Anal Cancer (cont.)
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
In this Article
- Anal cancer facts*
- Anal anatomy
- What is anal cancer?
- What are the different types of anal cancer?
- What are other types of anal masses or growths?
- What are anal cancer statistics?
- What causes anal cancer?
- What are the risk factors for anal cancer?
- What are the symptoms and signs of anal cancer?
- What's involved with anal cancer screening (early detection)?
- How do health care professionals make a diagnosis of anal cancer?
- How do health care professionals determine anal cancer staging?
- What types of health care professionals diagnose and treat anal cancer?
- What is the medical treatment for anal cancer?
- Surgery for anal cancer
- Radiation therapy for anal cancer
- Combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy for anal cancer
- What are treatment options for stage IV anal cancer or metastasis?
- Is it possible to prevent anal cancer?
- What is the prognosis for anal cancer?
- Where can one find information about clinical trials or research for anal cancer?
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
What are anal cancer statistics?
Anal cancer is far more rare than colorectal cancer. Anal cancer will be found in about 5,700 women and 2,500 men in 2017. It will result in 1,100 deaths in 2017. It is more common today than it was 30 years ago.
In contrast, colorectal cancer is projected to be diagnosed in over 70,000 men and 64,000 women in 2017. It will result in about 50,000 deaths in 2017, far more than anal cancer.
What causes anal cancer?
Anal cancer is most commonly caused by infection of the anal lining tissues by a high-risk type of human papillomavirus such as HPV-16. It is also more common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, the virus than can lead to AIDS). Cigarette smokers also get more anal cancer than do nonsmokers. Other risk factors for anal cancer usually will be those associated with the likelihood of acquiring HPV infection. Certainly, there are also cases of anal cancer for which no certain cause is found.
What are the risk factors for anal cancer?
Anal cancer risk factors include the following:
- Age over 50
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
- Many sexual partners
- Receptive anal intercourse/anal sex
- Conditions that impair the immune system including HIV viral infection and immunosuppressive medicines
- History of other pelvic cancers caused by HPV infection
- Recurrent anal irritation with pain and redness
- Race and gender: Anal cancer is more common in women than men in most ethnic groups. In African Americans, it is more common in men than women.
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