- What other names is Acetyl-l-carnitine known by?
- What is Acetyl-l-carnitine?
- How does Acetyl-l-carnitine work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Acetyl-l-carnitine.
Acetil-L-Carnitina, Acetyl Carnitine, Acétyl Carnitine, Acetyl L-Carnitine, Acétyl-L-Carnitine, Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginate Dihydrochloride, Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginate HCl, Acétyl-L-Carnitine Arginate HCl, Acetyl-L-Carnitine HCl, Acétyl-L-Carnitine HCl, Acetyl L-Carnitine Hydrochloride, Acetyl Carnitine, Acétyl-Carnitine, Acetyl-Levocarnitine, Acétyl-Lévocarnitine, ALC, Alcar, Carnitine Acetyl Ester, Dihydrochlorure dAcétyl-L-Carnitine Arginate, Gamma-Trimethyl-Beta-Acetylbutyrobetaine, L-Acetylcarnitine, L-Acétylcarnitine, Levacecarnine, N-Acetyl-Carnitine, N-Acétyl-Carnitine, N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine, N-Acétyl-L-Carnitine, ST-200, Vitamin B(t) Acetate, 2-(acetyloxy)-3-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminium inner salt; (3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-propyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt acetate.
In the body, acetyl-L-carnitine is made from L-carnitine. It can also be converted to L-carnitine. L-carnitine is an amino acid (a building block for proteins) that is naturally produced in the body. It helps produce energy. Although it is an amino acid, L-carnitine is not used to make proteins.
Acetyl-L-carnitine is used for a variety of mental disorders including Alzheimer's disease, age-related memory loss, late-life depression, thinking problems related to alcoholism, thinking problems related to Lyme disease, and thinking problems related to very poor liver function (hepatic encephalopathy). It is also used for withdrawal from alcohol, Down syndrome, bipolar disorder, poor circulation in the brain after a stroke, cataracts, nerve pain due to diabetes, nerve pain due to drugs used in the treatment of AIDS or cancer, nerve pain caused by sciatica, fibromyalgia, and facial paralysis. Acetyl-L-carnitine is used for tiredness related to getting older, tiredness related to a disease called multiple sclerosis, a muscle wasting disease called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, high levels of activity in children with the genetic condition fragile-X syndrome, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is also used for aging skin.
The body can convert L-carnitine to acetyl-L-carnitine and vice versa. But, no one knows whether the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine are from the chemical itself, from the L-carnitine it can make, or from some other chemical made along the way. For now, don't substitute one form of carnitine for another.
Possibly Effective for...
- Improving memory problems in elderly people. Taking acetyl-L-carnitine improves memory and mental function in older people with some memory loss.
- Tiredness in older people. Taking acetyl-L-carnitine improves feelings of mental and physical tiredness in older people. It also appears to reduce feelings of tiredness after exercise.
- Age-related testosterone deficiency ("male menopause"). Taking acetyl-L-carnitine by mouth along with propionyl-L-carnitine seems to help symptoms related to declining male hormone levels. This combination taken for 6 months seems to improve sexual dysfunction, depression, and fatigue in much the same way the male hormone testosterone does.
- Alcohol withdrawal. When given intravenously (by IV) for 10 days then taken by mouth for 80 days, acetyl-L-carnitine helps reduce withdrawal symptoms and increase the amount of time before another alcoholic drink is consumed. However, most of the symptom improvement occurs during the first week. Therefore, it's not clear if taking acetyl-L-carnitine by mouth offers further benefit following IV treatment.
- Treating Alzheimer's disease. Acetyl-L-carnitine might slow the rate of disease progression, improve memory, and improve some measures of mental function and behavior in some patients with Alzheimer's disease. It is more likely to help those with early-onset Alzheimer's disease who are less than 66 years of age and have a faster rate of disease progression and mental decline.
- Poor blood flow to the brain. Administering a single dose of acetyl-L-carnitine intravenously (by IV) seems to produce short-term improvements in blood flow in the brains of people who have poor blood circulation in the brain.
- Improving memory in alcoholics. Taking acetyl-L-carnitine seems to improve memory in 30-60 year-old people whose use of alcohol has produced long-term thinking problems.
- Reducing nerve pain (neuropathy) caused by diabetes. Taking acetyl-L-carnitine seems to improve symptoms in people with nerve pain caused by diabetes. Acetyl-L-carnitine seems to work best in people who have not had diabetes for a long time or who have poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Also, doses of 1000 mg taken two or three times daily seems to work better than doses of 500 mg three times daily.
