in human milk following transdermal administration. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ZECUITY, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Two controlled clinical trials evaluated sumatriptan nasal spray (5 to 20 mg) in 1,248 adolescent migraineurs aged 12 to 17 years who treated a single attack. The trials did not establish the efficacy of sumatriptan nasal spray compared with placebo in the treatment of migraine in adolescents. Adverse reactions observed in these clinical trials were similar in nature to those reported in clinical trials in adults.
Five controlled clinical trials (2 single-attack studies, 3 multiple-attack studies) evaluating oral sumatriptan (25 to 100 mg) in pediatric patients aged 12 to 17 years enrolled a total of 701 adolescent migraineurs. These studies did not establish the efficacy of oral sumatriptan compared to placebo in the treatment of migraine in adolescents. Adverse events observed in these clinical trials were similar in nature to those reported in clinical trials in adults. The frequency of all adverse events in these patients appeared to be both dose- and age dependent, with younger patients reporting events more commonly than older adolescents.
Post-marketing experience documents that serious adverse events have occurred in the pediatric population after use of subcutaneous, oral, and/or intranasal sumatriptan. These reports include events similar in nature to those reported rarely in adults, including stroke, visual loss, and death. A myocardial infarction has been reported in a 14-year-old male following the use of oral sumatriptan; clinical signs occurred within 1 day of drug administration. Since clinical data to determine the frequency of serious adverse reactions in pediatric patients who might receive subcutaneous, oral, or intranasal sumatriptan are not presently available, the use of ZECUITY in patients under 18 years of age is not recommended.
Clinical trials of ZECUITY did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
A cardiovascular evaluation is recommended for geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) prior to using ZECUITY [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/31/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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