What is Alkindi Sprinkle and how is it used?
Alkindi Sprinkle is a prescription medicine used to treat symptoms of Inflammation, Status Asthmaticus, and Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency. Alkindi Sprinkle may be used alone or with other medications.
Alkindi Sprinkle belongs to a class of drugs called Corticosteroids.
What are the possible side effects of Alkindi Sprinkle?
Alkindi Sprinkle may cause serious side effects including:
- difficulty breathing,
- swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat,
- worsening of your skin condition,
- redness, warmth, swelling, oozing, or severe irritation of any treated skin,
- increased thirst,
- increased urination,
- dry mouth,
- fruity breath odor,
- weight gain (especially in your face or your upper back and torso),
- slow wound healing,
- thinning or discolored skin,
- increased body hair,
- muscle weakness,
- mood changes,
- menstrual changes, and
- sexual changes
Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above.
The most common side effects of Alkindi Sprinkle include:
Tell the doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of Alkindi Sprinkle. For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
ALKINDI SPRINKLE contains hydrocortisone, a corticosteroid, also known as cortisol. The chemical name of hydrocortisone is 11β,17α,21-trihydroxy-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione and it has the chemical formula of C21H30O5, and molecular weight of 362 g·mol−1. Hydrocortisone is a white or almost white powder soluble in the pH range of 1-7.
Structural Formula Of Hydrocortisone
ALKINDI SPRINKLE are oral granules contained within hard capsules. The inactive ingredients in the granules are microcrystalline cellulose, hypromellose, magnesium stearate and ethyl cellulose and the capsule shell contains hypromellose. The printing ink contains shellac, propylene glycol and concentrated ammonia solution. The printing ink also contains red iron oxide, potassium hydroxide for 0.5 mg (red), indigotine for 1 mg (blue), indigotine, yellow iron oxide, titanium dioxide for 2 mg (green) and titanium dioxide, black iron oxide, potassium hydroxide for 5 mg (gray).
ALKINDI SPRINKLE is indicated as replacement therapy in pediatric patients with adrenocortical insufficiency.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
- Individualize the dose for each patient, using the lowest possible dosage.
- The recommended starting replacement dosage is 8 to 10 mg/m²/day daily. Higher doses may be needed based on patientâ€™s age and symptoms of the disease. Use of lower starting doses may be sufficient in patients with residual but decreased endogenous cortisol production.
- Round the dose to the nearest 0.5 mg or 1 mg. The contents of more than one capsule may be needed to supply the required dose.
- Divide the total daily dose in 3 doses and administer 3 times daily. Older pediatric patients may have their daily dose divided by 2 and administered twice daily.
- Monitor patients for symptoms of under and/or overtreatment including signs and symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency, linear growth and weight gain. Adjust doses accordingly.
- During episodes of acute febrile illness, gastroenteritis, surgery or major trauma, patients may need increased doses [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- When switching patients from conventional oral hydrocortisone replacement therapy to ALKINDI SPRINKLE, use the same total daily dose. ALKINDI SPRINKLE is therapeutically equivalent to conventional oral hydrocortisone tablet formulations, however, the potential dosing inaccuracy of manipulated oral hydrocortisone preparations (e.g., split or crushed tablets or compounded suspension) could lead to a difference in exposure on the same nominal dose. This could lead to unintended clinical consequences [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- ALKINDI SPRINKLE are oral granules contained within capsules.
- Do not swallow the capsules. Do not chew or crush the granules.
- Do not use ALKINDI SPRINKLE granules in nasogastric or gastric tubes as they may cause tube blockage.
- Open the capsule and administer the granules as follows:
- Hold the capsule so that the printed strength is at the top and tap to ensure all the granules are in the lower half of the capsule.
- Squeeze the bottom of the capsule gently and twist off the top of the capsule.