- Poor brain function in people with liver failure (hepatic encephalopathy). Taking acetyl-L-carnitine improves physical function and may improve mental function in people with poor brain function due to liver failure. It also might improve liver function, as indicated by reduced blood levels of ammonia.
- Treating male infertility. Taking acetyl-L-carnitine by mouth, along with L-carnitine, seems to increase sperm motion and may increase the rate of pregnancy in infertile men. Also, taking acetyl-L-carnitine and L carnitine after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) seems to improve sperm count and sperm movement in men with infertility caused by a swelling of the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and epididymis. In addition, taking a combination of acetyl-L-carnitine, L-carnitine, L-arginine, and Panax ginseng seems to increase sperm movement in men with infertility due to reduced sperm movement. It might also increase sperm movement and sperm count in men with infertility due to prostate swelling caused by Chlamydia infection.
- Treating Peyronie's disease, a connective tissue disease in men. Acetyl-L-carnitine seems to be more effective than a drug called tamoxifen for reducing pain and slowing worsening of the condition.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Reducing nerve pain (neuropathy) caused by chemotherapy. Acetyl-L-carnitine might not reduce neuropathy associated with chemotherapy in cancer patients. In fact, it might make it worse. But it's possible that severe nerve pain caused by chemotherapy might be reduced by a small amount, even if the time the pain lasts is not reduced.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Muscle wasting due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease). Early research suggests that taking acetyl-L-carnitine along with the drug riluzole reduces the number of people with ALS who lose self-sufficiency compared to taking riluzole alone. It also seems to increase survival and improve physical function.
- Reducing nerve pain (neuropathy) caused by HIV treatment. Early research suggests that taking acetyl-L-carnitine by mouth might reduce nerve pain caused by antiretroviral treatment. However, acetyl-L-carnitine does not seem to work when injected into the muscle.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Taking acetyl-L-carnitine does not seem to improve symptoms of ADHD in children already treated with methylphenidate.
- Bipolar disorder. Taking acetyl-L-carnitine plus alpha-lipoic acid for 12 weeks does not seem to improve symptoms of depression in people with bipolar disorder.
- Depression. Early research suggests that acetyl-L-carnitine might improve mood and decrease depression in elderly people.
- Fibromyalgia. When injected into the muscle or taken by mouth, acetyl-L-carnitine appears to reduce some symptoms of fibromyalgia. The greatest benefit seems to be achieved when acetyl-L-carnitine is given using both routes.
- A genetic condition called fragile X syndrome. Early research suggests that acetyl-L-carnitine does not improve mental function but might reduce hyperactive behavior in children with fragile X syndrome.
- Multiple sclerosis. Early research suggests that taking acetyl-L-carnitine might reduce feelings of tiredness in people with multiple sclerosis.
- Pain due to pressure on the sciatic nerve in the lower back (sciatica). Early research suggests that taking acetyl-L-carnitine reduces the need for pain medication in people with sciatica. However, it is not as effective as the supplement alpha-lipoic acid.
- Down syndrome.
- Thinking problems related to Lyme disease.
- Other conditions.
Acetyl-L-carnitine helps the body produce energy. It is important for heart and brain function, muscle movement, and many other body processes.
Acetyl-L-carnitine is LIKELY SAFE for most adults and POSSIBLY SAFE for most children when taken by mouth. It can cause some side effects including stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, headache, and restlessness. It can also cause a "fishy" odor of the urine, breath, and sweat.
Acetyl-L-carnitine is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when given by another route than by mouth. Use only under medical supervision.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of acetyl-L-carnitine during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Nerve pain (neuropathy) caused by chemotherapy: Acetyl-L-carnitine might worsen symptoms in some people with nerve pain caused by a class of chemotherapy drugs known as taxanes.
Seizures: An increase in the number or seriousness of seizures has been reported in people with a history of seizures who have used L-carnitine by mouth or by IV (intravenously). Since L-carnitine is related to acetyl-L-carnitine, there is a concern that this might also occur with acetyl-L-carnitine. If you have ever had a seizure, don't take acetyl-L-carnitine.
