Slideshows Images Quizzes

Copyright © 2018 by RxList Inc. RxList does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. See additional information.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid

What other names is Alpha-lipoic Acid known by?

Acetate Replacing Factor, A-Lipoic Acid, Acide Alpha-Lipoïque, Acide Alpha-Lipoïque R, Acide DL-Alpha-Lipoïque, Acide Lipoïque, Acide Thioctique, Acide 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoïque, Acide 1,2-dithiolane-3-valérique, Acide 5 Valérique (1,2-dithiolan-3-yl), Acide 6,8-dithiooctanoïque, Acide 6,8-Thioctique, Acido Alfa Lipoico, Alpha-Lipoic Acid Extract, ALA, Biletan, Extrait d'acide Alpha-Lipoïque, Lipoic Acid, Lipoicin, R-ALA, R-Alpha-Lipoic Acid R, S-Alpha Lipoic Acid, (R)-Lipoic Acid, R-Lipoic Acid, RS-Alpha-Lipoic Acid Thioctacid, Thioctan, Thioctic Acid, 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid, 1,2-dithiolane-3-valeric acid, 6,8-dithiooctanoic acid, 6,8-thioctic acid, 5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl) valeric acid.

What is Alpha-lipoic Acid?

Alpha-lipoic acid is a vitamin-like chemical called an antioxidant. Yeast, liver, kidney, spinach, broccoli, and potatoes are good sources of alpha-lipoic acid. It is also made in the laboratory for use as medicine.

Alpha-lipoic acid is used for diabetes and nerve-related symptoms of diabetes including burning, pain, and numbness in the legs and arms. High doses of alpha-lipoic acid are approved in Germany for the treatment of these symptoms.

Some people use alpha-lipoic acid for memory loss, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), HIV/AIDS, cancer, liver disease, diseases of the heart and blood vessels (including a disorder called cardiac autonomic neuropathy) and Lyme disease.

Alpha-lipoic acid is also used to treat eye-related disorders, such as damage to the retina, cataracts, glaucoma, and an eye disease called Wilson's disease.

QUESTION

Diabetes is defined best as... See Answer

Possibly Effective for...

  • Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Research suggests that taking a product containing alpha-lipoic acid, CoQ10, magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids and selenium up to 2 months before and 1 month after surgery seems to decrease complications following CABG surgery.
  • Diabetes. Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth or intravenously seems to improve blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. However, there is some inconsistent evidence that shows it does not affect blood sugar.
  • Prediabetes. Some research shows that receiving 600 mg of alpha-lipoic acid intravenously once daily for 2 weeks decreases blood sugar after eating.
  • Diabetic nerve pain. Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth seems to improve symptoms such as burning, pain, and numbness in the legs and arms of people with diabetes. It may take 3 to 5 weeks of treatment for symptoms to improve.
  • Vitiligo. Taking a product containing alpha-lipoic acid, vitamins C and E, and polyunsaturated fatty acids along with light therapy daily for 8 months seems to improve skin discoloration in people with patchy skin due to vitiligo.
  • Weight loss. Research suggests that taking 1800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid daily for 20 weeks reduces body weight in people who are overweight.
  • Wound healing. Some research suggests that taking 300 mg of a specific alpha-lipoic product once before and once after oxygen therapy for 14-30 days reduces the wound area in people with ulcers.

Possibly Ineffective for...

  • Alcoholic liver disease. Taking 300 mg of alpha-lipoic acid daily for up to 6 months does not improve alcoholic liver disease.
  • Altitude sickness. Taking 600 mg of alpha-lipoic acid together with vitamin C and vitamin E does not seem to prevent altitude sickness.
  • Alzheimer's disease. Early research suggests that taking a product containing 600-900 mg of alpha-lipoic acid daily for up to 2 years does not seem to have an effect on mental function in people with Alzheimer's disease.
  • Heart-related nerve problems (cardiac autonomic neuropathy). Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth seems to improve measures of heart-related nerve problems, but not the associated symptoms.
  • Damage to the retina caused by diabetes. Taking 600 mg of alpha-lipoic acid by mouth daily for 24 months does not improve damage to the retina associated with diabetes.
  • HIV-related brain problems.Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth has no effect on HIV-associated brain problems.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Taking 300 mg of alpha-lipoic acid by mouth daily for 12 weeks does not seem to affect pain or inflammation in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Aging skin. Early research suggests that applying a cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid to the face may reduce fine lines and roughness due to sun damage. Other research shows that taking a product containing alpha-lipoic acid (DermaVite) twice daily for 6 months improve skin thickness and fine wrinkles.
  • Amanita mushroom poisoning. The use of alpha-lipoic acid in treating mushroom poisoning is controversial. Some researchers recommend against using alpha-lipoic acid for this purpose.
  • Burning mouth syndrome. Research suggests that taking 800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid by mouth daily for 8 weeks does not reduce burning symptoms in people with burning mouth syndrome. However, other early research suggests that it does seem to reduce burning in the mouth.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome. Early research suggests that taking a combination product containing 600 mg of alpha-lipoic acid for 90 days improves function in people with carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Dementia. Early evidence suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid might slow down the decline of thinking skills in people with various kinds of dementia. However, almost a year of treatment may be needed.
  • Glaucoma. Research suggests that taking 75-150 mg of alpha-lipoic acid daily for 1-2 months might improve vision in people with glaucoma.
  • Heart failure. Early evidence suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid might reduce pressure in the arteries in people with heart failure.
  • HIV. Early evidence suggests that taking 300 mg of alpha-lipoic acid daily for 6 months improves white blood cell counts in people with HIV.
  • High blood pressure. Research shows that taking 600 mg of alpha-lipoic acid daily with medication does not decrease blood pressure compared to medication alone.
  • Migraine headache. Early research suggests that taking 600 mg of alpha-lipoic acid daily for 3 months improves the severity and frequency of migraines. However, it does not improve the number of monthly migraine attacks.
  • Nonalcholic liver inflammation (steatohepatitis). Early evidence suggests that taking 600-900 mg of alpha-lipoic acid dialy for 2 months might reduce liver size and symptoms in people with nonalcoholic liver inflammation.
  • Radiation exposure. Early evidence suggests that taking 400 mg of alpha-lipoic acid alone or together with vitamin E for 28 days might reduce symptoms of radiation exposure in children living near contaminated areas.
  • Clogged arteries (peripheral artery disease). Early research suggests that taking 300 mg of alpha-lipoic acid daily might reduce pain associated with exercise in people with clogged arteries.
  • Leg weakness and pain (sciatica). Early research shows that taking 600 mg of alpha-lipoic acid daily for 60 days improves leg pain and weakness due to damage of the sciatic nerve. However, it does not seem to benefit sleep quality in people with this condition.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Cancer.
  • Lyme disease.
  • Wilson's disease.
  • Heart disease.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid for these uses.

SLIDESHOW

Diabetes: What Raises and Lowers Your Blood Sugar Level? See Slideshow

How does Alpha-lipoic Acid work?

Alpha-lipoic acid seems to help prevent certain kinds of cell damage in the body, and also restores vitamin levels such as vitamin E and vitamin C. There is also evidence that alpha-lipoic acid can improve the function and conduction of neurons in diabetes.

Alpha-lipoic acid is used in the body to break down carbohydrates and to make energy for the other organs in the body.

Alpha-lipoic acid seems to work as an antioxidant, which means that it might provide protection to the brain under conditions of damage or injury. The antioxidant effects might also be helpful in certain liver diseases.

Are there safety concerns?

Alpha-lipoic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth , when used intravenously or when applied to the skin. People taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth might get a rash. People at risk for thiamine deficiency should take a thiamine supplement.

People with diabetes should be careful to check their blood sugar levels because alpha-lipoic acid might lower blood sugar.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of alpha-lipoic acid during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Diabetes: Alpha-lipoic acid can decrease blood sugar levels. Your diabetes medications might need to be adjusted by your healthcare provider.

Excessive use of alcohol/thiamine deficiency: Alcohol can lower the amount of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the body. Taking alpha-lipoic acid when there is a shortage of thiamine might cause serious health problems. If you drink a lot of alcohol and take alpha-lipoic acid too, you should take a thiamine supplement.

Thyroid disease: Taking alpha-lipoic acid might interfere with treatments for under-active or over-active thyroid.

Are there any interactions with medications?


Medications for cancer (Chemotherapy)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for cancers. But it is too soon to know if this interaction occurs.


Thyroid hormoneInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Taking alpha-lipoic acid seems to decrease how well thyroid hormone works in the body. Taking alpha-lipoic acid with thyroid hormone might decrease the effectiveness of the thyroid hormone.


Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Alpha-lipoic acid might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking alpha-lipoic acid along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. But more evidence is needed to know if this interaction is a big concern. Monitor your blood sugar closely.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Dosing considerations for Alpha-lipoic Acid.

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For treating type 2 diabetes and improving symptoms such as burning, pain, and numbness in the legs and arms: 600 or 1200 mg daily.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

Reviewed on 9/17/2019
References

Al'-Zamil', M. K. and Brezheva, E. V. [Implication of alpha-lipoic acid preparations in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy]. Zh.Nevrol.Psikhiatr.Im S.S.Korsakova 2008;108(2):27-30. View abstract.