- The granules may be administered by pouring the granules directly onto the patientâ€™s tongue, pouring the granules onto a spoon and placing in the patientâ€™s mouth, or sprinkling onto a spoonful of cold or room temperature soft food (such as yogurt or fruit puree). The granules should be given and swallowed within 5 minutes to avoid a bitter taste as the outer taste masking cover can dissolve.
- Tap the capsule to ensure all the granules are removed. Avoid wetting the capsule on the tongue or soft food as this may result in granules remaining in the capsule.
- Immediately follow administration with ingestion of fluids such as water, milk, breast- milk or formula to ensure all granules are swallowed.
- Do not add the granules to liquid as this can result in reductions in the dose administered and may result in a bitter taste.
Dosage Forms And Strengths
ALKINDI SPRINKLE oral granules are white to off-white granules contained within transparent capsules and are available as follows:
|Strength||Imprint on Capsules|
|0.5 mg||“INF-0.5” in red ink|
|1 mg||“INF-1.0” in blue ink|
|2 mg||“INF-2.0” in green ink|
|5 mg||“INF-5.0” in gray ink|
Storage And Handling
ALKINDI SPRINKLE oral granules are supplied as white to off-white granules in transparent capsules as follows:
|Strength||Imprint on Capsules||Amount in Bottle||NDC|
|0.5 mg||“INF-0.5” in red ink||50 capsules||71863-109-50|
|1 mg||“INF-1.0” in blue ink||50 capsules||71863-110-50|
|2 mg||“INF-2.0” in green ink||50 capsules||71863-111-50|
Store at controlled room temperature (USP) 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Store in the original bottle in order to protect from light.
Once the bottle has been opened, use the capsules within 60 days.
ALKINDI SPRINKLE is manufactured for Eton Pharmaceuticals, Inc. by Glatt Pharmaceutical Services GmbH & Co. KG Werner-Glatt-Strasse 1, Binzen, Baden-Wuerttemberg, 79589, Germany. Revised: Mar 2021
The following serious adverse reactions are described here and elsewhere in the label:
- Adrenal Crisis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Infections [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Growth Retardation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Cushing's Syndrome Due to Use of Excessive Doses of Corticosteroids [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Decrease in Bone Mineral Density [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Psychiatric Adverse Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Ophthalmic Adverse Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
ALKINDI SPRINKLE was evaluated in an uncontrolled, open-label, single-arm clinical study in 18 pediatric patients with adrenocortical insufficiency. Adrenocortical insufficiency was due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 17 patients and to hypopituitarism in one patient. All patients received at least one dose of ALKINDI SPRINKLE. The age ranged from 36 days to 5.7 years at start of treatment; 8 patients were female and 10 were male; 100% were White. Adverse reactions that were reported in two or more patients (≥ 11%) are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 : Adverse Reactions Occurring in >11% of Pediatric Patients with Adrenocortical Insufficiency Treated with ALKINDI SPRINKLE for up to 29 Months
|Adverse Reactions||N=18 (%)|
|Viral upper respiratory tract infection||8 (44)|
|Viral infection||6 (33)|
|Otitis media viral||3 (17)|
|Body temperature increased||2 (11)|
|Dental caries||2 (11)|
|Genitourinary operation||2 (11)|
|Respiratory tract infection||2 (11)|
The following adverse reactions seen in pediatric and adult patients associated with the use of corticosteroids were identified in the literature and from postmarketing reports. Because some of these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Common adverse reactions for corticosteroids include fluid retention, alteration in glucose tolerance, elevation in blood pressure, behavioral and mood changes, increased appetite and weight gain.