Acenocoumarol (Sintrom)Interaction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
Acenocoumarol (Sintrom) is used to slow blood clotting. Acetyl-L-carnitine might increase the effectiveness of acenocoumarol (Sintrom). Increasing the effectiveness of acenocoumarol (Sintrom) might slow blood clotting too much. This might increase the change of bruising and bleeding. The dose of your acenocoumarol (Sintrom) might need to be changed.
Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Acetyl-L-carnitine might increase the effects of warfarin (Coumadin) and increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For age-related memory loss: 1500-2000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine has been used daily for 3 months.
- For age-related tiredness: 2 grams of acetyl-L-carnitine has been used twice daily for 180 days.
- For age-related testosterone deficiency: 2 grams of acetyl-L-carnitine plus 2 grams of propionyl-L-carnitine has been used daily for 6 months.
- For alcohol withdrawal: 1-3 grams of acetyl-L-carnitine has been administered by IV for 10 days. Then for the next 80 days, 3 grams of acetyl-L-carnitine has been taken by mouth daily.
- For Alzheimer's disease: 1500-3000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine has been taken by mouth daily in two or three divided doses for 3-12 months.
- For improving memory in people who use alcohol excessively: 2 grams of acetyl-L-carnitine has been used daily for 90 days.
- For nerve pain in people with diabetes: 1500-3000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine has been taken by mouth daily in divided doses for one year. In some cases, 1000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine was injected into the muscles for 10-15 days before it was taken by mouth.
- For poor brain function in people with liver disease (hepatic encephalopathy): 2 grams of acetyl-L-carnitine has been taken twice daily for 90 days.
- For male infertility:
- 1 gram of acetyl-L-carnitine plus 2 grams of L-carnitine has been taken daily to treat male infertility
- For male infertility secondary to abacterial prostatovesiculoepididymitis: 500 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine plus 1 gram of L-carnitine every 12 hours has been used following 2 months of treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
- For male infertility due to low sperm movement: A combination containing 1660 mg of L-arginine, 150 mg of L-carnitine, 50 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine, and 200 mg of Panax ginseng has been taken daily for 3 months.
- For male infertility due to prostate swelling caused by Chlamydia infection: A combination containing 1660 mg of L-arginine, 150 mg of L-carnitine, 50 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine, and 200 mg of Panax ginseng has been taken daily for 6 months along with 600 mg of prulifloxacin.
- For Peyronie's disease: 1 gram of acetyl-L-carnitine has been taken twice daily for 3 months. BY IV:
- For alcohol withdrawal: 1-3 grams of acetyl-L-carnitine has been given by IV over 3-4 hours for 10 days. Thereafter, 3 grams of acetyl-L-carnitine has been taken by mouth daily for 80 days.
- For improving blood flow to the brain: A single dose of 1500 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine has been given by IV.
- For nerve pain caused by diabetes: 1000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine has been given as a shot daily for 10-15 days. In some cases, 2000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine has been taken by mouth daily for 12 months following the shots.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Balercia, G., Regoli, F., Armeni, T., Koverech, A., Mantero, F., and Boscaro, M. Placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial on the use of L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, or combined L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Fertil.Steril. 2005;84(3):662-671. View abstract.
Cai, T., Wagenlehner, F. M., Mazzoli, S., Meacci, F., Mondaini, N., Nesi, G., Tiscione, D., Malossini, G., and Bartoletti, R. Semen quality in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection treated concurrently with prulifloxacin and a phytotherapeutic agent. J Androl 2012;33(4):615-623. View abstract.
Cavallini, G., Ferraretti, A. P., Gianaroli, L., Biagiotti, G., and Vitali, G. Cinnoxicam and L-carnitine/acetyl-L-carnitine treatment for idiopathic and varicocele-associated oligoasthenospermia. J Androl 2004;25(5):761-770. View abstract.
Cheng, H. J. and Chen, T. [Clinical efficacy of combined L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on idiopathic asthenospermia]. Zhonghua Nan.Ke.Xue. 2008;14(2):149-151. View abstract.
Malaguarnera, M., Bella, R., Vacante, M., Giordano, M., Malaguarnera, G., Gargante, M. P., Motta, M., Mistretta, A., Rampello, L., and Pennisi, G. Acetyl-L-carnitine reduces depression and improves quality of life in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 2011;46(6):750-759. View abstract.