Bailey, D. M. and Davies, B. Acute mountain sickness; prophylactic benefits of antioxidant vitamin supplementation at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 2001;2(1):21-29. View abstract.

Bangma, H. R., Smit, G. P., Kuks, J. B., Grevink, R. G., and Wolffenbuttel, B. H. [Two patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease]. Ned.Tijdschr.Geneeskd. 10-18-2008;152(42):2298-2301. View abstract.

Bartlett, H. E. and Eperjesi, F. Nutritional supplementation for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008;28(6):503-523. View abstract.

Becker, S., Schmidt, C., Berghaus, A., Tschiesner, U., Olzowy, B., and Reichel, O. Does laryngopharyngeal reflux cause intraoral burning sensations? A preliminary study. Eur Arch.Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;268(9):1375-1381. View abstract.

Bergqvist-Karlsson, A., Thelin, I., and Bergendorff, O. Contact dermatitis to alpha-lipoic acid in an anti-wrinkle cream. Contact Dermatitis 2006;55(1):56-57. View abstract.

Berkson, B. M., Rubin, D. M., and Berkson, A. J. Revisiting the ALA/N (alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone) protocol for people with metastatic and nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer: a report of 3 new cases. Integr Cancer Ther 2009;8(4):416-422. View abstract.

Berkson, B. M., Rubin, D. M., and Berkson, A. J. The long-term survival of a patient with pancreatic cancer with metastases to the liver after treatment with the intravenous alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone protocol. Integr.Cancer Ther 2006;5(1):83-89. View abstract.

Bierhaus, A., Chevion, S., Chevion, M., Hofmann, M., Quehenberger, P., Illmer, T., Luther, T., Berentshtein, E., Tritschler, H., Muller, M., Wahl, P., Ziegler, R., and Nawroth, P. P. Advanced glycation end product-induced activation of NF-kappaB is suppressed by alpha-lipoic acid in cultured endothelial cells. Diabetes 1997;46(9):1481-1490. View abstract.

Borcea, V., Nourooz-Zadeh, J., Wolff, S. P., Klevesath, M., Hofmann, M., Urich, H., Wahl, P., Ziegler, R., Tritschler, H., Halliwell, B., and Nawroth, P. P. alpha-Lipoic acid decreases oxidative stress even in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control and albuminuria. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 1999;22(11-12):1495-1500. View abstract.

Bregovskii, V. B., Posokhina, O. V., and Karpova, I. A. [Predictors of alpha-lipoic acid treatment efficacy in diabetic polyneuropathy of the lower limbs]. Ter.Arkh. 2005;77(10):15-19. View abstract.

Breithaupt-Grogler, K., Niebch, G., Schneider, E., Erb, K., Hermann, R., Blume, H. H., Schug, B. S., and Belz, G. G. Dose-proportionality of oral thioctic acid--coincidence of assessments via pooled plasma and individual data. Eur J Pharm Sci 1999;8(1):57-65. View abstract.

Bresciani, E., Bussi, A., Bazzigaluppi, E., and Balestrieri, G. Insulin autoimmune syndrome induced by alpha-lipoic acid in a Caucasian woman: case report. Diabetes Care 2011;34(9):e146. View abstract.

Bruckner, I., Bustan, C., Adamescu, E., and Dobjanschi, C. Diabetic neuropathy--choices of treatment. Rom.J Intern Med 2002;40(1-4):53-60. View abstract.

Busse, E., Zimmer, G., Schopohl, B., and Kornhuber, B. Influence of alpha-lipoic acid on intracellular glutathione in vitro and in vivo. Arzneimittelforschung 1992;42(6):829-831. View abstract.

Byun, C. H., Koh, J. M., Kim, D. K., Park, S. I., Lee, K. U., and Kim, G. S. alpha-Lipoic Acid Inhibits TNF-alpha-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells. J Bone Miner.Res 2005;20(7):1125-1135. View abstract.

Cagini, C., Leontiadis, A., Ricci, M. A., Bartolini, A., Dragoni, A., and Pellegrino, R. M. Study of alpha-lipoic acid penetration in the human aqueous after topical administration. Clin Experiment.Ophthalmol. 2010;38(6):572-576. View abstract.

Cakatay, U. and Kayali, R. An overdose of alpha lipoic acid may cause trace element deficiency in diabetes mellitus. Med Hypotheses 2006;67(3):672-673. View abstract.

Cakatay, U. Pro-oxidant actions of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid. Med Hypotheses 2006;66(1):110-117. View abstract.

Chaparro, L. E., Wiffen, P. J., Moore, R. A., and Gilron, I. Combination pharmacotherapy for the treatment of neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;7:CD008943. View abstract.

Chen LY, Zhang YD & Zhu FY. Effects of alpha lipoic acid and prostaglandin E1 on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Practical Diabetology 2008;4:50-51.

Constantinescu, A., Pick, U., Handelman, G. J., Haramaki, N., Han, D., Podda, M., Tritschler, H. J., and Packer, L. Reduction and transport of lipoic acid by human erythrocytes. Biochem.Pharmacol. 7-17-1995;50(2):253-261. View abstract.

Constantinescu, A., Tritschler, H., and Packer, L. Alpha-lipoic acid protects against hemolysis of human erythrocytes induced by peroxyl radicals. Biochem.Mol.Biol.Int. 1994;33(4):669-679. View abstract.

de, Moraes M., do Amaral Bezerra, B. A., da Rocha Neto, P. C., de Oliveira Soares, A. C., Pinto, L. P., and de Lisboa Lopes, Costa A. Randomized trials for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome: an evidence-based review of the literature. J Oral Pathol.Med. 2012;41(4):281-287. View abstract.

Deslauriers, J., Lefrancois, M., Larouche, A., Sarret, P., and Grignon, S. Antipsychotic-induced DRD2 upregulation and its prevention by alpha-lipoic acid in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Synapse 2011;65(4):321-331. View abstract.

Doggrell, S. A. Alpha-lipoic acid, an anti-obesity agent? Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2004;13(12):1641-1643. View abstract.

Donato, A. J., Uberoi, A., Bailey, D. M., Wray, D. W., and Richardson, R. S. Exercise-induced brachial artery vasodilation: effects of antioxidants and exercise training in elderly men. Am J Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 2010;298(2):H671-H678. View abstract.

Dudka, J. Decrease in NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity of the human heart, Liver and lungs in the presence of alpha-lipoic acid. Ann Nutr Metab 2006;50(2):121-125. View abstract.

Dunschede, F., Erbes, K., Kircher, A., Westermann, S., Seifert, J., Schad, A., Oliver, K., Kiemer, A. K., and Theodor, J. Reduction of ischemia reperfusion injury after liver resection and hepatic inflow occlusion by alpha-lipoic acid in humans. World J Gastroenterol 11-14-2006;12(42):6812-6817. View abstract.

Eremeeva, M. E. and Silverman, D. J. Effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid on human umbilical vein endothelial cells infected with Rickettsia rickettsii. Infect.Immun. 1998;66(5):2290-2299. View abstract.

Estrada, D. E., Ewart, H. S., Tsakiridis, T., Volchuk, A., Ramlal, T., Tritschler, H., and Klip, A. Stimulation of glucose uptake by the natural coenzyme alpha-lipoic acid/thioctic acid: participation of elements of the insulin signaling pathway. Diabetes 1996;45(12):1798-1804. View abstract.

Evans, J. L., Heymann, C. J., Goldfine, I. D., and Gavin, L. A. Pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and fructosamine-lowering effect of a novel, controlled-release formulation of alpha-lipoic acid. Endocr.Pract. 2002;8(1):29-35. View abstract.

Evans, JL and Goldfine, ID. Alpha-lipoic acid: a multifunctional antioxidant that improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 2000;2(3):401-413.

Fedin, A. I., Kuznetsov, M. R., Beresten', N. F., Kuznetsova, V. F., Kholopova, E. A., Ibragimov, T. M., Tugdumov, B. V., and Dubrovin, E. E. [Correction of disordered cerebral blood flow autoregulation in atherosclerosis]. Angiol.Sosud.Khir. 2009;15(3):21-26. View abstract.

Femiano, F. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS): an open trial of comparative efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) with other therapies. Minerva Stomatol. 2002;51(9):405-409. View abstract.

Flora, S. J. Arsenic-induced oxidative stress and its reversibility. Free Radic.Biol.Med 7-15-2011;51(2):257-281. View abstract.

Ford, I., Cotter, M. A., Cameron, N. E., and Greaves, M. The effects of treatment with alpha-lipoic acid or evening primrose oil on vascular hemostatic and lipid risk factors, blood flow, and peripheral nerve conduction in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Metabolism 2001;50(8):868-875. View abstract.

Fu Y. Effects of alpha lipoic acid and mecobalamin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Chinese Journal of Practical Internal Medicine. 2008;28:81-83.

Gal, E. M. Reversal of selective toxicity of (-)-alpha-lipoic acid by thiamine in thiamine-deficient rats. Nature 7-31-1965;207(996):535. View abstract.

