"Hospital emergency department visits related to the use of the illicit drug methamphetamine rose from 67,954 in 2007 to 102,961 in 2011 according to a report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Zubsolv for use as initial treatment was evaluated in two clinical trials that had identical, blinded, two-day induction phases, comparing Zubsolv to generic buprenorphine. On the first day, subjects received an initial dose of Zubsolv 1.4 mg/0.36 mg or generic buprenorphine 2 mg, followed by Zubsolv 4.2 mg/1.08 mg or generic buprenorphine 6 mg 1.5 hours later. In total, safety data were available for 538 opioid-dependent subjects exposed to Zubsolv (buprenorphine/naloxone) sublingual tablets when used for initial treatment.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions in ≥ 5% of Patients
During the Induction Phase by System Organ Class and Preferred Term (Safety
|System Organ Class Preferred Term||ZUBSOLV
|Patients with any Adverse Reactions||139 (26%)||136 (26%)||275 (26%)|
|Gastrointestinal Disorders||64 (12%)||60 (11%)||124 (12%)|
|Nausea||29 (5%)||36 (7%)||65 (6%)|
|Vomiting||25 (5%)||26 (5%)||51(5%)|
|Nervous System Disorders||48 (9%)||44 (8%)||92 (9%)|
|Headache||36 (7%)||35 (7%)||71 (7%)|
|BUP = buprenorphine
ZUBSOLV = buprenorphine/naloxone
The safety of buprenorphine/naloxone for longer-term use (up to 16 weeks of treatment) was evaluated in previous studies in 497 opioid-dependent subjects. The prospective evaluation of buprenorphine/naloxone was supported by clinical trials using buprenorphine tablets without naloxone and other trials using buprenorphine sublingual solutions. In total, safety data were available from 3214 opioid-dependent subjects exposed to buprenorphine at doses in the range used in treatment of opioid addiction. See Table 2
Table 2: Adverse Events > 5% by Body System and
Treatment Group in a 4-week Study
|Body System / Adverse Event (COSTART Terminology)||N (%)||N (%)|
|Buprenorphine/ naloxone 16 mg/day
|Body as a Whole|
|Asthenia||7 (7%)||7 (7%)|
|Chills||8 (8%)||8 (8%)|
|Headache||39 (37%)||24 (22%)|
|Infection||6 (6%)||7 (7%)|
|Pain||24 (22%)||20 (19%)|
|Pain Abdomen||12 (11%)||7 (7%)|
|Pain Back||4 (4%)||12 (11%)|
|Withdrawal Syndrome||27 (25%)||40 (37%)|
|Vasodilation||10 (9%)||7 (7%)|
|Constipation||13 (12%)||3 (3%)|
|Diarrhea||4 (4%)||16 (15%)|
|Nausea||16 (15%)||12 (11%)|
|Vomiting||8 (8%)||5 (5%)|
|Insomnia||15 (14%)||17 (16%)|
|Rhinitis||5 (5%)||14 (13%)|
|Skin And Appendages|
|Sweating||15 (14%)||11 (10%)|
The adverse event profile of buprenorphine was also characterized in the dose-controlled study of buprenorphine solution, over a range of doses in four months of treatment. Table 3 shows adverse events reported by at least 5% of subjects in any dose group in the dose-controlled study.