Allergic Reactions: Anaphylaxis, angioedema
Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, cardiac arrest, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac enlargement, circulatory collapse, congestive heart failure, fat embolism, hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in premature infants, myocardial rupture following recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, syncope, tachycardia, thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis, vasculitis
Dermatologic: Acne, allergic dermatitis, cutaneous and subcutaneous atrophy, dry scalp, edema, facial erythema, hyper or hypo-pigmentation, impaired wound healing, increased sweating, petechiae and ecchymoses, rash, sterile abscess, striae, suppressed reactions to skin tests, thin fragile skin, thinning scalp hair, urticaria
Endocrine: Abnormal fat deposits, decreased carbohydrate tolerance, development of Cushingoid state, hirsutism, manifestations of latent diabetes mellitus and increased requirements for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetics, menstrual irregularities, moon faces, secondary adrenocortical and pituitary unresponsiveness (particularly in times of stress, as in trauma, surgery or illness), suppression of growth in pediatric patients
Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances: Fluid retention, potassium loss, hypertension, hypokalemic alkalosis, sodium retention
Gastrointestinal: Abdominal distention, elevation in serum liver enzymes levels (usually reversible upon discontinuation), hepatomegaly, hiccups, malaise, nausea, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer with possible perforation and hemorrhage, ulcerative esophagitis
General: Increased appetite and weight gain
Metabolic: Negative nitrogen balance due to protein catabolism
Musculoskeletal: Osteonecrosis of femoral and humeral heads, Charcot-like arthropathy, loss of muscle mass, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, pathologic fracture of long bones, steroid myopathy, tendon rupture, vertebral compression fractures
Neurological: Arachnoiditis, convulsions, depression, emotional instability, euphoria, headache, increased intracranial pressure with papilledema (pseudo-tumor cerebri) usually following discontinuation of treatment, insomnia, meningitis, mood swings, neuritis, neuropathy, paraparesis/paraplegia, paresthesia, personality changes, sensory disturbances, vertigo
Ophthalmic: Exophthalmos, glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and central serous chorioretinopathy
Reproductive: Alteration in motility and number of spermatozoa
Table 2 : Drug Interactions with ALKINDI SPRINKLE
|Clinical Impact:||Hydrocortisone is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Concomitant administration of inhibitors of CYP3A4 may lead to increases in serum concentrations of ALKINDI SPRINKLE and increase the risk of adverse reactions associated with the use of excessive doses.|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors may require a decrease in the ALKINDI SPRINKLE dose.|
|Examples:||Anti-fungals: itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole Antibiotics: erythromycin and clarithromycin Antiretrovirals: ritonavir Grapefruit juice|
|Clinical Impact:||Hydrocortisone is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Concomitant administration of inducers of CYP3A4 may lead to decreases in serum concentrations of ALKINDI SPRINKLE and increase the risk of adverse reactions, including adrenal crisis.|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of CYP3A4 inducers may require an increase in the ALKINDI SPRINKLE dose.|
|Examples:||Anticonvulsants: phenytoin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine Antibiotics: rifampicin and rifabutin Barbiturates: phenobarbital and primidone Antiretrovirals: efavirenz and nevirapine|
|Estrogen and Estrogen Containing Products|
|Clinical Impact:||Oral estrogen and estrogen-containing oral contraceptives may interact with hydrocortisone by increasing serum cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) concentration. Concomitant use may reduce the efficacy of ALKINDI SPRINKLE by binding and delaying or preventing absorption.|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of estrogen/estrogen containing products may require an increase in the ALKINDI SPRINKLE dose.|
|Clinical Impact:||Corticosteroids in supraphysiologic doses may increase blood glucose concentrations.|
|Intervention:||Use of ALKINDI SPRINKLE in supraphysiologic doses may require a dose adjustment of antidiabetic agents.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of warfarin and corticosteroids usually results in inhibition of response to warfarin, although there have been some conflicting reports.|
|Intervention:||Monitor coagulation indices in patients receiving ALKINDI SPRINKLE and concomitant warfarin to maintain the desired anticoagulant effect.|
|Clinical Impact:||Increased activity of both cyclosporine and corticosteroids may occur when the two are used concurrently. Convulsions have been reported with concurrent use.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients receiving ALKINDI SPRINKLE and concomitant cyclosporine.|
|Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of NSAIDs and corticosteroids increases the risk of gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Aspirin should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids in hypoprothrombinemia. The clearance of salicylates may be increased with concurrent use of corticosteroids; this could lead to decreased salicylate serum levels or increase the risk of salicylate toxicity when corticosteroid is withdrawn.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients receiving ALKINDI SPRINKLE and concomitant NSAIDs.|
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Undertreatment with ALKINDI SPRINKLE or sudden discontinuation of therapy with ALKINDI SPRINKLE may lead to symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency, adrenal crisis and death. Adrenal crisis may also be induced by stressor events such as infections or surgery when patients require higher doses of corticosteroids. Symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency include poor feeding, fatigue, low muscle tone, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, hypoglycemia, low blood pressure and electrolyte disturbances.