Ghibu, S., Richard, C., Delemasure, S., Vergely, C., Mogosan, C., and Muresan, A. [An endogenous dithiol with antioxidant properties: alpha-lipoic acid, potential uses in cardiovascular diseases]. Ann Cardiol.Angeiol.(Paris) 2008;57(3):161-165. View abstract.

Gianturco, V., Bellomo, A., D'Ottavio, E., Formosa, V., Iori, A., Mancinella, M., Troisi, G., and Marigliano, V. Impact of therapy with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on the oxidative stress in the controlled NIDDM: a possible preventive way against the organ dysfunction? Arch.Gerontol.Geriatr. 2009;49 Suppl 1:129-133. View abstract.

Gleiter CH, Hermann R, Wildgrube HJ, and et al. Does impaired gastric emptying in diabetic patients alter the bioavailability of alpha-lipoic acid enantiomers? Therapie 1995;50(suppl):no 403.

Gleiter, C. H., Schug, B. S., Hermann, R., Elze, M., Blume, H. H., and Gundert-Remy, U. Influence of food intake on the bioavailability of thioctic acid enantiomers. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;50(6):513-514. View abstract.

Greenway, F. L., Ingram, D. K., Ravussin, E., Hausmann, M., Smith, S. R., Cox, L., Tomayko, K., and Treadwell, B. V. Loss of taste responds to high-dose biotin treatment. J Am Coll.Nutr 2011;30(3):178-181. View abstract.

Gregus, Z., Stein, A. F., Varga, F., and Klaassen, C. D. Effect of lipoic acid on biliary excretion of glutathione and metals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1992;114(1):88-96. View abstract.

Guais, A., Baronzio, G., Sanders, E., Campion, F., Mainini, C., Fiorentini, G., Montagnani, F., Behzadi, M., Schwartz, L., and Abolhassani, M. Adding a combination of hydroxycitrate and lipoic acid (METABLOC) to chemotherapy improves effectiveness against tumor development: experimental results and case report. Invest New Drugs 2012;30(1):200-211. View abstract.

Haak, E. S., Usadel, K. H., Kohleisen, M., Yilmaz, A., Kusterer, K., and Haak, T. The effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the neurovascular reflex arc in patients with diabetic neuropathy assessed by capillary microscopy. Microvasc.Res. 1999;58(1):28-34. View abstract.

Hahm, J. R., Kim, B. J., and Kim, K. W. Clinical experience with thioctacid (thioctic acid) in the treatment of distal symmetric polyneuropathy in Korean diabetic patients. J Diabetes Complications 2004;18(2):79-85. View abstract.

Han, D., Sen, C. K., Roy, S., Kobayashi, M. S., Tritschler, H. J., and Packer, L. Protection against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in C6 glial cells by thiol antioxidants. Am J Physiol 1997;273(5 Pt 2):R1771-R1778. View abstract.

Han, D., Tritschler, H. J., and Packer, L. Alpha-lipoic acid increases intracellular glutathione in a human T-lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2-6-1995;207(1):258-264. View abstract.

Handelman, G. J., Han, D., Tritschler, H., and Packer, L. Alpha-lipoic acid reduction by mammalian cells to the dithiol form, and release into the culture medium. Biochem Pharmacol 5-18-1994;47(10):1725-1730. View abstract.

Harris, R. A., Nishiyama, S. K., Wray, D. W., Tedjasaputra, V., Bailey, D. M., and Richardson, R. S. The effect of oral antioxidants on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation following 5 and 10 min of ischemia. Eur J Appl.Physiol 2009;107(4):445-453. View abstract.

Hatzitolios, A., Iliadis, F., Katsiki, N., and Baltatzi, M. Is the anti-hypertensive effect of dietary supplements via aldehydes reduction evidence based? A systematic review. Clin Exp.Hypertens. 2008;30(7):628-639. View abstract.

Heinisch, B. B., Francesconi, M., Mittermayer, F., Schaller, G., Gouya, G., Wolzt, M., and Pleiner, J. Alpha-lipoic acid improves vascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes: a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Eur J Clin Invest 2010;40(2):148-154. View abstract.

Heitzer, T., Finckh, B., Albers, S., Krohn, K., Kohlschutter, A., and Meinertz, T. Beneficial effects of alpha-lipoic acid and ascorbic acid on endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in diabetic patients: relation to parameters of oxidative stress. Free Radic.Biol Med 7-1-2001;31(1):53-61. View abstract.

Henriksen, E. J., Jacob, S., Streeper, R. S., Fogt, D. L., Hokama, J. Y., and Tritschler, H. J. Stimulation by alpha-lipoic acid of glucose transport activity in skeletal muscle of lean and obese Zucker rats. Life Sci 1997;61(8):805-812. View abstract.

Huang H, Zhu KS Wang P Qu JC Ji XF & Song M. The effects of lipoic acid and prostaglandin E1 on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Chinese Journal of Clinical Health 2008;11:29-30.

Huang, E. A. and Gitelman, S. E. The effect of oral alpha-lipoic acid on oxidative stress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr.Diabetes 2008;9(3 Pt 2):69-73. View abstract.

Jacob, S., Streeper, R. S., Fogt, D. L., Hokama, J. Y., Tritschler, H. J., Dietze, G. J., and Henriksen, E. J. The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid enhances insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle. Diabetes 1996;45(8):1024-1029. View abstract.

Jain, S. K. and Lim, G. Lipoic acid decreases lipid peroxidation and protein glycosylation and increases (Na(+) + K(+))- and Ca(++)-ATPase activities in high glucose- treated human erythrocytes. Free Radic.Biol.Med 2000;29(11):1122-1128. View abstract.

Jameel, N. M., Shekhar, M. A., and Vishwanath, B. S. Alpha-lipoic acid: an inhibitor of secretory phospholipase A2 with anti-inflammatory activity. Life Sci 12-14-2006;80(2):146-153. View abstract.

Jang, W. G., Kim, H. S., Park, K. G., Park, Y. B., Yoon, K. H., Han, S. W., Hur, S. H., Park, K. S., and Lee, I. K. Analysis of proteome and transcriptome of tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells with or without alpha lipoic acid. Proteomics. 2004;4(11):3383-3393. View abstract.

Janson, M. Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging. Clin Interv.Aging 2006;1(3):261-265. View abstract.

Kagan, V. E., Shvedova, A., Serbinova, E., Khan, S., Swanson, C., Powell, R., and Packer, L. Dihydrolipoic acid--a universal antioxidant both in the membrane and in the aqueous phase. Reduction of peroxyl, ascorbyl and chromanoxyl radicals. Biochem.Pharmacol 10-20-1992;44(8):1637-1649. View abstract.

Kahler, W., Kuklinski, B., Ruhlmann, C., and Plotz, C. [Diabetes mellitus--a free radical-associated disease. Results of adjuvant antioxidant supplementation]. Z Gesamte Inn.Med 1993;48(5):223-232. View abstract.

Kamenova, P. Improvement of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid. Hormones.(Athens.) 2006;5(4):251-258. View abstract.

Kawabata, T. and Packer, L. Alpha-lipoate can protect against glycation of serum albumin, but not low density lipoprotein. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 8-30-1994;203(1):99-104. View abstract.

Khanna, S., Atalay, M., Laaksonen, D. E., Gul, M., Roy, S., and Sen, C. K. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation: tissue glutathione homeostasis at rest and after exercise. J Appl.Physiol 1999;86(4):1191-1196. View abstract.

Khanna, S., Atalay, M., Lodge, J. K., Laaksonen, D. E., Roy, S., Hanninen, O., Packer, L., and Sen, C. K. Skeletal muscle and liver lipoyllysine content in response to exercise, training and dietary alpha-lipoic acid supplementation. Biochem.Mol.Biol.Int. 1998;46(2):297-306. View abstract.

Kidd, P. M. Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management. Altern Med Rev 2005;10(4):268-293. View abstract.

Kieburtz K, Schifitto G, McDermott M, and et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of deprenyl and thioctic acid in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment. Neurology 1998;50(3):645-651.

Kim, E., Park, D. W., Choi, S. H., Kim, J. J., and Cho, H. S. A preliminary investigation of alpha-lipoic acid treatment of antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28(2):138-146. View abstract.

Koh, J. M., Lee, Y. S., Byun, C. H., Chang, E. J., Kim, H., Kim, Y. H., Kim, H. H., and Kim, G. S. Alpha-lipoic acid suppresses osteoclastogenesis despite increasing the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio in human bone marrow stromal cells. J Endocrinol. 2005;185(3):401-413. View abstract.

Kolesnichenko, L. S., Kulinskii, V. I., Shprakh, V. V., Bardymov, V. V., Verlan, N. V., Gubina, L. P., Pensionerova, G. A., Sergeeva, M. P., Stanevich, L. M., and Filippova, G. T. [The blood glutathione system in cerebral vascular diseases and its treatment with alpha-lipoic acid]. Zh.Nevrol.Psikhiatr.Im S.S.Korsakova 2008;108(9):36-40. View abstract.

