"In laboratory tests, researchers have used electrical stimulation of retinal cells to produce the same patterns of activity that occur when the retina sees a moving object. Although more work remains, this is a step toward restoring natural, high"...
Topical Ophthalmic Use Only
ZYMAXID™ (gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution) solution should not be introduced directly into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Growth of Resistant Organisms with Prolonged Use
As with other anti-infectives, prolonged use of ZYMAXID™ (gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution) 0.5% may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, discontinue use and institute alternative therapy. Whenever clinical judgment dictates, the patient should be examined with the aid of magnification, such as slit lamp biomicroscopy and where appropriate, fluoroscein staining.
Avoidance of Contact Lens Wear
Patients should be advised not to wear contact lenses if they have signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis or during the course of therapy with ZYMAXID™ (see PATIENT INFORMATION).
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
There was no increase in neoplasms among B6C3F1 mice given gatifloxacin in the diet for 18 months at doses averaging 81 mg/kg/day in males and 90 mg/kg/day in females. These doses are approximately 1600-fold and 1800-fold higher, respectively, than the maximum recommended ophthalmic dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day in a 50 kg human.
There was no increase in neoplasms among Fischer 344 rats given gatifloxacin in the diet for 2 years at doses averaging 47 mg/kg/day in males and 139 mg/kg/day in females (900- and 2800-fold higher, respectively, than the maximum recommended ophthalmic dose). A statistically significant increase in the incidence of large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia was seen in males treated with a high dose of approximately 2000-fold higher than the maximum recommended ophthalmic dose. Fischer 344 rats have a high spontaneous background rate of LGL leukemia and the incidence in high-dose males only slightly exceeded the historical control range established for this strain.
In genetic toxicity tests, gatifloxacin was positive in 1 of 5 strains used in bacterial reverse mutation assays: Salmonella strain TA102. Gatifloxacin was positive in in vitro mammalian cell mutation and chromosome aberration assays. Gatifloxacin was positive in in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes but not human leukocytes. Gatifloxacin was negative in in vivo micronucleus tests in mice, cytogenetics test in rats, and DNA repair test in rats. The findings may be due to the inhibitory effects of high concentrations on eukaryotic type II DNA topoisomerase.
There were no adverse effects on fertility or reproduction in rats given gatifloxacin orally at doses up to 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 4000-fold higher than the maximum recommended ophthalmic dose for ZYMAXID™ (gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution) ).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C - Teratogenic Effects
There were no teratogenic effects observed in rats or rabbits following oral gatifloxacin doses up to 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 1000-fold higher than the maximum recommended ophthalmic dose). However, skeletal/craniofacial malformations or delayed ossification, atrial enlargement, and reduced fetal weight were observed in fetuses from rats given ≥ 150 mg/kg/day (approximately 3000-fold higher than the maximum recommended ophthalmic dose). In a perinatal/postnatal study, increased late post-implantation loss and neonatal/perinatal mortalities were observed at 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 4000-fold higher than the maximum recommended ophthalmic dose).
Because there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, ZYMAXID™ (gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution) solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Gatifloxacin is excreted in the breast milk of rats. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ZYMAXID™ (gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution) is administered to a nursing woman.
The safety and effectiveness of ZYMAXID™ (gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution) in infants below one year of age have not been established. ZYMAXID™ (gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution) has been demonstrated in clinical trials to be safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis in pediatric patients one year or older (see Clinical Studies).
No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/23/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Zymaxid Information
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