"Myths, facts, and statistics about asthma
Before we present the typical symptoms of asthma, we should dispel some common myths about this condition. This is best achieved by conducting a short true or false quiz.
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A total of 5542 patients have been exposed to zileuton in clinical trials, 2252 of them for greater than 6 months and 742 for greater than 1 year.
Adverse events most frequently occurring (frequency ≥ 3%) in ZYFLO-treated patients and at a frequency greater than placebo-treated patients are summarized in Table 2.
TABLE 2 : Proportion of Patients Experiencing Adverse
Events in Placebo-Controlled Studies in Asthma
|BODY SYSTEM/Evcnt||ZYFLO 600 mg 4 times daily % Occurrence
|Placebo % Occurrence
(N = 491)
|BODY AS A WHOLE|
|*p ≤ 0.05 vs placebo|
Less common adverse events occurring at a frequency of greater than 1% and more commonly in ZYFLO-treated patients included: arthralgia, chest pain, conjunctivitis, constipation, dizziness, fever, flatulence, hypertonia, insomnia, lymphadenopathy, malaise, neck pain/rigidity, nervousness, pruritus, somnolence, urinary tract infection, vaginitis, and vomiting.
The frequency of discontinuation from the asthma clinical studies due to any adverse event was comparable between ZYFLO (9.7%) and placebo-treated (8.4%) groups.
In placebo-controlled clinical trials, the frequency of ALT elevations ≥ 3xULN was 1.9% for ZYFLO-treated patients, compared with 0.2% for placebo-treated patients. In controlled and uncontrolled trials, one patient developed symptomatic hepatitis with jaundice, which resolved upon discontinuation of therapy. An additional 3 patients with transaminase elevations developed mild hyperbilirubinemia that was less than three times the upper limit of normal. There was no evidence of hypersensitivity or other alternative etiologies for these findings. ZYFLO is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease or transaminase elevations greater than or equal to 3xULN (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). It is recommended that hepatic transaminases be evaluated at initiation of and during therapy with ZYFLO (see PRECAUTIONS, Hepatic).
Occurrences of low white blood cell count ( ≤ 2.8 x 109/L) were observed in 1.0% of 1,678 patients taking ZYFLO and 0.6% of 1,056 patients taking placebo in placebo-controlled studies. These findings were transient and the majority of cases returned toward normal or baseline with continued ZYFLO dosing. All remaining cases returned toward normal or baseline after discontinuation of ZYFLO. Similar findings were also noted in a long-term safety surveillance study of 2458 patients treated with ZYFLO plus usual asthma care versus 489 patients treated only with usual asthma care for up to one year. The clinical significance of these observations is not known.
In the long-term safety surveillance trial of ZYFLO plus usual asthma care versus usual asthma care alone, a similar adverse event profile was seen as in other clinical trials.
Read the Zyflo (zileutin) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »
In a drug-interaction study in 16 healthy volunteers, coadministration of multiple doses of zileuton (800 mg every 12 hours) and theophylline (200 mg every 6 hours) for 5 days resulted in a significant decrease (approximately 50%) in steady-state clearance of theophylline, an approximate doubling of theophylline AUC, and an increase in theophylline Cmax (by 73%). The elimination half-life of theophylline was increased by 24%. Also, during co-administration, theophylline-related adverse events were observed more frequently than after theophylline alone. Upon initiation of ZYFLO in patients receiving theophylline, the theophylline dosage should be reduced by approximately one-half and plasma theophylline concentrations monitored. Similarly, when initiating therapy with theophylline in a patient receiving ZYFLO, the maintenance dose and/or dosing interval of theophylline should be adjusted accordingly and guided by serum theophylline determinations (see WARNINGS).
Concomitant administration of multiple doses of ZYFLO (600 mg every 6 hours) and warfarin (fixed daily dose obtained by titration in each subject) to 30 healthy male volunteers resulted in a 15% decrease in R-warfarin clearance and an increase in AUC of 22%. The pharmacokinetics of S-warfarin were not affected. These pharmacokinetic changes were accompanied by a clinically significant increase in prothrombin times. Monitoring of prothrombin time, or other suitable coagulation tests, with the appropriate dose titration of warfarin is recommended in patients receiving concomitant ZYFLO and warfarin therapy (see WARNINGS).
Co-administration of ZYFLO and propranolol results in a significant increase in propranolol concentrations. Administration of a single 80-mg dose of propranolol in 16 healthy male volunteers who received ZYFLO 600 mg every 6 hours for 5 days resulted in a 42% decrease in propranolol clearance. This resulted in an increase in propranolol Cmax, AUC, and elimination half-life by 52%, 104%, and 25%, respectively. There was an increase in β-blockade and decrease in heart rate associated with the co-administration of these drugs. Patients on ZYFLO and propranolol should be closely monitored and the dose of propranolol reduced as necessary (see WARNINGS). No formal drug-drug interaction studies between ZYFLO and other beta-adrenergic blocking agents (i.e., βblockers) have been conducted. It is reasonable to employ appropriate clinical monitoring when these drugs are co-administered with ZYFLO.
In a drug interaction study in 16 healthy volunteers, co-administration of multiple doses of terfenadine (60 mg every 12 hours) and ZYFLO (600 mg every 6 hours) for 7 days resulted in a decrease in clearance of terfenadine by 22% leading to a statistically significant increase in mean AUC and Cmax of terfenadine of approximately 35%. This increase in terfenadine plasma concentration in the presence of ZYFLO was not associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval. Although there was no cardiac effect in this small number of healthy volunteers, given the high inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability of terfenadine, co-administration of ZYFLO and terfenadine is not recommended.
Drug-drug interaction studies conducted in healthy volunteers between ZYFLO and prednisone and ethinyl estradiol (oral contraceptive), drugs known to be metabolized by the P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) isoenzyme, have shown no significant interaction. However, no formal drug-drug interaction studies between ZYFLO and dihydropyridine, calcium channel blockers, cyclosporine, cisapride, and astemizole, also metabolized by CYP3A4, have been conducted. It is reasonable to employ appropriate clinical monitoring when these drugs are co-administered with ZYFLO.
Drug-drug interaction studies in healthy volunteers have been conducted with ZYFLO and digoxin, phenytoin, sulfasalazine, and naproxen. There was no significant interaction between ZYFLO and any of these drugs.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/29/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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