Konrad, D., Somwar, R., Sweeney, G., Yaworsky, K., Hayashi, M., Ramlal, T., and Klip, A. The antihyperglycemic drug alpha-lipoic acid stimulates glucose uptake via both GLUT4 translocation and GLUT4 activation: potential role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in GLUT4 activation. Diabetes 2001;50(6):1464-1471. View abstract.

Kravchuk, IuA, Mekhtiev, S. N., Uspenskii, IuP, Grinevich, V. B., and Koblov, S. V. [Device laboratory and postmortem parallels in alcoholic hepatitis during combined therapy using thioctic (alpha-lipoic) acid]. Klin.Med (Mosk) 2004;82(6):55-57. View abstract.

Larkin, J., Bea, L., and Sharma, A. A cost effective complement to managing the vitamin D deficient and anemic dialysis patient in the bundled world. Nephrol.News Issues 2012;26(8):22-4, 26. View abstract.

Lee, S. H., Kim, M. J., Kim, B. J., Kim, S. R., Chun, S., Ryu, J. S., Kim, G. S., Lee, M. C., Koh, J. M., and Chung, S. J. Homocysteine-lowering therapy or antioxidant therapy for bone loss in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2-15-2010;25(3):332-340. View abstract.

Lee, T. and Dugoua, J. J. Nutritional supplements and their effect on glucose control. Curr.Diab.Rep. 2011;11(2):142-148. View abstract.

Lee, W. J., Lee, I. K., Kim, H. S., Kim, Y. M., Koh, E. H., Won, J. C., Han, S. M., Kim, M. S., Jo, I., Oh, G. T., Park, I. S., Youn, J. H., Park, S. W., Lee, K. U., and Park, J. Y. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction in obese rats via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol 2005;25(12):2488-2494. View abstract.

Lee, W. J., Song, K. H., Koh, E. H., Won, J. C., Kim, H. S., Park, H. S., Kim, M. S., Kim, S. W., Lee, K. U., and Park, J. Y. Alpha-lipoic acid increases insulin sensitivity by activating AMPK in skeletal muscle. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 7-8-2005;332(3):885-891. View abstract.

Li J, Xu QL. Effects of shuxuening and -lipoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Modern Drug Application. 2008;2:49-50.

Lopez-Erauskin, J., Fourcade, S., Galino, J., Ruiz, M., Schluter, A., Naudi, A., Jove, M., Portero-Otin, M., Pamplona, R., Ferrer, I., and Pujol, A. Antioxidants halt axonal degeneration in a mouse model of X-adrenoleukodystrophy. Ann Neurol. 2011;70(1):84-92. View abstract.

Lu YH. Observation of -lipoic acid and ligutrazine curing diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Medical Recapitulate 2009;2:62.

Lukaszuk, J. Schultz T. Prawitz A. and Hofmann E. R-Alpha Lipoic Acid Effect on HbA1c in Type-2 Diabetics. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine 2009;6(1):1-14.

Mackenzie, G. G., Zago, M. P., Erlejman, A. G., Aimo, L., Keen, C. L., and Oteiza, P. I. alpha-Lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine prevent zinc deficiency-induced activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factors in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Free Radic.Res 2006;40(1):75-84. View abstract.

Madeddu, C., Dessi, M., Panzone, F., Serpe, R., Antoni, G., Cau, M. C., Montaldo, L., Mela, Q., Mura, M., Astara, G., Tanca, F. M., Maccio, A., and Mantovani, G. Randomized phase III clinical trial of a combined treatment with carnitine + celecoxib +/- megestrol acetate for patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome. Clin Nutr 2012;31(2):176-182. View abstract.

Maitra, I., Serbinova, E., Trischler, H., and Packer, L. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents buthionine sulfoximine-induced cataract formation in newborn rats. Free Radic.Biol.Med 1995;18(4):823-829. View abstract.

Mantovani, G., Maccio, A., Madeddu, C., Gramignano, G., Lusso, M. R., Serpe, R., Massa, E., Astara, G., and Deiana, L. A phase II study with antioxidants, both in the diet and supplemented, pharmaconutritional support, progestagen, and anti-cyclooxygenase-2 showing efficacy and safety in patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(5):1030-1034. View abstract.

Mantovani, G., Maccio, A., Madeddu, C., Gramignano, G., Serpe, R., Massa, E., Dessi, M., Tanca, F. M., Sanna, E., Deiana, L., Panzone, F., Contu, P., and Floris, C. Randomized phase III clinical trial of five different arms of treatment for patients with cancer cachexia: interim results. Nutrition 2008;24(4):305-313. View abstract.

Mantovani, G., Maccio, A., Madeddu, C., Mura, L., Gramignano, G., Lusso, M. R., Massa, E., Mocci, M., and Serpe, R. Antioxidant agents are effective in inducing lymphocyte progression through cell cycle in advanced cancer patients: assessment of the most important laboratory indexes of cachexia and oxidative stress. J Mol Med 2003;81(10):664-673. View abstract.

Marracci, G. H., McKeon, G. P., Marquardt, W. E., Winter, R. W., Riscoe, M. K., and Bourdette, D. N. Alpha lipoic acid inhibits human T-cell migration: implications for multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci.Res 11-1-2004;78(3):362-370. View abstract.

Martins, V. D., Manfredini, V., Peralba, M. C., and Benfato, M. S. Alpha-lipoic acid modifies oxidative stress parameters in sickle cell trait subjects and sickle cell patients. Clin Nutr 2009;28(2):192-197. View abstract.

Mayr, J. A., Zimmermann, F. A., Fauth, C., Bergheim, C., Meierhofer, D., Radmayr, D., Zschocke, J., Koch, J., and Sperl, W. Lipoic acid synthetase deficiency causes neonatal-onset epilepsy, defective mitochondrial energy metabolism, and glycine elevation. Am J Hum.Genet. 12-9-2011;89(6):792-797. View abstract.

Mazloom, Z. and Ansar H. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetics. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2009;11(3):245-250.

McCormick, R. K. Osteoporosis: integrating biomarkers and other diagnostic correlates into the management of bone fragility. Altern.Med Rev. 2007;12(2):113-145. View abstract.

McNeilly, A. M., Davison, G. W., Murphy, M. H., Nadeem, N., Trinick, T., Duly, E., Novials, A., and McEneny, J. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance. Lipids Health Dis 2011;10:217. View abstract.

Mignini, F., Streccioni, V., Tomassoni, D., Traini, E., and Amenta, F. Comparative crossover, randomized, open-label bioequivalence study on the bioequivalence of two formulations of thioctic acid in healthy volunteers. Clin Exp.Hypertens. 2007;29(8):575-586. View abstract.

Mijnhout, G. S., Alkhalaf, A., Kleefstra, N., and Bilo, H. J. Alpha lipoic acid: a new treatment for neuropathic pain in patients with diabetes? Neth.J Med 2010;68(4):158-162. View abstract.

Mikami, Y., Shibuya, N., Kimura, Y., Nagahara, N., Ogasawara, Y., and Kimura, H. Thioredoxin and dihydrolipoic acid are required for 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase to produce hydrogen sulfide. Biochem J 11-1-2011;439(3):479-485. View abstract.

Milazzo, L., Menzaghi, B., Caramma, I., Nasi, M., Sangaletti, O., Cesari, M., Zanone, Poma B., Cossarizza, A., Antinori, S., and Galli, M. Effect of antioxidants on mitochondrial function in HIV-1-related lipoatrophy: a pilot study. AIDS Res.Hum.Retroviruses 2010;26(11):1207-1214. View abstract.

Mitsui, Y., Schmelzer, J. D., Zollman, P. J., Mitsui, M., Tritschler, H. J., and Low, P. A. Alpha-lipoic acid provides neuroprotection from ischemia-reperfusion injury of peripheral nerve. J Neurol.Sci. 2-1-1999;163(1):11-16. View abstract.

Mittermayer, F., Pleiner, J., Francesconi, M., and Wolzt, M. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid reduces asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Transl.Res 2010;155(1):6-9. View abstract.

Mollo, R., Zaccardi, F., Scalone, G., Scavone, G., Rizzo, P., Navarese, E. P., Manto, A., Pitocco, D., Lanza, G. A., Ghirlanda, G., and Crea, F. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on platelet reactivity in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2012;35(2):196-197. View abstract.

Morcos, M., Borcea, V., Isermann, B., Gehrke, S., Ehret, T., Henkels, M., Schiekofer, S., Hofmann, M., Amiral, J., Tritschler, H., Ziegler, R., Wahl, P., and Nawroth, P. P. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the progression of endothelial cell damage and albuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus: an exploratory study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001;52(3):175-183. View abstract.

Moreira, P. I., Harris, P. L., Zhu, X., Santos, M. S., Oliveira, C. R., Smith, M. A., and Perry, G. Lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine decrease mitochondrial-related oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease patient fibroblasts. J Alzheimers.Dis 2007;12(2):195-206. View abstract.

Muller, U. and Krieglstein, J. Prolonged pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid protects cultured neurons against hypoxic, glutamate-, or iron-induced injury. J Cereb.Blood Flow Metab 1995;15(4):624-630. View abstract.

