How Do Antineoplastic Monoclonal Antibodies Work?

Reviewed on 10/25/2021

HOW DO ANTINEOPLASTIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES WORK?

Antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies are a class of drugs used to treat various cancers including breast, gastric, kidney, cervical, endometrial, colon, lung, head and neck, and brain cancer; multiple myeloma (a type of cancer of the bone marrow); osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break easily); acute myeloid leukemia (a type of cancer that begins in the white blood cells); and melanoma (a type of skin cancer).

The immune system attacks foreign substances by producing large numbers of antibodies, a protein that sticks to a specific protein called an antigen. Antibodies circulate throughout the body until they find and attach to the antigen. Once attached, they can force other parts of the immune system to destroy the cells containing the antigen.

Monoclonal antibodies are man-made proteins (made in the laboratory) by cloning a unique white blood cell that acts similar to human antibodies in the immune system. Monoclonal antibodies possess monovalent affinity, binding only to the same epitope (the part of an antigen that is recognized by the antibody) and can bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells.

Antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies are administered as a liquid or as a powder to be mixed with a liquid and injected intravenously (into a vein).

Antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies work in the following ways:

  • They belong to a class of medications called “RANK ligand inhibitors” that work to prevent bone loss by blocking a certain receptor in the body to decrease bone breakdown.
  • They treat high calcium levels by decreasing bone breakdown as the breakdown of bones releases calcium.
  • They boost the immune response against cancer cells by binding to the CD52 antigen and attract immune cells to destroy cancerous cells.
  • Cancer cells have large amounts of HER2 protein on their surface, and when HER2 is activated, it helps these cells to grow and spread.
  • They bind to these proteins, thus inhibiting them from becoming active, eventually preventing the growth and spread of cancer cells.

SLIDESHOW

Skin Cancer Symptoms, Types, Images See Slideshow

HOW ARE ANTINEOPLASTIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES USED?

Antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies are used to treat conditions such as:

WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTINEOPLASTIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES?

Some of the common side effects include:

Other rare side effects include:

Information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.

WHAT ARE NAMES OF ANTINEOPLASTIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES?

Generic and brand names of antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies include:

References
https://reference.medscape.com/drugs/antineoplastics-monoclonal-antibody

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a699019.html

https://www.rxlist.com/avastin-drug.htm

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a607041.html

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a616002.html

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a610023.html

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