Increase the dose of ALKINDI SPRINKLE during periods of stress (infections, surgery). Switch patients who are vomiting, severely ill or unable to take oral medications to parenteral corticosteroid formulations without delay. Once the patient recovers, gradually reduce the steroid dose used during the acute event.
The potential dosing inaccuracy of manipulated oral hydrocortisone preparations (e.g., split or crushed tablets or compounded suspension) may result in a relative difference in hydrocortisone exposure on the same nominal dose. This could lead to unintended clinical consequences. Close monitoring of patients is recommended after the switch as with many other medications. Healthcare professionals should inform caregivers and patients that dose adjustments of ALKINDI SPRINKLE may be needed. An increase in the total daily dose of ALKINDI SPRINKLE should be considered if symptoms of adrenal insufficiency present.
Excessive doses of corticosteroids may increase the risks of new infections or exacerbation of latent infections with any pathogen, including viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan or helminthic infections.
Appropriate replacement doses of corticosteroids for patients with adrenocortical insufficiency are not expected to cause immunosuppression and, therefore, should not increase risk of infection.
Administration of live vaccine may be acceptable in pediatric patients with adrenocortical insufficiency receiving replacement doses of corticosteroids. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infections. Treat all infections seriously and initiate stress dosing of steroids early [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Long-term use of corticosteroids in excessive doses may cause growth retardation in pediatric patients. Historical cohorts of adults treated from childhood for congenital adrenal hyperplasia have been found to have growth retardation. Effects on linear growth are less likely when using corticosteroids as replacement therapy. Use the minimum dosage of ALKINDI SPRINKLE to achieve desired clinical response and monitor the patientâ€™s growth.
Cushingâ€™s Syndrome Due To Use Of Excessive Doses of Corticosteroids
Prolonged use of corticosteroids in supraphysiologic doses may cause Cushingâ€™s syndrome. Symptoms and signs of Cushingâ€™s syndrome include weight gain, decreased height velocity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, edema, easy bruising, muscle weakness, red round face, depression or mood swings. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of Cushingâ€™s syndrome every 6 months; pediatric patients under one year of age may require more frequent monitoring, e.g., every 3 to 4 months.
Decrease In Bone Mineral Density
Corticosteroids decrease bone formation and increase bone resorption which may lead to development of osteoporosis. Historical cohorts of adults treated from childhood for congenital adrenal hyperplasia have been found to have reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture rates. Use the minimum dosage of ALKINDI SPRINKLE to achieve desired clinical response.
Psychiatric Adverse Reactions
Corticosteroid use may be associated with severe psychiatric adverse reactions. Euphoria, mania, psychosis with hallucinations and delirium or depression have been seen in patients at replacement doses of hydrocortisone [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Symptoms typically emerge within a few days or weeks of starting the treatment. Risks may be higher with high doses, although dose levels do not allow prediction of the onset, type, severity or duration of reactions. Most reactions resolve after either dose reduction or withdrawal, although specific treatment may be necessary. Monitor patients for behavioral and mood disturbances during treatment with ALKINDI SPRINKLE. Instruct caregivers and/or patients to seek medical advice if psychiatric symptoms develop.