Najm, W. and Lie, D. Herbals used for diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Prim.Care 2010;37(2):237-254. View abstract.

Navarese, E. P., Mollo, R., and Buffon, A. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on cardiac autonomic dysfunction and platelet reactivity in type 1 diabetes: rationale and design of the AUTOnomic function and platelet REACTivity trial (AUTO-REACT protocol). Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;92(3):375-379. View abstract.

Nebbioso, M., Federici, M., Rusciano, D., Evangelista, M., and Pescosolido, N. Oxidative stress in preretinopathic diabetes subjects and antioxidants. Diabetes Technol.Ther 2012;14(3):257-263. View abstract.

Negrisanu, G., Rosu, M., Bolte, B., Lefter, D., and Dabelea, D. Effects of 3-month treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Rom.J Intern Med 1999;37(3):297-306. View abstract.

Nichols TW Jr. Alpha-lipoic acid: biological effects and clinical implications. Alt Med Rev 1997;2(3):177-183.

Obrosova, I., Cao, X., Greene, D. A., and Stevens, M. J. Diabetes-induced changes in lens antioxidant status, glucose utilization and energy metabolism: effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid. Diabetologia 1998;41(12):1442-1450. View abstract.

Ou, P., Tritschler, H. J., and Wolff, S. P. Thioctic (lipoic) acid: a therapeutic metal-chelating antioxidant? Biochem.Pharmacol. 6-29-1995;50(1):123-126. View abstract.

Packer, L. Alpha-lipoic acid: a metabolic antioxidant which regulates NF-kappa B signal transduction and protects against oxidative injury. Drug Metab Rev. 1998;30(2):245-275. View abstract.

Palacka, P., Kucharska, J., Murin, J., Dostalova, K., Okkelova, A., Cizova, M., Waczulikova, I., Moricova, S., and Gvozdjakova, A. Complementary therapy in diabetic patients with chronic complications: a pilot study. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2010;111(4):205-211. View abstract.

Pershadsingh, H. A. Alpha-lipoic acid: physiologic mechanisms and indications for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Expert.Opin Investig.Drugs 2007;16(3):291-302. View abstract.

Pfeffer, G., Majamaa, K., Turnbull, D. M., Thorburn, D., and Chinnery, P. F. Treatment for mitochondrial disorders. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD004426. View abstract.

Piechota, A. and Goraca, A. [The comparison of alpha-lipoic acid, melatonin, vitamin C and trolox effectiveness in decreasing DNA stand brakes and increasing plasma antioxidant power]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 2009;27(157):19-21. View abstract.

Podda, M., Tritschler, H. J., Ulrich, H., and Packer, L. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation prevents symptoms of vitamin E deficiency. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 10-14-1994;204(1):98-104. View abstract.

Qiao YC. Effects of lipoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rational Drug Use. 2009;2:62.

Ramos, L. F., Kane, J., McMonagle, E., Le, P., Wu, P., Shintani, A., Ikizler, T. A., and Himmelfarb, J. Effects of combination tocopherols and alpha lipoic acid therapy on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr 2011;21(3):211-218. View abstract.

Reichel G, Doberenz M, Both R, and et al. Function of cardiac nerves in diabetics during alpha-lipoic-acid-therapy. J Neurol Sci 1997;150(5):S209.

Rett K, Wicklmayr M, Ruus P, and et al. Lipoic acid acutely ameliorates insulin sensitivity in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Und Stoffwechsel 1996;5(3 suppl):59-63.

Ridruejo, E., Castiglioni, T., and Silva, M. O. Thioctic acid-induced acute cholestatic hepatitis. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45(7-8):e43. View abstract.

Rivinius, C. Burning mouth syndrome: Identification, diagnosis, and treatment. J Am Acad.Nurse Pract. 2009;21(8):423-429. View abstract.

Rooney, J. P. The role of thiols, dithiols, nutritional factors and interacting ligands in the toxicology of mercury. Toxicology 5-20-2007;234(3):145-156. View abstract.

Rosa, F. T., Zulet, M. A., Marchini, J. S., and Martinez, J. A. Bioactive compounds with effects on inflammation markers in humans. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2012;63(6):749-765. View abstract.

Rosak C, Ziegler D, Mehnert H, and et al. Local tolerability of intravenously administered alpha-lipoic acid. Munch Med Wochenschr 1994;136(10):36-40.

Rosenberg HR, Culik R. Effect of á-lipoic acid on vitamin C and vitamin E deficiencies. Arch Biochem Biophys 1959;80(1):86-93.

Ruktanonchai, U., Bejrapha, P., Sakulkhu, U., Opanasopit, P., Bunyapraphatsara, N., Junyaprasert, V., and Puttipipatkhachorn, S. Physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activity of three lipid nanoparticulate formulations of alpha-lipoic acid. AAPS PharmSciTech 2009;10(1):227-234. View abstract.

Rutkove, S. B. A 52-year-old woman with disabling peripheral neuropathy: review of diabetic polyneuropathy. JAMA 10-7-2009;302(13):1451-1458. View abstract.

Salinthone, S., Yadav, V., Schillace, R. V., Bourdette, D. N., and Carr, D. W. Lipoic acid attenuates inflammation via cAMP and protein kinase A signaling. PLoS.One. 2010;5(9) View abstract.

Schimmelpfennig W, Renger F, Wack R, and et al. [Results of a prospective double-blind study with alpha-lipoic acid against placebo in alcoholic liver damage] (Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Doppelblindstudie mit Alpha-Liponsäure gegen Plazebo bei alkoholischen Leberschäden). Dtsch Gesundheitswes 1983;38(18):690-693.

Scholich, H., Murphy, M. E., and Sies, H. Antioxidant activity of dihydrolipoate against microsomal lipid peroxidation and its dependence on alpha-tocopherol. Biochim.Biophys Acta 2-20-1989;1001(3):256-261. View abstract.

Singh, U. and Jialal, I. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation and diabetes. Nutr Rev. 2008;66(11):646-657. View abstract.

Skalska, S., Kucera, P., Goldenberg, Z., Stefek, M., Kyselova, Z., Jariabka, P., Gajdosikova, A., Klobucnikova, K., Traubner, P., and Stolc, S. Neuropathy in a rat model of mild diabetes induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin: effects of the antioxidant stobadine in comparison with a high-dose alpha-lipoic acid treatment. Gen.Physiol Biophys 2010;29(1):50-58. View abstract.

Smith, A. R. and Hagen, T. M. Vascular endothelial dysfunction in aging: loss of Akt-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and partial restoration by (R)-alpha-lipoic acid. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003;31(Pt 6):1447-1449. View abstract.

Sola, S., Mir, M. Q., Cheema, F. A., Khan-Merchant, N., Menon, R. G., Parthasarathy, S., and Khan, B. V. Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: results of the Irbesartan and Lipoic Acid in Endothelial Dysfunction (ISLAND) study. Circulation 1-25-2005;111(3):343-348. View abstract.

Spisakova, M., Cizek, Z., and Melkova, Z. Ethacrynic and alpha-lipoic acids inhibit vaccinia virus late gene expression. Antiviral Res 2009;81(2):156-165. View abstract.

Statsenko, M. E., Poletaeva, L. V., Turkina, S. V., Apukhtin, A. F., and Dudchenko, G. P. [Mildronate effects on oxidant stress in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic peripheral (sensomotor) neuropathy]. Ter.Arkh. 2008;80(10):27-30. View abstract.

Suarez, P. and Clark, G. T. Burning mouth syndrome: an update on diagnosis and treatment methods. J Calif.Dent.Assoc. 2006;34(8):611-622. View abstract.

Sun-Edelstein, C. and Mauskop, A. Foods and supplements in the management of migraine headaches. Clin J Pain 2009;25(5):446-452. View abstract.

Sung, M. J., Kim, W., Ahn, S. Y., Cho, C. H., Koh, G. Y., Moon, S. O., Kim, D. H., Lee, S., Kang, K. P., Jang, K. Y., and Park, S. K. Protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid in lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial fractalkine expression. Circ.Res 10-28-2005;97(9):880-890. View abstract.

Suo LN & Zhang D. Effects of lipoic acid and mecobalamin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2009;24:1104-1105.

Takasaki, J., Ono, K., Yoshiike, Y., Hirohata, M., Ikeda, T., Morinaga, A., Takashima, A., and Yamada, M. Vitamin A has anti-oligomerization effects on amyloid-beta in vitro. J Alzheimers.Dis 2011;27(2):271-280. View abstract.

Tang, J., Wingerchuk, D. M., Crum, B. A., Rubin, D. I., and Demaerschalk, B. M. Alpha-lipoic acid may improve symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. Neurologist. 2007;13(3):164-167. View abstract.

Tankova, T., Cherninkova, S., and Koev, D. Treatment for diabetic mononeuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid. Int J Clin.Pract. 2005;59(6):645-650. View abstract.

Tarnopolsky, M. A. and Raha, S. Mitochondrial myopathies: diagnosis, exercise intolerance, and treatment options. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(12):2086-2093. View abstract.

Teichert, J., Hermann, R., Ruus, P., and Preiss, R. Plasma kinetics, metabolism, and urinary excretion of alpha-lipoic acid following oral administration in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 2003;43(11):1257-1267. View abstract.