Table 3: Adverse Events ( ≥ 5%) by Body System
and Treatment Group in a 16-week Study
|Body System /Adverse Event (COSTART Terminology)||Buprenorphine dose*|
|N (%)||N (%)||N (%)||N (%)||N (%)|
|*Sublingual solution. Doses in this table cannot
necessarily be delivered in tablet form, but for comparison purposes:
“Very low” dose (1 mg solution) would be less than a Suboxone tablet dose of 2 mg
“Low” dose (4 mg solution) approximates a 6 mg Suboxone tablet dose
“Moderate” dose (8 mg solution) approximates a 12 mg Suboxone tablet dose
“High” dose (16 mg solution) approximates a 24 mg Suboxone tablet dose
|Body as a Whole|
|Abscess||9 (5%)||2 (1%)||3 (2%)||2 (1%)||16 (2%)|
|Asthenia||26 (14%)||28 (16%)||26 (14%)||24 (13%)||104 (14%)|
|Chills||11 (6%)||12 (7%)||9 (5%)||10 (6%)||42 (6%)|
|Fever||7 (4%)||2 (1%)||2 (1%)||10 (6%)||21 (3%)|
|Flu Syndrome.||4 (2%)||13 (7%)||19 (10%)||8 (4%)||44 (6%)|
|Headache||51 (28%)||62 (34%)||54 (29%)||53 (29%)||220 (30%)|
|Infection||32 (17%)||39 (22%)||38 (20%)||40 (22%)||149 (20%)|
|Injury Accidental||5 (3%)||10 (6%)||5 (3%)||5 (3%)||25 (3%)|
|Pain||47 (26%)||37 (21%)||49 (26%)||44 (24%)||177 (24%)|
|Pain Back||18 (10%)||29 (16%)||28 (15%)||27 (15%)||102 (14%)|
|Withdrawal Syndrome||45 (24%)||40 (22%)||41 (22%)||36 (20%)||162 (22%)|
|Constipation||10 (5%)||23 (13%)||23 (12%)||26 (14%)||82 (11%)|
|Diarrhea||19 (10%)||8 (4%)||9 (5%)||4 (2%)||40 (5%)|
|Dyspepsia||6 (3%)||10 (6%)||4 (2%)||4 (2%)||24 (3%)|
|Nausea||12 (7%)||22 (12%)||23 (12%)||18 (10%)||75 (10%)|
|Vomiting||8 (4%)||6 (3%)||10 (5%)||14 (8%)||38 (5%)|
|Anxiety||22 (12%)||24 (13%)||20 (11%)||25 (14%)||91 (12%)|
|Depression||24 (13%)||16 (9%)||25 (13%)||18 (10%)||83 (11%)|
|Dizziness||4 (2%)||9 (5%)||7 (4%)||11 (6%)||31 (4%)|
|Insomnia||42 (23%)||50 (28%)||43 (23%)||51 (28%)||186 (25%)|
|Nervousness||12 (7%)||11 (6%)||10 (5%)||13 (7%)||46 (6%)|
|Somnolence||5 (3%)||13 (7%)||9 (5%)||11 (6%)||38 (5%)|
|Cough Increase||5 (3%)||11 (6%)||6 (3%)||4 (2%)||26 (4%)|
|Pharyngitis||6 (3%)||7 (4%)||6 (3%)||9 (5%)||28 (4%)|
|Rhinitis||27 (15%)||16 (9%)||15 (8%)||21 (12%)||79 (11%)|
|Skin And Appendages|
|Sweat||23 (13%)||21 (12%)||20 (11%)||23 (13%)||87 (12%)|
|Runny Eyes||13 (7%)||9 (5%)||6 (3%)||6 (3%)||34 (5%)|
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The most frequently reported post-marketing adverse event not observed in clinical trials was peripheral edema.
Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.
Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.
Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in ZUBSOLV.
Read the Zubsolv (buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual tablets) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) Inhibitors And Inducers
Buprenorphine is metabolized to norbuprenorphine primarily by cytochrome CYP3A4; therefore, potential interactions may occur when ZUBSOLV sublingual tablets are given concurrently with agents that affect CYP3A4 activity. The concomitant use of ZUBSOLV sublingual tablet with CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., azole antifungals such as ketoconazole, macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin, and HIV protease inhibitors) should be monitored and may require dose-reduction of one or both agents.