Ophthalmic Adverse Reactions
Ophthalmic effects, such as cataract, glaucoma or central serous chorioretinopathy have been reported with prolonged use of corticosteroids in high doses. Monitor patients for blurred vision or other visual disturbances. If patients develop ophthalmic adverse reactions, refer them to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation.
Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal perforation in patients with certain gastrointestinal disorders. Signs of gastrointestinal perforation, such as peritoneal irritation may be masked in patients receiving corticosteroids. Corticosteroids should be used with caution if there is a probability of impending perforation, abscess, or other pyogenic infections; diverticulitis; fresh intestinal anastomoses; and active or latent peptic ulcer.
Concurrent administration of corticosteroids with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) may increase the risk of gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Monitor patients receiving corticosteroids and concomitant NSAIDS for gastrointestinal adverse reactions [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the caregiver or patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Advise the patient or caregiver that ALKINDI SPRINKLE is a granule formulation contained in a capsule. Do not swallow the capsule. Do not chew or crush the granules. Open the capsule and give the granules directly into the patientâ€™s mouth. Alternatively, sprinkle the granules onto soft food and give immediately as the taste masking cover can dissolve in as little as 5 minutes. Avoid wetting the capsule as this may cause some granules to stick to the capsule. Immediately following administration, take a sip of fluids to ensure all granules have been swallowed [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Inform the patient or caregiver that undertreatment or sudden discontinuation of ALKINDI SPRINKLE may lead to symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency, adrenal crisis, and death. Advise the caregiver that the potential dosing inaccuracy of manipulated oral hydrocortisone preparations (e.g., split or crushed tablets or compounded suspension) may result in differences. When switching treatment from conventional oral hydrocortisone to ALKINDI SPRINKLE, advise the patient or caregiver that this could lead to unintended clinical consequences and recommend close monitoring of patients after the switch. Inform the patient or caregiver to contact their healthcare provider if they have prolonged vomiting, are severely ill or are unable to take oral medications [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise the patient or caregiver that excessive doses of corticosteroids may increase the risk of infections. Inform the patient or caregiver that administration of live vaccine may be acceptable. Instruct the patient or caregiver to contact their healthcare provider if they develop any infections [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Discuss with the caregiver that long-term use of corticosteroids in excessive doses may cause growth retardation in pediatric patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients and caregivers that prolonged use of corticosteroids in supraphysiologic doses may cause Cushingâ€™s syndrome and that symptoms and signs include weight gain, decreased height velocity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, edema, easy bruising, muscle weakness, red round face, depression or mood swings [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Decrease In Bone Mineral Density
Inform the patient or caregiver that corticosteroids decrease bone formation and increase bone resorption that may lead to osteoporosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Psychiatric Adverse Reactions
Advise the patient or caregiver that corticosteroid use may be associated with severe psychiatric adverse reactions such as euphoria, mania, psychosis with hallucinations or depression. Instruct caregivers and/or patients to seek medical advice if psychiatric symptoms develop [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Ophthalmic Adverse Reactions
Inform patients or caregivers that ophthalmic effects such as cataract, glaucoma or central serous chorioretinopathy have been reported with prolonged use of high-dose corticosteroids. Instruct patients or caregivers to report any blurred vision or visual disturbances to their healthcare provider [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
Discuss with patients or caregivers that use of corticosteroids may increase risk of gastrointestinal perforation in certain gastrointestinal disorders [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Excretion Of Granules
ALKINDI SPRINKLE granules may sometimes be seen in stools since the center of the granule is not absorbed in the gut after the active substance has been released. Inform patients or caregivers that this does not mean the product is ineffective and they should not take another dose.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No adequate studies in animals have been conducted with hydrocortisone to evaluate carcinogenic or mutagenic potential. Corticosteroids have been shown to impair fertility in male rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Untreated adrenocortical insufficiency in pregnancy can result in a high rate of complications, including maternal mortality. The use of physiologic doses of hydrocortisone is not expected to cause major birth defects, miscarriage and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Available data from observational studies with hydrocortisone use in pregnancy have not identified a clear drug- associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2â€“4% and 15â€“20%, respectively.