Tsai, F. J., Wang, Y. D., Chen, C. C., Hsieh, C., Cheng, Z. J., and Wu, Y. J. Evaluation of the antioxidative capability of commonly used antioxidants in dermocosmetics by in vivo detection of protein carbonylation in human stratum corneum. J Photochem.Photobiol.B 7-2-2012;112:7-15. View abstract.

VIATRIS GmbH. NATHAN II Study, data on file.

Vossler, S., Fullert, S., Schneider, F., Haak, E., Haak, T., Samigullin, R., Tritschler, H., Tooke, J. E., and Konrad, T. Pharmacodynamic effects of orally administered dexlipotam on endothelial function in type 2-diabetic patients. Int.J Clin Pharmacol.Ther 2007;45(7):385-393. View abstract.

Wang J, Song W Huang J & Qu YC. Effects of prostaglandin E1 and -lipoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Practical Training of Medicine 2007;23:1325-1326.

Weiss, C., Bierhaus, A., Nawroth, P. P., and Bartsch, P. Effects of supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid on exercise-induced activation of coagulation. Metabolism 2005;54(6):815-820. View abstract.

Wenzel, U., Nickel, A., and Daniel, H. alpha-Lipoic acid induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells by increasing mitochondrial respiration with a concomitant O2-*-generation. Apoptosis. 2005;10(2):359-368. View abstract.

Wollin, S. D. and Jones, P. J. alpha-Lipoic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease. J Nutr. 2003;133(11):3327-3330. View abstract.

Wray, D. W., Nishiyama, S. K., Harris, R. A., Zhao, J., McDaniel, J., Fjeldstad, A. S., Witman, M. A., Ives, S. J., Barrett-O'Keefe, Z., and Richardson, R. S. Acute reversal of endothelial dysfunction in the elderly after antioxidant consumption. Hypertension 2012;59(4):818-824. View abstract.

Wray, D. W., Nishiyama, S. K., Monnet, A., Wary, C., Duteil, S. S., Carlier, P. G., and Richardson, R. S. Antioxidants and aging: NMR-based evidence of improved skeletal muscle perfusion and energetics. Am J Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 2009;297(5):H1870-H1875. View abstract.

Wray, D. W., Uberoi, A., Lawrenson, L., Bailey, D. M., and Richardson, R. S. Oral antioxidants and cardiovascular health in the exercise-trained and untrained elderly: a radically different outcome. Clin Sci (Lond) 2009;116(5):433-441. View abstract.

Wu YX, Shi F & Ling L. Effects of lipoic acid and prostaglandin E1on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Sun Yat-sen University. 2008;29(S3):124-126.

Xia W, Zhang L & Wen SL. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on painful neuropathy of type 2 diabetes. Journal of Henan University. 2008;27:53-54.

Xiang GD, Pu JH, Snu HL, and Zhao LS. Alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Exp.Clin Endocrinol.Diabetes 2010;118(9):625-629. View abstract.

Xiang, G. D., Sun, H. L., Zhao, L. S., Hou, J., Yue, L., and Xu, L. The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperglycaemia during OGTT in impaired glucose tolerance. Clin Endocrinol.(Oxf) 2008;68(5):716-723. View abstract.

Xiang, G., Pu, J., Yue, L., Hou, J., and Sun, H. alpha-lipoic acid can improve endothelial dysfunction in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. Metabolism 2011;60(4):480-485. View abstract.

Xiao, C., Giacca, A., and Lewis, G. F. Short-term oral alpha-lipoic acid does not prevent lipid-induced dysregulation of glucose homeostasis in obese and overweight nondiabetic men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2011;301(4):E736-E741. View abstract.

Yadav, V., Marracci, G. H., Munar, M. Y., Cherala, G., Stuber, L. E., Alvarez, L., Shinto, L., Koop, D. R., and Bourdette, D. N. Pharmacokinetic study of lipoic acid in multiple sclerosis: comparing mice and human pharmacokinetic parameters. Mult.Scler. 2010;16(4):387-397. View abstract.

Yaworsky, K., Somwar, R., Ramlal, T., Tritschler, H. J., and Klip, A. Engagement of the insulin-sensitive pathway in the stimulation of glucose transport by alpha-lipoic acid in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetologia 2000;43(3):294-303. View abstract.

Zakrzewska, J. M., Forssell, H., and Glenny, A. M. Interventions for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Cochrane.Database.Syst Rev 2005;(1):CD002779. View abstract.

Zembron-Lacny, A., Ostapiuk, J., and Szyszka, K. Effects of sulphur-containing compounds on plasma redox status in muscle-damaging exercise. Chin J Physiol 10-31-2009;52(5):289-294. View abstract.

Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., and Szyszka, K. The comparison of antioxidant and hematological properties of N-acetylcysteine and alpha-lipoic acid in physically active males. Physiol Res 2009;58(6):855-861. View abstract.

Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., Stefaniak, T., and Dziubek, W. Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60(2):139-143. View abstract.

Zembron-Lacny, A., Szyszka, K., and Szygula, Z. Effect of cysteine derivatives administration in healthy men exposed to intense resistance exercise by evaluation of pro-antioxidant ratio. J Physiol Sci 2007;57(6):343-348. View abstract.

Zhang XL, Feng YL Zhou BA & Wei GY. Effects of mecobalamin and -lipoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2009;24:1104-1105.

Zhang, W. J., Wei, H., Hagen, T., and Frei, B. Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A 3-6-2007;104(10):4077-4082. View abstract.

Zhao YY. Combined therapeutic effects of -lipoic acid and mecobalamin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Practical Training of Medicine 2008;24:4289-4290.

Zhao, F. and Liu, Z. Q. Comparison of antioxidant effectiveness of lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid. J Biochem Mol.Toxicol. 2011;25(4):216-223. View abstract.

Zhou L. Effects of cilostazol and -lipoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Medicine and Health Care. 2009;17:10-11.

Ziegler, D., Reljanovic, M., Mehnert, H., and Gries, F. A. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials. Exp Clin Endocrinol.Diabetes 1999;107(7):421-430. View abstract.

Zou JJ, Zheng JY Zhao Y Tang W Shi YQ & Liu ZM. Effects and safety of combined therapy of -lipoic acid, mecobalamin and prostaglandin E1 for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Shanghai Medical Journal 2008;31:364-365.

). Ziegler D., Low P. A., Litchy W. J., Boulton A. J., Vinik A. I., Freeman R., Samigullin R., Tritschler H., Munzel U., Maus J., Schütte K., Dyck P. J. Efficacy and safety of antioxidant treatment with a-lipoic acid over 4 years in diabetic polyneuropathy: the NATHAN 1 trial. Diabetes Care 2011;34(9):2054-2060. View abstract.

Alleva R., Nasole E., Di Donato F., Borghi B., Neuzil J., Tomasetti M. alpha-Lipoic acid supplementation inhibits oxidative damage, accelerating chronic wound healing in patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;333(2):404-410. View abstract.

Alleva R., Tomasetti M., Sartini D., Emanuelli M., Nasole E., Di Donato F., Borghi B., Santarelli L., Neuzil J. alpha-Lipoic acid modulates extracellular matrix and angiogenesis gene expression in non-healing wounds treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Mol Med 2008;14(3-4):175-183. View abstract.

Altenkirch H, Stoltenburg-Didinger G, Wagner HM, et al. Effects of lipoic acid in hexacarbon-induced neuropathy. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1990;12:619-22. View abstract.

Ametov A. S., Novosadova M. V., Barinov A. N., Samigullin R., Trischler H. J. [Long-term effect of 3-week intravenous alpha-lipoic acid administration in symptomatic diabetic polyneutropathy with clinical manifestations]. Ter Arkh 2010;82(12):61-64. View abstract.

Ametov AS, Barinov A, Dyck PJ, et al. The sensory symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy are improved with alpha-lipoic acid. Diabetes Care 2003;26:770-6. View abstract.

Anon. Alpha-lipoic acid. Altern Med Rev 1998;3:308-10. View abstract.

Ansar H., Mazloom Z., Kazemi F., Hejazi N. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on blood glucose, insulin resistance and glutathione peroxidase of type 2 diabetic patients. Saudi Med J 2011;32(6):584-588. View abstract.

Bae S. C., Jung W. J., Lee E. J., Yu R., Sung M. K. Effects of antioxidant supplements intervention on the level of plasma inflammatory molecules and disease severity of rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Am Coll Nutr 2009;28(1):56-62. View abstract.

Baillie J. K., Thompson A. A., Irving J. B., Bates M. G., Sutherland A. I., Macnee W., Maxwell S. R., Webb D. J. Oral antioxidant supplementation does not prevent acute mountain sickness: double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. QJM 2009;102(5):341-348. View abstract.

Baur A, Harrer T, Peukert M, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid is an effective inhibitor of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) replication. Klin Wochenschr 1991;69:722-4. View abstract.

Beitner H. Randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind study on the clinical efficacy of a cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid related to photoaging of facial skin. Br J Dermatol 2003;149:841-9. View abstract.

