"Increase in Liver Cancer Deaths Cause for Concern
The Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer (1975-2012) shows that death rates continued to decline for all cancers combined, as well as for most cancer sites for men and women of al"...
ZINECARD may add to the myelosuppression caused by chemotherapeutic agents.
There is some evidence that the use of dexrazoxane concurrently with the initiation of fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) therapy interferes with the antitumor efficacy of the regimen, and this use is not recommended. In the largest of three breast cancer trials, patients who received dexrazoxane starting with their first cycle of FAC therapy had a lower response rate (48% vs. 63%; p=0.007) and shorter time to progression than patients who did not receive dexrazoxane (see Clinical Studies section of CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Therefore, ZINECARD should only be used in those patients who have received a cumulative doxorubicin dose of 300 mg/m² and are continuing with doxorubicin therapy.
Although clinical studies have shown that patients receiving FAC with ZINECARD may receive a higher cumulative dose of doxorubicin before experiencing cardiac toxicity than patients receiving FAC without ZINECARD, the use of ZINECARD in patients who have already received a cumulative dose of doxorubicin of 300 mg/m² without ZINECARD, does not eliminate the potential for anthracycline induced cardiac toxicity. Therefore, cardiac function should be carefully monitored. Secondary malignancies (primarily acute myeloid leukemia) have been reported in patients treated chronically with oral razoxane. Razoxane is the racemic mixture, of which dexrazoxane is the S(+)-enantiomer. In these patients, the total cumulative dose of razoxane ranged from 26 to 480 grams and the duration of treatment was from 42 to 319 weeks. One case of T-cell lymphoma, one case of B-cell lymphoma, and six to eight cases of cutaneous basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma have also been reported in patients treated with razoxane.
Doxorubicin should not be given prior to the intravenous injection of ZINECARD.
Doxorubicin should be given within 30 minutes after beginning the infusion with ZINECARD (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
As ZINECARD will always be used with cytotoxic drugs, patients should be monitored closely. While the myelosuppressive effects of ZINECARD at the recommended dose are mild, additive effects upon the myelosuppressive activity of chemotherapeutic agents may occur.
Patients with Moderate or Severe Renal Insufficiency
Greater exposure to dexrazoxane may occur in patients with compromised renal function. The ZINECARD dose should be reduced by 50% in patients with creatinine clearance values < 40 mL/min (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Some patients who received ZINECARD in combination with anti-cancer agents known to be carcinogenic have developed secondary malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.
As ZINECARD may add to the myelosuppressive effects of cytotoxic drugs, frequent complete blood counts are recommended (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
(See WARNINGS section for information on human carcinogenicity) - No long-term carcinogenicity studies have been carried out with dexrazoxane in animals. Dexrazoxane was not mutagenic in the Ames test but was found to be clastogenic to human lymphocytes in vitro and to mouse bone marrow erythrocytes in vivo (micronucleus test).
The possible adverse effects of ZINECARD on the fertility of humans and experimental animals, male or female, have not been adequately studied. Testicular atrophy was seen with dexrazoxane administration at doses as low as 30 mg/kg weekly for 6 weeks in rats (1/3 the human dose on a mg/m² basis) and as low as 20 mg/kg weekly for 13 weeks in dogs (approximately equal to the human dose on a mg/m² basis).
Pregnancy Category C
Dexrazoxane was maternotoxic at doses of 2 mg/kg (1/40 the human dose on a mg/m² basis) and embryotoxic and teratogenic at 8 mg/kg (approximately 1/10 the human dose on a mg/m² basis) when given daily to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis.
Teratogenic effects in the rat included imperforate anus, microphthalmia, and anophthalmia. In offspring allowed to develop to maturity, fertility was impaired in the male and female rats treated in utero during organogenesis at 8 mg/kg. In rabbits, doses of 5 mg/kg (approximately 1/10 the human dose on a mg/m² basis) daily during the period of organogenesis were maternotoxic and dosages of 20 mg/kg (1/2 the human dose on a mg/m² basis) were embryotoxic and teratogenic. Teratogenic effects in the rabbit included several skeletal malformations such as short tail, rib and thoracic malformations, and soft tissue variations including subcutaneous, eye and cardiac hemorrhagic areas, as well as agenesis of the gallbladder and of the intermediate lobe of the lung. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. ZINECARD should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is not known whether dexrazoxane is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants exposed to dexrazoxane, mothers should be advised to discontinue nursing during dexrazoxane therapy.
Safety and effectiveness of dexrazoxane in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of ZINECARD did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, elderly patients should be treated with caution due to the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and concomitant disease or other drug therapy.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/16/2012
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