HOW DO ANTI-GD2 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES WORK?
Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies are a class of drugs used in combination with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in adults and children aged one year and older to treat high-risk relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma (cancer that begins in the nerve cells) in the bone or bone marrow, demonstrating a partial response, minor response, or stable disease to prior therapy.
The only drug that belongs to this class is “naxitamab,” an anti-cancer medication, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that works by slowing down or stopping the growth of cancer cells.
Neuroblastoma is a rare childhood cancer of the “sympathetic nervous system”—the network of nerves that carries messages from the brain to the rest of the body. Neuroblastoma symptoms range from mild to severe. They vary depending on the location of the tumor and the stage of the disease and may include:
- Bump or lump in the neck, chest, pelvis, or abdomen
- Bulging eyes or dark circles under eyes
- Diarrhea, constipation, upset stomach, or loss of appetite
- Fatigue, cough, and fever
- Pale skin, which is a sign of anemia (low red blood cells)
- Painful, bloated belly
- Trouble breathing
- Weakness, movement problems, or paralysis in the legs and feet
- Weight loss
Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies are available as a solution (liquid) to be injected intravenously (into a vein) over 30 to 60 minutes, typically given on days 1, 3, and 5 of a 28-day treatment cycle.
Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies work in the following ways:
- They belong to a class known as “monoclonal antibodies” that work by killing cancer cells.
- In targeting cell surface glycoproteins (GD2) that occur on the surface of neuroendocrine tumors, naxitamab directs the immune system toward these cancerous cells and induces the activation of both complement- and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity.
HOW ARE ANTI-GD2 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES USED?
Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies are used in combination with GM-CSF for relapsed or refractory high-risk neuroblastoma in the bone or bone marrow in patients who have demonstrated a partial response, minor response, or stable disease with prior therapy.
WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTI-GD2 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES?
Some of the common side effects include:
Other rare side effects include:
- Hypertension (high blood pressure)
- Cough, runny nose
- Fatigue (an overall feeling of tiredness or lack of energy)
- Shortness of breath
- Fast heartbeat
- Upper respiratory tract infection
- Weight loss
- Peripheral edema (swelling of lower legs or hands)
- Urticaria (an outbreak of pale red bumps or welts on the skin that appear suddenly)
Information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.
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