Berkson BM. Thioctic acid in treatment of hepatotoxic mushroom (Phalloides) poisoning (letter). N Engl J Med 1979;300:371.

Bertolotto F., Massone A. Combination of alpha lipoic acid and superoxide dismutase leads to physiological and symptomatic improvements in diabetic neuropathy. Drugs R D 2012;12(1):29-34. View abstract.

Biewenga GP, Haenen GR, Bast A. The pharmacology of the antioxidant lipoic acid. Gen Pharmacol 1997;29:315-31. View abstract.

Block G, Jensen C, Dietrich M, et al. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations in active and passive smokers: influence of antioxidant supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:141-7. View abstract.

Burekovic A., Terzic M., Alajbegovic S., Vukojevic Z., Hadzic N. The role of alpha-lipoic acid in diabetic polyneuropathy treatment. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2008;8(4):341-345. View abstract.

Bustamante J, Lodge JK, Marcocci L, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid in liver metabolism and disease. Free Rad Biol Med 1998;24:1023-39. View abstract.

Carbone M., Pentenero M., Carrozzo M., Ippolito A., Gandolfo S. Lack of efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid in burning mouth syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Pain 2009;13(5):492-496. View abstract.

Cavalcanti D. R., da Silveira F. R. Alpha lipoic acid in burning mouth syndrome--a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Oral Pathol Med 2009;38(3):254-261. View abstract.

Chang J. W., Lee E. K., Kim T. H., Min W. K., Chun S., Lee K. U., Kim S. B., Park J. S. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on the plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in diabetic end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis: a pilot study. Am J Nephrol 2007;27(1):70-74. View abstract.

Conlon BJ, Aran JM, Erre JP, Smith DW. Attenuation of aminoglycoside-induced cochlear damage with the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Hear Res 1999;128:40-4. View abstract.

Dana Consortium on the therapy of HIV dementia and related cognitive disorders. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of deprenyl and thioctic acid in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment. Neurology 1998;50:645-51. View abstract.

de Oliveira A. M., Rondó P. H., Luzia L. A., D'Abronzo F. H., Illison V. K. The effects of lipoic acid and a-tocopherol supplementation on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011;92(2):253-260. View abstract.

Dell'Anna M. L., Mastrofrancesco A., Sala R., Venturini M., Ottaviani M., Vidolin A. P., Leone G., Calzavara P. G., Westerhof W., Picardo, M. Antioxidants and narrow band-UVB in the treatment of vitiligo: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Clin Exp Dermatol 2007;32(6):631-636. View abstract.

Di Geronimo G., Caccese A. F., Caruso L., Soldati A., Passaretti U. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with alpha-lipoic acid. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2009;13(2):133-139. View abstract.

Du X., Edelstein D., Brownlee M. Oral benfotiamine plus alpha-lipoic acid normalises complication-causing pathways in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 2008;51(10):1930-1932. View abstract.

Femiano F., Gombos F., Scully C. Burning Mouth Syndrome: open trial of psychotherapy alone, medication with alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid), and combination therapy. Med Oral 2004;9(1):8-13. View abstract.

Femiano F., Gombos F., Scully C. Burning mouth syndrome: the efficacy of lipoic acid on subgroups. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004;18(6):676-678. View abstract.

Femiano F., Gombos F., Scully C., Busciolano M., Luca P. D. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS): controlled open trial of the efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) on symptomatology. Oral Dis 2000;6(5):274-277. View abstract.

Femiano F., Scully C. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS): double blind controlled study of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) therapy. J Oral Pathol Med 2002;31(5):267-269. View abstract.

Filina A. A., Davydova N. G., Endrikhovskii S. N., Shamshinova A. M. [Lipoic acid as a means of metabolic therapy of open-angle glaucoma]. Vestn Oftalmol 1995;111(4):6-8. View abstract.

Fuchs J, Schofer H, Milbradt R, et al. Studies on lipoate effects on blood redox state in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43:1359-62. View abstract.

Furukawa N, Miyamura N, Nishida K, et al. Possible relevance of alpha lipoic acid contained in a health supplement in a case of insulin autoimmune syndrome. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;75:366-7. View abstract.

Galasko D. R., Peskind E., Clark C. M., Quinn J. F., Ringman J. M., Jicha G. A., Cotman C., Cottrell B., Montine T. J., Thomas R. G., Aisen P. Antioxidants for Alzheimer disease: a randomized clinical trial with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measures. Arch Neurol 2012;69(7):836-841. View abstract.

Gleiter CH, Schreeb KH, Freudenthaler S, et al. Lack of interaction between thioctic acid, glibenclamide and acarbose. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999;48:819-25. View abstract.

Gu X. M., Zhang S. S., Wu J. C., Tang Z. Y., Lu Z. Q., Li H., Liu C., Chen L., Ning, G. [Efficacy and safety of high-dose a-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2010;90(35):2473-2476. View abstract.

Gurer H, Ozgunes H, Oztezcan S, Ercal N. Antioxidant role of alpha-lipoic acid in lead toxicity. Free Rad Biol Med 1999;27:75-81. View abstract.

Haak E., Usadel K. H., Kusterer K., Amini P., Frommeyer R., Tritschler H. J., Haak T. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on microcirculation in patients with peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2000;108(3):168-174. View abstract.

Hager K., Kenklies M., McAfoose J., Engel J., Münch G. Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Alzheimer's disease--a 48 months follow-up analysis. J Neural Transm Suppl 2007;(72):189-193. View abstract.

Han T., Bai J., Liu W., Hu Y. A systematic review and meta-analysis of a-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Eur J Endocrinol 2012;167(4):465-471. View abstract.

Haramaki N, Assadnazari H, Zimmer G, et al. The influence of vitamin E and dihydrolipoic acid on cardiac energy and glutathione status under hypoxia-reoxygenation. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1995;37:591-7. View abstract.

Haritoglou C., Gerss J., Hammes H. P., Kampik A., Ulbig M. W. Alpha-lipoic acid for the prevention of diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmologica 2011;226(3):127-137. View abstract.

Jacob S, Henriksen EJ, Schiemann AL, et al. Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45:872-4. View abstract.

Jacob S, Henriksen EJ, Tritschler HJ, et al. Improvement of insulin-stimulated glucose-disposal in type 2 diabetes after repeated parenteral administration of thioctic acid. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabet 1996;104:284-8. View abstract.

Jacob S, Ruus P, Hermann R, et al. Oral administration of RAC-alpha-lipoic acid modulates insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, pilot trial. Free Rad Biol Med 1999;27:309-14. View abstract.

Janssen K, Mensink RP, Cox FJ, et al. Effects of the flavonoids quercetin and apigenin on hemostasis in healthy volunteers: results from an in vitro and a dietary supplement study. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:255-62. View abstract.

Jariwalla R. J., Lalezari J., Cenko D., Mansour S. E., Kumar A., Gangapurkar B., Nakamura D. Restoration of blood total glutathione status and lymphocyte function following alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in patients with HIV infection. J Altern Complement Med 2008;14(2):139-146. View abstract.

Jörg J., Metz F., Scharafinski, H. [Drug treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid or vitamin B preparations. A clinical and neurophysiologic study]. Nervenarzt 1988;59(1):36-44. View abstract.

Khabbazi T., Mahdavi R., Safa J., Pour-Abdollahi P. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, and serum lipid profile levels in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. J Ren Nutr 2012;22(2):244-250. View abstract.

Kishi Y, Schmelzer JD, Yao JK, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid: effect on glucose uptake, sorbitol pathway, and energy metabolism in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 1999;48:2045-51. View abstract.

Koh E. H., Lee W. J., Lee S. A., Kim E. H., Cho E. H., Jeong E., Kim D. W., Kim M. S., Park J. Y., Park K. G., Lee H. J., Lee I. K., Lim S., Jang H. C., Lee K. H., Lee K. U. Effects of alpha-lipoic Acid on body weight in obese subjects. Am J Med 2011;124(1):85-88. View abstract.

Konrad T, Vicini P, Kusterer K, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:280-7. View abstract.

Korkina L. G., Afanas'ef I. B., Diplock A. T. Antioxidant therapy in children affected by irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Biochem Soc Trans 1993;21 ( Pt 3)(3):314S. View abstract.

Labriola D, Livingston R. Possible interactions between dietary antioxidants and chemotherapy. Oncology 1999;13:1003-8. View abstract.

Leong J. Y., van der Merwe J., Pepe S., Bailey M., Perkins A., Lymbury R., Esmore D., Marasco S., Rosenfeldt F. Perioperative metabolic therapy improves redox status and outcomes in cardiac surgery patients: a randomised trial. Heart Lung Circ 2010;19(10):584-591. View abstract.

Liu F., Zhang Y., Yang M., Liu B., Shen Y. D., Jia W. P., Xiang K. S. [Curative effect of alpha-lipoic acid on peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes: a clinical study]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007;87(38):2706-2709. View abstract.

Lopez-D'alessandro E., Escovich L. Combination of alpha lipoic acid and gabapentin, its efficacy in the treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011;16(5):e635-e640. View abstract.

