"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Akorn Inc's phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution (2.5% and 10%), the company has announced.
The alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist is commonly used by optometrists, ophtha"...
Mechanism of Action
Corticosteroids inhibit the inflammatory response to a variety of inciting agents and probably delay or slow healing. They inhibit the edema, fibrin deposition, capillary dilation, leukocyte migration, capillary proliferation, fibroblast proliferation, deposition of collagen, and scar formation associated with inflammation. There is no generally accepted explanation for the mechanism of action of ocular corticosteroids. However, corticosteroids are thought to act by the induction of phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, collectively called lipocortins. It is postulated that these proteins control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibiting the release of their common precursor arachidonic acid.
Arachidonic acid is released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2. Corticosteroids are capable of producing a rise in intraocular pressure.
Loteprednol etabonate is structurally similar to other corticosteroids. However, the number 20 position ketone group is absent.
The anti-infective component in the combination (tobramycin) is included to provide action against susceptible organisms. In vitro studies have demonstrated that tobramycin is active against susceptible strains of the following microorganisms:
Staphylococci, including S. aureus and S. epidermidis (coagulase-positive and coagulasenegative), including penicillin-resistant strains.
Streptococci, including some of the Group A-beta-hemolytic species, some nonhemolytic species, and some Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, most Proteus vulgaris strains, Haemophilus influenzae and H. aegyptius, Moraxella lacunata, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and some Neisseria species.
In a controlled clinical study of ocular penetration, the levels of loteprednol etabonate in the aqueous humor were found to be comparable between Lotemax and Zylet treatment groups. Results from a bioavailability study in normal volunteers established that plasma levels of loteprednol etabonate and Δ1 cortienic acid etabonate (PJ 91), its primary, inactive metabolite, were below the limit of quantitation (1 ng/mL) at all sampling times.
The results were obtained following the ocular administration of one drop in each eye of 0.5% loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic suspension 8 times daily for 2 days or 4 times daily for 42 days. This study suggests that limited ( < 1 ng/mL) systemic absorption occurs with 0.5% loteprednol etabonate.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/5/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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