Malaguarnera, M., Gargante, M. P., Cristaldi, E., Colonna, V., Messano, M., Koverech, A., Neri, S., Vacante, M., Cammalleri, L., and Motta, M. Acetyl L-carnitine (ALC) treatment in elderly patients with fatigue. Arch.Gerontol.Geriatr. 2008;46(2):181-190. View abstract.
Malaguarnera, M., Vacante, M., Giordano, M., Pennisi, G., Bella, R., Rampello, L., Malaguarnera, M., Li, Volti G., and Galvano, F. Oral acetyl-L-carnitine therapy reduces fatigue in overt hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am.J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(4):799-808. View abstract.
Malaguarnera, M., Vacante, M., Motta, M., Giordano, M., Malaguarnera, G., Bella, R., Nunnari, G., Rampello, L., and Pennisi, G. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves cognitive functions in severe hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Metab Brain Dis 2011;26(4):281-289. View abstract.
Morgante, G., Scolaro, V., Tosti, C., Di, Sabatino A., Piomboni, P., and De, Leo, V. [Treatment with carnitine, acetyl carnitine, L-arginine and ginseng improves sperm motility and sexual health in men with asthenopermia]. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 2010;62(3):213-218. View abstract.
Youle, M. and Osio, M. A double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre study of acetyl L-carnitine in the symptomatic treatment of antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in patients with HIV-1 infection. HIV.Med. 2007;8(4):241-250. View abstract.
12761 Benvenga S, Amato A, Calvani M, Trimarchi F. Effects of carnitine on thyroid hormone action. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1033:158-67. View abstract.
Abbasi SH, Heidari S, Mohammadi MR, Tabrizi M, Ghaleiha A, Akhondzadeh S. Acetyl-L-carnitine as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a placebo-controlled trial. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2011 Jun;42(3):367-75. View abstract.
Anon. Carnitor (levocarnitine) package insert. Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals Inc, Gaithersburg, MD. December 1999.
Bachmann HU, Hoffmann A. Interaction of food supplement L-carnitine with oral anticoagulant acenocoumarol. Swiss Med Wkly 2004;134:385.
Barditch-Crovo P, Toole J, Hendrix CW, et al. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activitiy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxyl (9-[2-(bis-pivaloyloxymethyl)-phosphonylmethoxyethyl]adenine) in HIV-infected patients. J Infect Dis 1997;176:406-13. View abstract.
Beghi E, Pupillo E, Bonito V, Buzzi P, Caponnetto C, Chiò A, Corbo M, Giannini F, Inghilleri M, Bella VL, Logroscino G, Lorusso L, Lunetta C, Mazzini L, Messina P, Mora G, Perini M, Quadrelli ML, Silani V, Simone IL, Tremolizzo L; Italian ALS Study Group. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of acetyl-L-carnitine for ALS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener. 2013 Sep;14(5-6):397-405. View abstract.
Bella R, Biondi R, Raffaele R, Pennisi G. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on geriatric patients suffering from dysthymic disorders. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1990;10:355-60. View abstract.
Biagiotti G, Cavallini G. Acetyl-L-carnitine vs tamoxifen in the oral therapy of Peyronie's disease: a preliminary report. BJU Int 2001;88:63-7.. View abstract.
Bidzinska B, Petraglia F, Angioni S, et al. Effect of different chronic intermittent stressors and acetyl-l-carnitine on hypothalamic beta-endorphin and GnRH and on plasma testosterone levels in male rats. Neuroendocrinology 1993;57:985-90. View abstract.
Brass EP. Pivalate-generating prodrugs and carnitine homeostasis in man. Pharmacol Rev 2002;54:589-98. View abstract.
Brennan BP, Jensen JE, Hudson JI, Coit CE, Beaulieu A, Pope HG Jr, Renshaw PF, Cohen BM. A placebo-controlled trial of acetyl-L-carnitine and a-lipoic acid in the treatment of bipolar depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Oct;33(5):627-35. View abstract.
Brooks JO 3rd, Yesavage JA, Carta A, Bravi D. Acetyl L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer's disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the trilinear approach. Int Psychoger 1998;10:193-203. View abstract.
Callander N, Markovina S, Eickhoff J, Hutson P, Campbell T, Hematti P, Go R, Hegeman R, Longo W, Williams E, Asimakopoulos F, Miyamoto S. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib, doxorubicin and low-dose dexamethasone: a study from the Wisconsin Oncology Network. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014 Oct;74(4):875-82. View abstract.