López-Jornet P., Camacho-Alonso F., and Leon-Espinosa, S. Efficacy of alpha lipoic acid in burning mouth syndrome: a randomized, placebo-treatment study. J Oral Rehabil 2009;36(1):52-57. View abstract.

Lott I. T., Doran E., Nguyen V. Q., Tournay A., Head E., Gillen D. L. Down syndrome and dementia: a randomized, controlled trial of antioxidant supplementation. Am J Med Genet A 2011;155A(8):1939-1948. View abstract.

Lukaszuk J., Schultz T., Prawitz A., Hofmann E. R-Alpha Lipoic Acid Effect on HbA1c in Type-2 Diabetics. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine 2009;6(1):1-14.

Maesaka H, Komiya K, Misugi K, Tada K. Hyperalaninemia hyperpyruvicemia and lactic acidosis due to pyruvate carboxylase deficiency of the liver; treatment with thiamine and lipoic acid. Eur J Pediatr 1976;122:159-68. View abstract.

Magis D., Ambrosini A., Sandor P., Jacquy J., Laloux P., Schoenen J. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thioctic acid in migraine prophylaxis. Headache 2007;47(1):52-57. View abstract.

Marino R., Torretta S., Capaccio P., Pignataro L., Spadari F. Different therapeutic strategies for burning mouth syndrome: preliminary data. J Oral Pathol Med 2010;39(8):611-616. View abstract.

Marshall AW, Graul RS, Morgan MY, Sherlock S. Treatment of alcohol-related liver disease with thioctic acid: a six-month, randomized, double-blind trial. Gut 1982;23:1088-93. View abstract.

Matalon R, Stumpf DA, Michals K, et al. Lipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency with primary lactic acidosis: favorable response to treatment with oral lipoic acid. J Pediatr 1984;104:65-9. View abstract.

Mazloom Z., Ansar H. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetics. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2009;11(3):245-250.

Memeo A., Loiero M. Thioctic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of sciatic pain caused by a herniated disc: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study. Clin Drug Investig 2008;28(8):495-500. View abstract.

Merin JP, Matsuyama M, Kira T, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid blocks HIV-1 LTR-dependent expression of hygromycin resistance in THP-1 stable transformants. FEBS Lett 1996;394:9-13. View abstract.

Nagamatsu M, Nickander KK, Schmelzer JD, et al. Lipoic acid improves nerve blood flow, reduces oxidative stress, and improves distal nerve conduction in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabet Care 1995;18:1160-7. View abstract.

Packer L, Tritschler HJ, Wessel K. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Free Radic Biol Med 1997;22:359-78. View abstract.

Packer L, Witt EH, Tritschler HJ. Alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radic Biol Med 1995;19:227-50. View abstract.

Packer L. Antioxidant properties of lipoic acid and its therapeutic effects in prevention of diabetes complications and cataracts. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;738:257-64. View abstract.

Podymova S. D., Davletshina I. V. [Efficacy of using alpha-lipoic acid (berlition) in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis]. Eksp Klin Gastroenterol 2008;(5):77-84. View abstract.

Porasuphatana S., Suddee S., Nartnampong A., Konsil J., Harnwong B., Santaweesuk A. Glycemic and oxidative status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus following oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2012;21(1):12-21. View abstract.

Rahman S. T., Merchant N., Haque T., Wahi J., Bhaheetharan S., Ferdinand K. C., Khan B. V. The impact of lipoic acid on endothelial function and proteinuria in quinapril-treated diabetic patients with stage I hypertension: results from the QUALITY study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2012;17(2):139-145. View abstract.

Ranieri M., Sciuscio M., Cortese A. M., Santamato A., Di Teo L., Ianieri G., Bellomo R. G., Stasi M., Megna M. The use of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and rehabilitation in the treatment of back pain: effect on health-related quality of life. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2009;22(3 Suppl):45-50. View abstract.

Reljanovic M, Reichel G, Rett K, et al. Treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid): A 2-year, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ALADIN II). Alpha Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy [abstract]. Free Radic Res 1999;31:171-7. View abstract.

Roldan EJ, Perez Lloret A. Thioctic acid in Amanita poisoning (letter). Crit Care Med 1986;14:753-4.

Ruhnau KJ, Meissner HP, Finn JR, et al. Effects of 3-week oral treatment with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid) in symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. Diabet Med 1999;16:1040-3. View abstract.

Sabeel AI, Kurkus J, Lindholm T. Intensive Hemodialysis and Hemoperfusion Treatment of Amanita Mushroom Poisoning. Mycopathologia 1995;131:107-14. View abstract.

Sachse G, Willms B. Efficacy of thioctic acid in the therapy of peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Hormone Metab Res Suppl 1980;9:105-7. View abstract.

Sadykova H. G., Nazhmutdinova, D. K. [Structural and functional condition of the left ventricle in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with diabetic autonomic neuropathy]. Lik Sprava 2009;(1-2):22-28. View abstract.

Sauer J, Tabet N, Howard R. Alpha lipoic acid for dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(1):CD004244. View abstract.

Schimmelpfennig W, Renger F, Wack R, et al. [Results of a prospective double-blind study with alpha-lipoic acid against placebo in alcoholic liver damage] (Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Doppelblindstudie mit Alpha-Liponsäure gegen Plazebo bei alkoholischen Leberschäden). Dtsch Gesundheitswes 1983;38(18):690-693

Segermann J, Hotze A, Ulrich H, Rao GS. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine and on serum lipid-, protein- and glucose levels. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:1294-8. View abstract.

Streeper RS, Henriksen EJ, Jacob S, et al. Differential effects of lipoic acid stereoisomers on glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 1997;273:E185-91. View abstract.

Sun Y. D., Dong Y. D., Fan R., Zhai L. L., Bai Y. L., Jia L. H. Effect of (R)-a-lipoic acid supplementation on serum lipids and antioxidative ability in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Ann Nutr Metab 2012;60(4):293-297. View abstract.

Suzuki YJ, Aggarwal BB, Packer L. Alpha-lipoic acid is a potent inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation in human T cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992;189:1709-15. View abstract.

Tankova T., Koev D., Dakovska, L. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy (controlled, randomized, open-label study). Rom J Intern Med 2004;42(2):457-464. View abstract.

Teichert J, Kern J, Tritschler HJ. Investigations on the pharmacokinetics of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;36:625-8. View abstract.

Thom E. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the clinical efficacy of oral treatment with DermaVite on ageing symptoms of the skin. J Int Med Res 2005;33(3):267-272. View abstract.

Vilas GL, Aldonatti C, San Martin de Viale LC, Rios de Molina MC. Effect of Alpha-lipoic acid amide on hexachlorobenzene porphyria. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1999;47:815-23. View abstract.

Vincent HK, Bourguignon CM, Vincent KR, Taylor AG. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in peripheral arterial disease: a pilot study. J Alt Complement Med 2007;13:577-84. View abstract.

Vita PM, Restelli A, Caspani P, et al. [Chronic use of glucomannan in the dietary treatment of severe obesity]. Minerva Med 1992;83:135-9. View abstract.

Volchegorskii I. A., Alekseev M. N., Volchegorskaia M. I., Rassokhina L. M. [Effect of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol on neuro- and the affective status in patients at early stages of diabetic foot syndrome]. Klin Med (Mosk) 2008;86(10):52-59. View abstract.

Volchegorskii I. A., Rassokhina L. M., Koliadich M. I., Alekseev M. I. [Comparative study of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol effects on affective status, cognitive functions and quality of life in diabetes mellitus patients]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2011;74(11):17-23. View abstract.

Witman M. A., McDaniel J., Fjeldstad A. S., Ives S. J., Zhao J., Nativi J. N., Stehlik J., Wray D. W., Richardson R. S. A differing role of oxidative stress in the regulation of central and peripheral hemodynamics during exercise in heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2012;303(10):H1237-H1244. View abstract.

Yoshida I, Sweetman L, Kulovich S, et al. Effect of lipoic acid in patient with defective activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. Pediatr Res 1990;27:75-9. View abstract.

Zhang Y., Han P., Wu N., He B., Lu Y., Li S., Liu Y., Zhao S., Liu L., Li Y. Amelioration of lipid abnormalities by a-lipoic acid through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011;19(8):1647-1653. View abstract.

Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau K, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: A 7-month, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial (ALADIN III Study). Diabetes Care 1999;22:1296-301. View abstract.

Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau KJ, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: A 3-week, multicentre randomized controlled trial (ALADIN Study). Diabetologia 1995;38:1425-33. View abstract.

Ziegler D, Nowak H, Kempler P, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: A meta-analysis. Diabet Med 2004;21:114-21. View abstract.

Ziegler D, Schatz H, Conrad F, et al. Effects of treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid on cardiac autonomic neuropathy in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1997;20:369-73. View abstract.

Ziegler D., Ametov A., Barinov A., Dyck P. J., Gurieva I., Low P. A., Munzel U., Yakhno N., Raz I., Novosadova M., Maus J., Samigullin, R. Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: the SYDNEY 2 trial. Diabetes Care 2006;29(11):2365-2370. View abstract.

CONTINUE SCROLLING FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors