"On June 28, 2013, CDC was notified of 2 laboratory-confirmed cases of Cyclospora infection in Iowa residents who had become ill in June and did not have a history of international travel during the 14 days before the onset of illness. Sin"...
Mechanism of Action
ZOSYN is an antibacterial drug [see Microbiology].
The pharmacodynamic parameter for piperacillin/tazobactam that is most predictive of clinical and microbiological efficacy is time above MIC.
The mean and coefficients of variation (CV%) for the pharmacokinetic parameters of piperacillin and tazobactam after multiple intravenous doses are summarized in Table 6.
Table 6: Mean (CV%) Piperacillin and Tazobactam PK
|Piperacillin/ Tazobactam Dosea||Piperacillin|
|Cmax mcg/mL||AUCb mcg•h/mL||CL mL/min||VL||T½ h||CLR mL/min|
|2.25 g||134||131 (14)||257||17.4||0.79||-|
|3.375 g||242||242 (10)||207||15.1||0.84||140|
|4.5 g||298||322 (16)||210||15.4||0.84||--|
|Piperacillin/ Tazobactam Dosea||Cmax mcg/mL||AUCb mcg•h/mL||CL mL/min||V L||T½ h||CLR mL/min|
|2.25 g||15||16.0 (21)||258||17||0.77||-|
|3.375 g||24||25.0 (8)||251||14.8||0.68||166|
|4.5 g||34||39.8 (15)||206||14.7||0.82||-|
|aPiperacillin and tazobactam were given in combination,
infused over 30 minutes.
bNumbers in parentheses are coefficients of variation (CV%).
Peak plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam are attained immediately after completion of an intravenous infusion of ZOSYN. Piperacillin plasma concentrations, following a 30-minute infusion of ZOSYN, were similar to those attained when equivalent doses of piperacillin were administered alone. Steady-state plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam were similar to those attained after the first dose due to the short half-lives of piperacillin and tazobactam.
Both piperacillin and tazobactam are approximately 30% bound to plasma proteins. The protein binding of either piperacillin or tazobactam is unaffected by the presence of the other compound. Protein binding of the tazobactam metabolite is negligible.
Piperacillin and tazobactam are widely distributed into tissues and body fluids including intestinal mucosa, gallbladder, lung, female reproductive tissues (uterus, ovary, and fallopian tube), interstitial fluid, and bile. Mean tissue concentrations are generally 50% to 100% of those in plasma. Distribution of piperacillin and tazobactam into cerebrospinal fluid is low in subjects with non-inflamed meninges, as with other penicillins (see Table 7).
Table 7: Piperacillin/Tazobactam Concentrations in
Selected Tissues and Fluids after Single 4 g/0.5 g 30-min IV Infusion of ZOSYN
|Tissue or Fluid||Na||Sampling periodb (h)||Mean PIP Concentration Range (mg/L)||Tissue:Plasma Range||Tazo Concentration Range (mg/L)||Tazo Tissue:Plasma Range|
|Skin||35||0.5 – 4.5||34.8 – 94.2||0.60 – 1.1||4.0 – 7.7||0.49 – 0.93|
|Fatty Tissue||37||0.5 – 4.5||4.0 – 10.1||0.097 – 0.115||0.7 – 1.5||0.10 – 0.13|
|Muscle||36||0.5 – 4.5||9.4 – 23.3||0.29 – 0.18||1.4 – 2.7||0.18 – 0.30|
|Proximal Intestinal Mucosa||7||1.5 – 2.5||31.4||0.55||10.3||1.15|
|Distal Intestinal Mucosa||7||1.5 – 2.5||31.2||0.59||14.5||2.1|
|Appendix||22||0.5 – 2.5||26.5 – 64.1||0.43 – 0.53||9.1 – 18.6||0.80 – 1.35|
|a Each subject provided a single sample.
b Time from the start of the infusion
Piperacillin is metabolized to a minor microbiologically active desethyl metabolite. Tazobactam is metabolized to a single metabolite that lacks pharmacological and antibacterial activities.