Campone M, Berton-Rigaud D, Joly-Lobbedez F, Baurain JF, Rolland F, Stenzl A, Fabbro M, van Dijk M, Pinkert J, Schmelter T, de Bont N, Pautier P. A double-blind, randomized phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of acetyl-L-carnitine in the prevention of sagopilone-induced peripheral neuropathy. Oncologist. 2013;18(11):1190-1. View abstract.
Campos Y, Arenas J. Muscle carnitine deficiency associated with zidovudine-induced mitochondrial myopathy. Ann Neurol 1994;36:680-1. View abstract.
Castro-Gago M, Eiris-Punal J, Novo-Rodriguez MI, et al. Serum carnitine levels in epileptic children before and during treatment with valproic acid, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital. J Child Neurol 1998;13:546-9. View abstract.
Cavallini G, Caracciolo S, Vitali G, et al. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology 2004;63:641-6. View abstract.
Coulter DL. Carnitine, valproate, and toxicity. J Child Neurol 1991;6:7-14. View abstract.
Coulter DL. Prevention of hepatotoxicity recurrence with valproate monotherapy and carnitine. Ann Neurol 1988;24:301.
Cucinotta D, Passeri M, Ventura S, et al. Multicenter clinical placebo-controlled study with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in the treatment of mildly demented elderly patients. Drug Development Res 1988;14:213-6.
Dalakas MC, Leon-Monzon ME, Bernardini I, et al. Zidovudine-induced mitochondrial myopathy is associated with muscle carnitine deficiency and lipid storage. Ann Neurol 1994;35:482-7. View abstract.
De Grandis D, Minardi C. Acetyl-L-carnitine (levacecarnine) in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. A long-term, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Drugs R D 2002;3:223-31. View abstract.
De Vivo DC, Bohan TP, Coulter DL, et al. L-carnitine supplementation in childhood epilepsy: Current perspectives. Epilepsia 1998;39:1216-25. View abstract.
Deeks SG, Collier A, Lalezari J, et al. The safety and efficacy of adefovir dipivoxil, a novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy, in HIV-infected adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Dis 1997;176:1517-23. View abstract.
Di Marzio L, Moretti S, D'Alo S, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine administration increases insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected subjects: correlation with its suppressive effect on lymphocyte apoptosis and ceramide generation. Clin Immunol 1999;92:103-10. View abstract.
Evans AM, Fornasini G. Pharmacokinetics of L-carnitine. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003;42:941-67. View abstract.
Famularo G, Moretti S, Marcellini S, et al. Acetyl-carnitine deficiency in AIDS patients with neurotoxicity on treatment with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. AIDS 1997;11:185-90. View abstract.
Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Cost S, Singhi P. Does carnitine administration improve the symptoms attributed to anticonvulsant medications? A double-blinded, crossover study. Pediatrics 1994;93:893-5. View abstract.
Garzya G, Corallo D, Fiore A, et al. Evaluation of the effects of L-acetylcarnitine on senile patients suffering from depression. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16:101-6. View abstract.
Georgala S, Schulpis KH, Georgala C, Michas T. L-carnitine supplementation in patients with cystic acne on isotretinoin therapy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1999;13:205-9. View abstract.
Georges B, Galland S, Rigault C, et al. Beneficial effects of L-carnitine in myoblastic C2C12 cells. Interaction with zidovudine. Biochem Pharmacol 2003;65:1483-8.. View abstract.
Goa KL, Brogden RN. l-Carnitine. A preliminary review of its pharmacokinetics, and its therapeutic use in ischaemic cardiac disease and primary and secondary carnitine deficiencies in relationship to its role in fatty acid metabolism. Drugs. 1987 Jul;34(1):1-24. View abstract.
Golan R, Weissenberg R, Lewin LM. Carnitine and acetylcarnitine in motile and immotile human spermatozoa. Int J Androl 1984;7:484-94. View abstract.
Hart AM, Wilson AD, Montovani C, et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine: a pathogenesis based treatment for HIV-associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. AIDS 2004;18:1549-60. View abstract.
Hershman DL, Unger JM, Crew KD, Minasian LM, Awad D, Moinpour CM, Hansen L, Lew DL, Greenlee H, Fehrenbacher L, Wade JL 3rd, Wong SF, Hortobagyi GN, Meyskens FL, Albain KS. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of acetyl-L-carnitine for the prevention of taxane-induced neuropathy in women undergoing adjuvant breast cancer therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jul 10;31(20):2627-33. View abstract.