The interaction of buprenorphine with CYP3A4 inducers has not been studied; therefore, it is recommended that patients receiving ZUBSOLV sublingual tablets be monitored for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal if inducers of CYP3A4 (e.g., efavirenz, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampicin) are co-administered [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Three classes of antiretroviral agents have been evaluated for CYP3A4 interactions with buprenorphine. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) do not appear to induce or inhibit the P450 enzyme pathway, thus no interactions with buprenorphine are expected. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are metabolized principally by CYP3A4. Efavirenz, nevirapine and etravirine are known CYP3A inducers whereas delaviridine is a CYP3A inhibitor. Significant pharmacokinetic interactions between NNRTIs (e.g., efavirenz and delavirdine) and buprenorphine have been shown in clinical studies, but these pharmacokinetic interactions did not result in any significant pharmacodynamic effects. It is recommended that patients who are on chronic buprenorphine treatment have their dose monitored if NNRTIs are added to their treatment regimen. Studies have shown some antiretroviral protease inhibitors (PIs) with CYP3A4 inhibitory activity (nelfinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, ritonavir) have little effect on buprenorphine pharmacokinetic and no significant pharmacodynamic effects. Other PIs with CYP3A4 inhibitory activity (atazanavir and atazanavir/ritonavir) resulted in elevated levels of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine and patients in one study reported increased sedation. Symptoms of opioid excess have been found in post-marketing reports of patients receiving buprenorphine and atazanavir with and without ritonavir concomitantly. Monitoring of patients taking buprenorphine and atazanavir with and without ritonavir is recommended, and dose reduction of buprenorphine may be warranted.
There have been a number of post-marketing reports regarding coma and death associated with the concomitant use of buprenorphine and benzodiazepines. In many, but not all of these cases, buprenorphine was misused by self-injection. Preclinical studies have shown that the combination of benzodiazepines and buprenorphine altered the usual ceiling effect on buprenorphine-induced respiratory depression, making the respiratory effects of buprenorphine appear similar to those of full opioid agonists. ZUBSOLV sublingual tablets should be prescribed with caution to patients taking benzodiazepines or other drugs that act on the CNS, regardless of whether these drugs are taken on the advice of a physician or are being abused/misused. Patients should be warned that it is extremely dangerous to self-administer non-prescribed benzodiazepines while taking ZUBSOLV sublingual tablets, and should also be cautioned to use benzodiazepines concurrently with ZUBSOLV sublingual tablets only as directed by their physician.
The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that effect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue), has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue ZUBSOLV if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Drug Abuse And Dependence
Buprenorphine is a Schedule III narcotic under the Controlled Substances Act.
Under the Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA) codified at 21 U.S.C. 823(g), prescription use of this product in the treatment of opioid dependence is limited to physicians who meet certain qualifying requirements, and who have notified the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) of their intent to prescribe this product for the treatment of opioid dependence and have been assigned a unique identification number that must be included on every prescription.
Buprenorphine, like morphine and other opioids, has the potential to be abused and is subject to criminal diversion. This should be considered when prescribing or dispensing buprenorphine in situations when the clinician is concerned about an increased risk of misuse, abuse, or diversion. Healthcare professionals should contact their state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.
Patients who continue to misuse, abuse, or divert buprenorphine products or other opioids should be provided with, or referred to, more intensive and structured treatment.
Abuse of buprenorphine poses a risk of overdose and death. This risk is increased with the abuse of buprenorphine and alcohol and other substances, especially benzodiazepines.
The physician may be able to more easily detect misuse or diversion by maintaining records of medication prescribed including date, dose, quantity, frequency of refills, and renewal requests of medication prescribed.
Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper handling and storage of the medication are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.
Buprenorphine is a partial agonist at the mu-opioid receptor and chronic administration produces physical dependence of the opioid type, characterized by moderate withdrawal signs and symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation or rapid taper. The withdrawal syndrome is typically milder than seen with full agonists and may be delayed in onset [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) is an expected and treatable outcome of prolonged use of opioids during pregnancy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/26/2016
Additional Zubsolv Information
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