Following single or multiple ZOSYN doses to healthy subjects, the plasma half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 hours and was unaffected by dose or duration of infusion.
Both piperacillin and tazobactam are eliminated via the kidney by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Piperacillin is excreted rapidly as unchanged drug with 68% of the administered dose excreted in the urine. Tazobactam and its metabolite are eliminated primarily by renal excretion with 80% of the administered dose excreted as unchanged drug and the remainder as the single metabolite. Piperacillin, tazobactam and desethyl piperacillin are also secreted into the bile.
After the administration of single doses of piperacillin/tazobactam to subjects with renal impairment, the half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam increases with decreasing creatinine clearance. At creatinine clearance below 20 mL/min, the increase in half-life is twofold for piperacillin and fourfold for tazobactam compared to subjects with normal renal function. Dosage adjustments for ZOSYN are recommended when creatinine clearance is below 40 mL/min in patients receiving the usual recommended daily dose of ZOSYN. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for specific recommendations for the treatment of patients with renal impairment.
Hemodialysis removes 30% to 40% of a piperacillin/tazobactam dose with an additional 5% of the tazobactam dose removed as the tazobactam metabolite. Peritoneal dialysis removes approximately 6% and 21% of the piperacillin and tazobactam doses, respectively, with up to 16% of the tazobactam dose removed as the tazobactam metabolite. For dosage recommendations for patients undergoing hemodialysis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
The half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam increases by approximately 25% and 18%, respectively, in patients with hepatic cirrhosis compared to healthy subjects. However, this difference does not warrant dosage adjustment of ZOSYN due to hepatic cirrhosis.
Piperacillin and tazobactam pharmacokinetics were studied in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older. The clearance of both compounds is slower in the younger patients compared to older children and adults.
In a population PK analysis, estimated clearance for 9 month-old to 12 year-old patients was comparable to adults, with a population mean (SE) value of 5.64 (0.34) mL/min/kg. The piperacillin clearance estimate is 80% of this value for pediatric patients 2 -9 months old. In patients younger than 2 months of age, clearance of piperacillin is slower compared to older children; however, it is not adequately characterized for dosing recommendations. The population mean (SE) for piperacillin distribution volume is 0.243 (0.011) L/kg and is independent of age.
The impact of age on the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam was evaluated in healthy male subjects, aged 18 -35 years (n=6) and aged 65 to 80 years (n=12). Mean half-life for piperacilln and tazobactam was 32% and 55% higher, respectively, in the elderly compared to the younger subjects. This difference may be due to age-related changes in creatinine clearance.
The effect of race on piperacillin and tazobactam was evaluated in healthy male volunteers. No difference in piperacillin or tazobactam pharmacokinetics was observed between Asian (n=9) and Caucasian (n=9) healthy volunteers who received single 4/0.5 g doses.
Mechanism of Action
Piperacillin sodium exerts bactericidal activity by inhibiting septum formation and cell wall synthesis of susceptible bacteria. In vitro, piperacillin is active against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Tazobactam sodium has little clinically relevant in vitro activity against bacteria due to its reduced affinity to penicillin-binding proteins. It is, however, a β-lactamase inhibitor of the Molecular class A enzymes, including Richmond-Sykes class III (Bush class 2b & 2b') penicillinases and cephalosporinases. It varies in its ability to inhibit class II and IV (2a & 4) penicillinases. Tazobactam does not induce chromosomallymediated β-lactamases at tazobactam concentrations achieved with the recommended dosage regimen.
Spectrum of Activity
Piperacillin/tazobactam has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms both in vitro and in clinical infections [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE].
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible isolates only)
Haemophilus influenzae (excluding β-lactamase negative, ampicillin-resistant isolates)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (given in combination with an aminoglycoside to which the isolate is susceptible)
Bacteroides fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. vulgatus)
The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.
At least 90% of the following microorganisms exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for piperacillin/tazobactam. However, the safety and effectiveness of piperacillin/tazobactam in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.
