"Dec. 18, 2012 -- Taking aspirin regularly appears to slightly raise the risk of the eye condition known as age-related macular degeneration or AMD, new research suggests.
The increased risk only occurred with people who had taken aspi"...
Tafluprost ophthalmic solution has been reported to cause changes to pigmented tissues. The most frequently reported changes have been increased pigmentation of the iris, periorbital tissue (eyelid) and eyelashes. Pigmentation is expected to increase as long as tafluprost is administered. The pigmentation change is due to increased melanin content in the melanocytes rather than to an increase in the number of melanocytes. After discontinuation of tafluprost, pigmentation of the iris is likely to be permanent, while pigmentation of the periorbital tissue and eyelash changes have been reported to be reversible in some patients. Patients who receive treatment should be informed of the possibility of increased pigmentation. The long term effects of increased pigmentation are not known.
Iris color change may not be noticeable for several months to years. Typically, the brown pigmentation around the pupil spreads concentrically towards the periphery of the iris and the entire iris or parts of the iris become more brownish. Neither nevi nor freckles of the iris appear to be affected by treatment. While treatment with ZIOPTAN can be continued in patients who develop noticeably increased iris pigmentation, these patients should be examined regularly. [See PATIENT INFORMATION.]
ZIOPTAN may gradually change eyelashes and vellus hair in the treated eye. These changes include increased length, color, thickness, shape and number of lashes. Eyelash changes are usually reversible upon discontinuation of treatment.
Macular edema, including cystoid macular edema, has been reported during treatment with prostaglandin F2α analogs. ZIOPTAN should be used with caution in aphakic patients, in pseudophakic patients with a torn posterior lens capsule, or in patients with known risk factors for macular edema.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Patients should be advised to not exceed once daily dosing since more frequent administration may decrease the intraocular pressure lowering effect of ZIOPTAN.
Handling the Single-Use Container
Patients should be advised that ZIOPTAN is a sterile solution that does not contain a preservative. The solution from one individual unit is to be used immediately after opening for administration to one or both eyes. Since sterility cannot be maintained after the individual unit is opened, the remaining contents should be discarded immediately after administration.
Potential for Pigmentation
Patients should be advised about the potential for increased brown pigmentation of the iris, which may be permanent. Patients should also be informed about the possibility of eyelid skin darkening, which may be reversible after discontinuation of ZIOPTAN.
Potential for Eyelash Changes
Patients should also be informed of the possibility of eyelash and vellus hair changes in the treated eye during treatment with ZIOPTAN. These changes may result in a disparity between eyes in length, thickness, pigmentation, number of eyelashes or vellus hairs, and/or direction of eyelash growth. Eyelash changes are usually reversible upon discontinuation of treatment.
When to Seek Physician Advice
Patients should be advised that if they develop a new ocular condition (e.g., trauma or infection), experience a sudden decrease in visual acuity, have ocular surgery, or develop any ocular reactions, particularly conjunctivitis and eyelid reactions, they should immediately seek their physician's advice concerning the continued use of ZIOPTAN.
Use with Other Ophthalmic Drugs
If more than one topical ophthalmic drug is being used, the drugs should be administered at least five (5) minutes between applications.
Patients should be instructed on proper storage of cartons, unopened foil pouches, and opened foil pouches [see HOW SUPPLIED/Storage and Handling]. Recommended storage for cartons and unopened foil pouches is to store refrigerated at 2-8°C (36-46°F). After the pouch is opened, the single-use containers may be stored in the opened foil pouch for up to 28 days at room temperature: 20-25°C (68-77°F). Protect from moisture.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Tafluprost was not carcinogenic when administered subcutaneously daily for 24 months at doses up to 30 μg/kg/day in rats and for 18 months at doses up to 100 μg/kg/day in mice (over 1600- and 1300- times, respectively, the maximum clinical exposure based on plasma AUC).
Tafluprost was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a battery of genetic toxicology studies, including an in vitro microbial mutagenesis assay, an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster lung cells, and an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay in bone marrow.
In rats, no adverse effects on mating performance or fertility were observed with intravenous dosing of tafluprost at a dose of 100 μg/kg/day (over 14000- times the maximum clinical exposure based on plasma Cmax or over 3600- times based on plasma AUC).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Teratogenic effects: In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, tafluprost administered intravenously was teratogenic. Tafluprost caused increases in post-implantation losses in rats and rabbits and reductions in fetal body weights in rats. Tafluprost also increased the incidence of vertebral skeletal abnormalities in rats and the incidence of skull, brain and spine malformations in rabbits. In rats, there were no adverse effects on embryo-fetal development at a dose of 3 μg/kg/day corresponding to maternal plasma levels of tafluprost acid that were 343-times the maximum clinical exposure based on Cmax. In rabbits, effects were seen at a tafluprost dose of 0.03 μg/kg/day corresponding to maternal plasma levels of tafluprost acid during organogenesis that were approximately 5 times higher than the clinical exposure based on Cmax. At the no-effect dose in rabbits (0.01 μg/kg/day), maternal plasma levels of tafluprost acid were below the lower level of quantification (20 pg/mL).
In a pre- and postnatal development study in rats, increased mortality of newborns, decreased body weights and delayed pinna unfolding were observed in offsprings. The no observed adverse effect level was at a tafluprost intravenous dose of 0.3 μg/kg/day which is greater than 3 times the maximum recommended clinical dose based on body surface area comparison.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant woman. Although animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, ZIOPTAN should not be used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Women of childbearing age/potential should have adequate contraceptive measures in place.
A study in lactating rats demonstrated that radio-labeled tafluprost and/or its metabolites were excreted in milk. It is not known whether this drug or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ZIOPTAN is administered to a nursing woman.
Use in pediatric patients is not recommended because of potential safety concerns related to increased pigmentation following long-term chronic use.
No overall clinical differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and other adult patients.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/27/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Zioptan Information
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