Available data from observational studies with hydrocortisone use in pregnant women have not identified a clear drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Evidence from published epidemiologic studies suggest that there may be a small increased risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate associated with first trimester systemic corticosteroid use in pregnant patients. However, the data are limited and report inconsistent findings, and studies have important methodological limitations, including non-randomized design, retrospective data collection, lack of dose-response data and the inability to control for confounders, such as underlying maternal disease and use of concomitant medications. In addition, unlike other corticosteroids, hydrocortisone is enzymatically deactivated by the placenta and therefore, limits fetal exposure.
Corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic in many species when given in doses equivalent to the human dose. Animal studies in which corticosteroids have been given to pregnant mice, rats and rabbits without adrenocortical insufficiency have yielded an increased incidence of cleft palate in the offspring.
Cortisol is present in human milk. The use of hydrocortisone at a physiologic dose for adrenocortical insufficiency is not expected to adversely affect the breastfed infant or milk production. There are no data on the presence of hydrocortisone in breast milk, the effect on the breastfed infant or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the motherâ€™s clinical need for ALKINDI SPRINKLE and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ALKINDI SPRINKLE or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness of ALKINDI SPRINKLE have been established in pediatric patients for replacement therapy of adrenocortical insufficiency and the information on this use is discussed throughout the labeling. Use of ALKINDI SPRINKLE in pediatric patients is supported by use in pediatric patients for adrenocortical insufficiency with another hydrocortisone product, along with supportive pharmacokinetic and safety data in 24 pediatric patients with adrenocortical insufficiency. No new adverse reactions were identified [see ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. ALKINDI SPRINKLE are oral granules contained within capsules that must be opened and not swallowed whole to administer the granules. Additionally, ALKINDI SPRINKLE granules should not be administered via nasogastric or gastric tubes as they may cause tube blockage [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Treatment of acute overdosage is by supportive and symptomatic therapy.
ALKINDI SPRINKLE is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone or to any of the ingredients in ALKINDI SPRINKLE. Anaphylactic reactions have occurred in patients receiving corticosteroids [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Mechanism Of Action
Hydrocortisone is a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids and adrenocortical steroids cause varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the bodyâ€™s immune responses to diverse stimuli.
Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states.
Following oral administration, a dose of ALKINDI SPRINKLE 4x5 mg was approximately 87% bioavailable when compared to intravenous hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy adult male volunteers. The median time to peak serum concentration (Tmax) was 0.75 hour post-dose following oral administration.
In an open label, single dose study in 24 pediatric patients with adrenocortical insufficiency, ALKINDI SPRINKLE (1-4 mg based on body surface area) increased cortisol levels from baseline to median cortisol level 19.4 mcg/dL (range 12.5 â€“ 52.4 mcg/dL) at Cmax (60 minutes post-dose).
Effect Of Food
The coadministration of ALKINDI SPRINKLE with soft food (yogurt and fruit puree) has been studied in healthy adult male volunteers, where it was shown to be bioequivalent to administration of dry granules directly to the back of the tongue.
90% or more of circulating hydrocortisone is reversibly bound to protein.
The binding is accounted for by two protein fractions. One corticosteroid-binding globulin is a glycoprotein; the other is albumin.
Hydrocortisone is metabolized in the liver and most body tissues to hydrogenated and degraded forms such as tetrahydrocortisone and tetrahydrocortisol which are excreted in the urine, mainly conjugated as glucuronides, together with a very small proportion of unchanged hydrocortisone.
The terminal half-life of hydrocortisone is about 1.5 hours following intravenous and oral dosing of hydrocortisone tablets and ALKINDI SPRINKLE in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy adult male volunteers.
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