Heuberger W, Berardi S, Jacky E, et al. Increased urinary excretion of carnitine in patients treated with cisplatin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998;54:503-8. View abstract.
Hirose S, Mitsudome A, Yasumoto S, et al. Valproate therapy does not deplete carnitine levels in otherwise healthy children. Pediatrics 1998;101:E9 (abstract). View abstract.
Holme E, Greter J, Jacobson CE, et al. Carnitine deficiency induced by pivampicillin and pivmecillinam therapy. Lancet 1989;2:469-73. View abstract.
Hudson S, Tabet N. Acetyl-L-carnitine for dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;2:CD003158.. View abstract.
Hug G, McGraw CA, Bates SR, et al. Reduction of serum carnitine concentrations during anticonvulsant therapy with phenobarbital, valproic acid, phenytoin, and carbamazepine in children. J Pediatr 1991;119:799-802. View abstract.
Jeulin C, Lewin LM. Role of free L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine in post-gonadal maturation of mammalian spermatozoa. Hum Reprod Update 1996;2:87-102. View abstract.
Jeulin C, Soufir JC, Marson J, et al. [Acetylcarnitine and spermatozoa: relationship with epididymal maturation and motility in the boar and man]. Reprod Nutr Develop 1988;28:1317-27. View abstract.
Jiang Q, Jiang G, Shi KQ, Cai H, Wang YX, Zheng MH. Oral acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in hepatic encephalopathy: view of evidence-based medicine. Ann Hepatol. 2013 Sep-Oct;12(5):803-9. View abstract.
Kahn J, Lagakos S, Wulfsohn M, et al. Efficacy and safety of adefovir dipivoxil with antiretroviral therapy. J Am Med Assoc 1999;282:2305-12. View abstract.
Kano M, Kawakami T, Hori H, et al. Effects of ALCAR on the fast axoplasmic transport in cultured sensory neurons of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Neurosci Res 1999;33:207-13. View abstract.
Kohengkul S, Tanphaichitr V, Muangmun V, Tanphaichitr N. Levels of L-carnitine and L-O-acetylcarnitine in normal and infertile human semen: a lower level of L-O-acetycarnitine in infertile semen. Fertil Steril 1977;28:1333-6. View abstract.
Krahenbuhl S, Reichen J. Carnitine metabolism in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology 1997;25:148-53. View abstract.
Krahenbuhl S. Carnitine metabolism in chronic liver disease. Life Sci 1996;59:1579-99. View abstract.
Kurul S, Dirik E, Iscan A. Serum carnitine levels during oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine monotherapies in children with epilepsy. J Child Neurol 2003;18:552-4. View abstract.
Laker MF, Green C, Bhuiyan AK, Shuster S. Isotretinoin and serum lipids: studies on fatty acid, apolipoprotein and intermediary metabolism. Br J Dermatol 1987;117:203-6. View abstract.
Ledinek AH, Sajko MC, Rot U. Evaluating the effects of amantadin, modafinil and acetyl-L-carnitine on fatigue in multiple sclerosis--result of a pilot randomized, blind study. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013 Dec;115 Suppl 1:S86-9. View abstract.
Lenzi A, Sgro P, Salacone P, et al. A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined l-carnitine and l-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril 2004;81:1578-84. View abstract.
Leombruni P, Miniotti M, Colonna F, Sica C, Castelli L, Bruzzone M, Parisi S, Fusaro E, Sarzi-Puttini P, Atzeni F, Torta RG. A randomised controlled trial comparing duloxetine and acetyl L-carnitine in fibromyalgic patients: preliminary data. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2015 Jan-Feb;33(1 Suppl 88):S82-5. View abstract.
Liu J, Head E, Kuratsune H, et al. Comparison of the effects of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on carnitine levels, ambulatory activity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in the brain of old rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1033:117-31. View abstract.
Lo Giudice P, Careddu A, Magni G, et al. Autonomic neuropathy in streptozotocin diabetic rats: effect of acetyl-L-carnitine. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2002;56:173-80. View abstract.
Marthaler NP, Visarius T, Kupfer A, Lauterburg BH. Increased urinary losses of carnitine during ifosfamide chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1999;44:170-2. View abstract.
Martinez E, Domingo P, Roca-Cusachs A. Potentiation of acenocoumarol action by L-carnitine. J Intern Med 1993;233:94.
Martinotti G, Andreoli S, Reina D, Di Nicola M, Ortolani I, Tedeschi D, Fanella F, Pozzi G, Iannoni E, D'Iddio S, Prof LJ. Acetyl-l-Carnitine in the treatment of anhedonia, melancholic and negative symptoms in alcohol dependent subjects. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Jun 1;35(4):953-8. View abstract.
Martinotti G, Reina D, Di Nicola M, Andreoli S, Tedeschi D, Ortolani I, Pozzi G, Iannoni E, D'Iddio S, Janiri L. Acetyl-L-carnitine for alcohol craving and relapse prevention in anhedonic alcoholics: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Alcohol Alcohol. 2010 Sep-Oct;45(5):449-55. View abstract.
Mayeux R, Sano M. Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1670-9.
Memeo A., Loiero M. Thioctic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of sciatic pain caused by a herniated disc: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study. Clin Drug Investig 2008;28(8):495-500. View abstract.
Mingrone G. Carnitine in type 2 diabetes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1033:99-107. View abstract.
Mintz M. Carnitine in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Child Neurol 1995;10:S40-4. View abstract.
Moncada ML, Vicari E, Cimino C, et al. Effect of acetylcarnitine treatment in oligoasthenospermic patients. Acta Europ Fertil 1992;23:221-4. View abstract.
Montgomery SA, Thal LJ, Amrein R. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2003;18:61-71.. View abstract.
Noble S, Goa KL. Adefovir dipivoxil. Drugs 1999;58:479-87. View abstract.
Onofrj M, Fulgente T, Melchionda D, et al. L-acetylcarnitine as a new therapeutic approach for peripheral neuropathies with pain. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1995;15:9-15. View abstract.
Opala G, Winter S, Vance C, et al. The effect of valproic acid on plasma carnitine levels. Am J Dis Child 1991;145:999-1001. View abstract.
Palmero S, Leone M, Prati M, et al. The effect of L-acetylcarnitine on some reproductive functions in the oligoasthenospermic rat. Horm Metab Res 1990;22:622-6. View abstract.
Passeri M, Cucinotta D, Bonati PA, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of mildly demented elderly patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1990;10:75-9. View abstract.
Pettegrew JW, Klunk WE, Panchalingam K, et al. Clinical and neurochemical effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 1995;16:1-4. View abstract.
Pettegrew JW, Levine J, McClure RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Mol Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.. View abstract.
Pisano C, Pratesi G, Laccabue D, et al. Paclitaxel and Cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity: a protective role of acetyl-L-carnitine. Clin Cancer Res 2003;9:5756-67. View abstract.
Pop-Busui R, Marinescu V, Van Huysen C, et al. Dissection of metabolic, vascular, and nerve conduction interrelationships in experimental diabetic neuropathy by cyclooxygenase inhibition and acetyl-L-carnitine administration. Diabetes 2002;51:2619-28. View abstract.
Postiglione A, Soricelli A, Cicerano U, et al. Effect of acute administration of L-acetyl carnitine on cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic cerebral infarct. Pharmacol Res 1991;23:241-6. View abstract.
Quatraro A, Roca P, Donzella C, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy. Diabetologia 1995;38:123..
Rai G, Wright G, Scott L, et al. Double-blind, placebo controlled study of acetyl-l-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Curr Med Res Opin 1990;11:638-47. View abstract.
Raskind JY, El-Chaar GM. The role of carnitine supplementation during valproic acid therapy. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:630-8. View abstract.
Rebouche CJ. Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1033:30-41. View abstract.
Riva R, Albani F, Gobbi G, et al. Carnitine disposition before and during valproate therapy in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1993;34:184-7. View abstract.
Rosadini G, Marenco S, Nobili F, et al. Acute effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on regional cerebral blood flow in patients with brain ischaemia. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1990;10:123-8. View abstract.
Rossini M, Di Munno O, Valentini G, Bianchi G, Biasi G, Cacace E, Malesci D, La Montagna G, Viapiana O, Adami S. Double-blind, multicenter trial comparing acetyl l-carnitine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2007 Mar-Apr;25(2):182-8. View abstract.
Salvioli G, Neri M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1994;20:169-76. View abstract.