Enterococcus faecalis (ampicillin or
penicillin-susceptible isolates only)
Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin susceptible isolates only)
Streptococcus pneumoniae†(penicillin-susceptible isolates only)
Viridans group streptococci†
† These are not β-lactamase producing bacteria and, therefore, are susceptible to piperacillin alone.
Susceptibility Testing Methods
As is recommended with all antimicrobials, the results of in vitro susceptibility tests, when available, should be provided to the physician as periodic reports, which describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting the most effective antimicrobial.
Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam powders.1,2 MIC values should be determined using serial dilutions of piperacillin combined with a fixed concentration of 4 μg/mL tazobactam. The MIC values obtained should be interpreted according to criteria provided in Table 8.
Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size provides an estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size should be determined using a standardized test method1,3 and requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 100 mcg of piperacillin and 10 mcg of tazobactam to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to piperacillin/tazobactam. The disk diffusion interpreted criteria are provided in Table 8.
For anaerobic bacteria, the susceptibility to piperacillin/tazobactam can be determined by the reference agar dilution method.4
Table 8: Susceptibility Interpretive Criteria for
|Pathogen||Susceptibility Test Result Interpretive Criteria|
|Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC in mcg/mL)||Disk Diffusion (Zone Diameter in mm)|
|Enterobacteriaceae||≤ 16||32 – 64||≥ 128||≤ 21||18 -20||≤ 17|
|Acinetobacter baumannii||≤ 16||32 – 64||≤ 128||≤ 21||18 -20||≤ 17|
|Haemophilus influenzaea||≤ 1||-||≤ 2||≤ 21||-||-|
|Pseudomonas aeruginosa||≤ 16||32 – 64||≤ 128||≤ 21||15-20||≤ 14|
|Bacteroides fragilis group||≤ 32||64||≤ 128||-||-||-|
|a These interpretive criteria for Haemophilus influenzae are applicable only to tests performed using Haemophilus Test Medium inoculated with a direct colony suspension and incubated at 35°C in ambient air for 20 to 24 hours. Note: Susceptibility of staphylococci to piperacillin/tazobactam may be deduced from testing only penicillin and either cefoxitin or oxacillin.|
A report of S (“Susceptible”) indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentration at the infection site necessary to inhibit growth of the pathogen. A report of I (“Intermediate”) indicates that the results should be considered equivocal, and if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone, which prevents small, uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of R (“Resistant”) indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited even if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentration usually achievable at the infection site; other therapy should be considered.
Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of quality controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay, and the techniques of the individuals performing the test procedures.1,2,3,4 Standard piperacillin/tazobactam powder should provide the following ranges of values noted in Table 9. Quality control bacteria are specific strains of bacteria with intrinsic biological properties relating to resistance mechanisms and their genetic expression within the microorganism; the specific strains used for microbiological quality control are not clinically significant.
Table 9: Acceptable Quality Control Ranges for
Piperacillin/Tazobactam to Be Used in Validation of Susceptibility Test
|QC Strain||Acceptable Quality Control Ranges|
Concentration Range (MIC in mcg/mL)
|Disk Diffusion Zone Diameter Ranges in mm|
|Escherichia coli ATCC 25922||1 – 4||24 -30|
|Escherichia coli ATCC 35218||0.5 – 2||24 -30|
|Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853||1 – 8||25 -33|
|Haemophilus influenzaea ATCC 49247||0.06 -0.5||33 -38|
|Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213||0.25 – 2||-|
|Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923||-||27 -36|
|Bacteroides fragilisb ATCC 25285||0.12 -0.5||-|
|Bacteroides thetaiotaomicronb ATCC 29741||4 – 16||-|
|Clostridium difficileb ATCC 700057||4 - 16||-|
|Eubacterium lentumb ATCC 43055||4 - 16||-|
|aThis quality control range for Haemophilus influenzae is
applicable only to tests performed using Haemophilus Test Medium inoculated with
a direct colony suspension and incubated at 35°C in ambient air for 20 to 24
bThe quality control ranges for Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are applicable only to tests performed using the agar dilution method.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/19/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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