"Nov. 1, 2012 -- Having even mildly elevated blood pressure at midlife prematurely ages the brain, a new study shows.
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ZESTORETIC is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (eg, on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
These fixed-dose combinations are not indicated for initial therapy (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
In using ZESTORETIC, consideration should be given to the fact that an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, has caused agranulocytosis, particularly in patients with renal impairment or collagen vascular disease, and that available data are insufficient to show that lisinopril does not have a similar risk (See WARNINGS).
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Lisinopril monotherapy is an effective treatment of hypertension in once-daily doses of 10-80 mg, while hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy is effective in doses of 12.5 -50 mg per day. In clinical trials of lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy using lisinopril doses of 10-80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide doses of 6.25-50 mg, the antihypertensive response rates generally increased with increasing dose of either component.
The side effects (see WARNINGS) of lisinopril are generally rare and apparently independent of dose; those of hydrochlorothiazide are a mixture of dose-dependent phenomena (primarily hypokalemia) and dose-independent phenomena (eg, pancreatitis), the former much more common than the latter. Therapy with any combination of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide may be associated with either or both dose-independent or dose-dependent side effects, but addition of lisinopril in clinical trials blunted the hypokalemia normally seen with diuretics.
To minimize dose-dependent side effects, it is usually appropriate to begin combination therapy only after a patient has failed to achieve the desired effect with monotherapy.
Dose Titration Guided by Clinical Effect
A patient whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled with either lisinopril or hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy may be switched to lisinopril/HCTZ 10/12.5 or lisinopril/HCTZ 20/12.5, depending on current monotherapy dose. Further increases of either or both components should depend on clinical response with blood pressure measured at the interdosing interval to ensure that there is an adequate antihypertensive effect at that time. The hydrochlorothiazide dose should generally not be increased until 2-3 weeks have elapsed. After addition of the diuretic it may be possible to reduce the dose of lisinopril. Patients whose blood pressures are adequately controlled with 25 mg of daily hydrochlorothiazide, but who experience significant potassium loss with this regimen may achieve similar or greater blood-pressure control without electrolyte disturbance if they are switched to lisinopril/HCTZ 10/12.5.
In patients who are currently being treated with a diuretic, symptomatic hypotension occasionally may occur following the initial dose of lisinopril. The diuretic should, if possible, be discontinued for two to three days before beginning therapy with lisinopril to reduce the likelihood of hypotension (See WARNINGS). If the patient's blood pressure is not controlled with lisinopril alone, diuretic therapy may be resumed.
If the diuretic cannot be discontinued, an initial dose of 5 mg of lisinopril should be used under medical supervision for at least two hours and until blood pressure has stabilized for at least an additional hour (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).
Concomitant administration of ZESTORETIC with potassium supplements, potassium salt substitutes or potassium-sparing diuretics may lead to increases of serum potassium (See PRECAUTIONS).
The combination may be substituted for the titrated individual components.
Use in Renal Impairment
Regimens of therapy with lisinopril/HCTZ need not take account of renal function as long as the patient's creatinine clearance is > 30 mL/min/1.7m² (serum creatinine roughly ≤ 3 mg/dL or 265 μmol/L). In patients with more severe renal impairment, loop diuretics are preferred to thiazides, so lisinopril/HCTZ is not recommended (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure).
ZESTORETIC 10-12.5 Tablets: Peach, round, biconvex, uncoated tablets identified with “141” debossed on one side and “ZESTORETIC” on the other side are supplied in bottles of 90 tablets (NDC 52427-435-90) and bottles of 100 tablets (NDC 52427-435-01).
ZESTORETIC 20-12.5 Tablets: White, round, biconvex, uncoated tablets identified with “142” debossed on one side and “ZESTORETIC” on the other side are supplied in bottles of 90 tablets (NDC 52427-436-90) and bottles of 100 tablets (NDC 52427-436-01).
ZESTORETIC 20-25 Tablets: Peach, round, biconvex, uncoated tablets identified with “145” debossed on one side and “ZESTORETIC” on the other side are supplied in bottles of 90 tablets (NDC 52427-43790) and bottles of 100 tablets (NDC 52427-437-01).
Store at controlled room temperature, 20-25°C (68-77°F) [see USP]. Protect from excessive light and humidity.
Manufactured by: AstraZeneca UK Limited, Macclesfield, UK. Distributed by: Almatica Pharma, Inc. Pine Brook, NJ 07058 USA. Rev. Aug 2015This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/28/2015
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