Sano M, Bell K, Cote L, et al. Double-blind parallel design pilot study of acetyl levocarnitine in patients with Alzheimer's Disease. Arch Neurol 1992;49:1137-41. View abstract.
Scarpini E, Sacilotto G, Baron P, et al. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of painful peripheral neuropathies in HIV+ patients. J Peripher Nerv Syst 1997;2:250-2. View abstract.
Schlenzig JS, Charpentier C, Rabier D, et al. L-carnitine: a way to decrease cellular toxicity of ifosfamide? Eur J Pediatr 1995;154:686-7. View abstract.
Sekas G, Paul HS. Hyperammonemia and carnitine deficiency in a patient receiving sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. Am J Med 1993;95:112-3. View abstract.
Shapira Y, Gutman A. Muscle carnitine deficiency in patients using valproic acid. J Pediatrics 1991;118:646-9. View abstract.
Sheetz MJ, King GL. Molecular understanding of hyperglycemia's adverse effects for diabetic complications. JAMA 2002;288:2579-88. View abstract.
Sima AAF, Calvani M, Mehra M, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves pain, nerve regeneration, and vibratory perception in patients with chronic diabetic neuropathy: An analysis of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2005;28:89-94. View abstract.
Spagnoli A, Lucca U, Menasce G, et al. Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology 1991;41:1726-32. View abstract.
Stanley CA. Carnitine deficiency disorders in children. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1033:42-51. View abstract.
Tamamogullari N, Silig Y, Icagasioglu S, Atalay A. Carnitine deficiency in diabetes mellitus complications. J Diabetes Complications 1999;13:251-3. View abstract.
Tanphaichitr N. In vitro stimulation of human sperm motility by acetylcarnitine. Int J Fertil 1977;22:85-91. View abstract.
Tempesta E, Casella L, Pirrongelli C, et al. L-acetylcarnitine in depressed elderly subjects. A cross-over study vs placebo. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13:417-23. View abstract.
Tempesta E, Troncon R, Janiri L, et al. Role of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of cognitive deficit in chronic alcoholism. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1990;10:101-7. View abstract.
Thal LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, et al. A 1-year multicenter placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology 1996;47:705-11. View abstract.
Thom H, Carter PE, Cole GF, et al. Ammonia and carnitine concentrations in children treated with sodium valproate compared with other anticonvulsant drugs. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991;33:795-802. View abstract.
Torrioli MG, Vernacotola S, Mariotti P, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-acetylcarnitine for the treatment of hyperactive behavior in fragile X syndrome. Am J Med Genet 1999;87:366-8.
Torrioli MG, Vernacotola S, Peruzzi L, et al. A double-blind, parallel, multicenter comparison of L-acetylcarnitine with placebo on the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in fragile X syndrome boys. Am J Med Genet A. 2008;146A(7):803-12. View abstract.
Tsoko M, Beauseigneur F, Gresti J, et al. Enhancement of activities relative to fatty acid oxidation in the liver of rats depleted of L-carnitine by D-carnitine and a gamma- butyrobetaine hydroxylase inhibitor. Biochem Pharmacol 1995;49:1403-10. View abstract.
Van Wouwe JP. Carnitine deficiency during valproic acid treatment. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:211-4. View abstract.
Vance CK, Vance H, Winter SC, et al. Control of valproate-induced hepatotoxicity with carnitine. Ann Neurol 1989;26:456.
Vicari E, La Vignera S, Calogero AE. Antioxidant treatment with carnitines is effective in infertile patients with prostatovesiculoepididymitis and elevated seminal leukocyte concentrations after treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Fertil Steril 2002;78:1203-8.. View abstract.
Vidal-Casariego A, Burgos-Peláez R, Martínez-Faedo C, Calvo-Gracia F, Valero-Zanuy MÁ, Luengo-Pérez LM, Cuerda-Compés C. Metabolic effects of L-carnitine on type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013 Apr;121(4):234-8. View abstract.
Winter SC, Szabo-Aczel S, Curry CJR, et al. Plasma carnitine deficiency: Clinical observations in 51 pediatric patients. Am J Dis Child 1987;141:660-5. View abstract.
Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, et al. Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999;290:1482-92. View abstract.
Zelnik N, Fridkis I, Gruener N. Reduced carnitine and antiepileptic drugs: cause relationship or co-existence? Acta Paediatr 1995;84:93-5. View abstract.