How Do Antidiuretic Hormone Analogs Work?

Reviewed on 1/10/2022

HOW DO ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE ANALOGS WORK?

Antidiuretic hormone analogs, also known as “antidiuretic hormone” (ADH) or vasopressin, are a class of drugs used for the prevention and treatment of postoperative abdominal distention (swelling of the abdomen), in abdominal roentgenography (abdominal X-ray) to dispel interfering gas shadows and diabetes insipidus (a disease in which the secretion of or response to the pituitary hormone vasopressin is impaired, resulting in the production of very large quantities of dilute urine, often with dehydration and insatiable thirst).

Vasopressin is a hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain) that has an antidiuretic action (conserving body water by reducing the excretion of water in urine) which decreases the volume of urine by increasing the reabsorption of water from the kidneys.

Vasopressin is administered intramuscularly (injected into a muscle) or intravenously (infusion into a vein).

Vasopressin works in the following ways:

  • It exerts an antidiuretic action by increasing the reabsorption of water from the kidneys back into the circulation.
  • Vasopressin is a peptide hormone synthesized in the pituitary gland and converted to “arginine vasopressin” that is responsible for primary functions such as:
    • Increasing the amount of water reabsorbed back into the circulation from the kidneys.
    • Constricting arterioles, which increases peripheral vascular resistance and raises arterial blood pressure.
    • It exerts its effects by acting on V1 and V2 receptors.
  • It increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate, increasing water permeability of the kidney tubules which is mediated through V2 receptors.
  • In addition, it promotes smooth muscle contraction in the kidneys and cardiovascular system which occurs by the mediation of V1 receptors.

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HOW ARE ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE ANALOGS USED?

Antidiuretic hormone analogs are used in:

  • Diabetes insipidus (a disease in which the secretion of or response to the pituitary hormone vasopressin is impaired, resulting in the production of very large quantities of dilute urine, often with dehydration and insatiable thirst)
  • Abdominal distension (swelling of the abdomen)
  • Abdominal roentgenography (abdominal X-ray)

Off-label uses include:

WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE ANALOGS?

Some of the common side effects include:

Other rare side effects include:

Information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.

WHAT ARE NAMES OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE ANALOGS?

Generic and brand names of antidiuretic hormone analogs include:

References
https://reference.medscape.com/drugs/antidiuretics-hormone-analog

https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_vasopressin_vasostrict_adh/drugs- condition.htm#what_are_side_effects_associated_with_using_vasopressin_zovirax

https://www.medicinenet.com/vasopressin/definition.htm

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