Autism and Communication (cont.)
Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Autism facts
- What is autism?
- How does autism impact the family?
- What are the different types of autism?
- What are the symptoms and signs of autism in children and adults?
- Impairment of social interaction and communication
- What causes autism?
- Is autism genetic?
- Do vaccines play a role in autism?
- How is autism diagnosed in children and adults?
- How is autism treated in children and adults?
- What common sociobehavioral interventions are used to treat autism?
- What are the common medications used to treat the symptoms of autism?
- Can diet and supplements play a role in the treatment of autism?
- What is the prognosis for children and adults with autism?
- For more information about autism in children and adults
- Autism Spectrum Disorder FAQs
- Find a local Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrician in your town
Is autism genetic?
Because many different disorders can result in autism, this question is complex. Certainly, disorders such as the fragile X syndrome and tuberous sclerosis, which are both associated with autism, are inherited. There are many families with more than one child with autism where the autism is not clearly due to another cause. Recent studies have found that the gene for at least one kind of familial autism may be on chromosome 13. In some families, autism seems to be passed from generation to generation. In other families, autism is not found in prior generations, but affects multiple siblings (brothers or sisters). The results of this research make it likely that at least one "autism gene" will eventually be found.
However, the majority of individuals with autism do NOT have a strong family history, which supports the premise that environmental or a combination of environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of autism. In this context, environmental is meant to indicate any nongenetic factor, including infections, toxins, nutrition, or others.
Do vaccines play a role in autism?
Although some remain convinced that certain vaccines, vaccine preservatives, or medications taken to treat side effects of vaccines may cause autism, conventional wisdom is supported by research that continues to consistently demonstrate that immunizations do not cause autism.
How is autism diagnosed in children and adults?
The essential features of autism are the significantly impaired or abnormal development of communication and social interaction and the abnormally restricted repertoire of behaviors, activities, and interests. This disturbance in normal development must manifest itself by the time the child is a toddler, prior to age 3. While many parents report normal development in the first year of the child, there is actually limited opportunity to observe this, as the child is often not brought to the attention of a practitioner who has specific experience in diagnosing autism until several years later in many cases. If there is a period of normal development, it cannot extend past age 3. As the early onset of the disorder is a key component in its diagnosis, it is important that practitioners screen for the possible presence of autism in all children from infancy on. As identifying autism as early as possible allows more timely and, therefore, more effective treatment, professionals tend to screen infants and toddlers using a variety of questionnaires, tests, and checklists. Examples of such screening tools include the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test, Second Edition, and the Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds.
Any person with a delay or regression (loss) of language or an abnormality of social interaction beginning prior to the age of 3 may be suspected of being autistic. The medical evaluation begins with a thorough medical history and physical examination. This examination should be performed by a health care professional not only familiar with autism, but with other disorders that may appear similar to or mimic the symptoms of autism. The health care professional should have particular expertise in the neurological examination of impaired individuals or recommend consultation with such a professional, as subtle findings may lead the examiner down a particular diagnostic path. For example, the presence of mild weakness or increased reflexes on one side of the body will lead the examiner to conclude that a structural abnormality in the brain is present and that an MRI examination of the brain is appropriate.
The history and physical examination will point the examiner to specific diagnostic testing to evaluate for other conditions associated with autism or developmental delay. Any child who has a language delay should have his or her hearing formally evaluated. For example, it is not sufficient to simply determine whether or not a person being examined is able to hear. In order for normal language development to proceed, the individual must have sufficient hearing capabilities at low volumes in the high frequency range. Therefore, even if the person turns his or her head to a clap or shout, he or she may still have enough of a hearing deficit to inhibit language development.
There are two types of hearing tests; 1) behavioral audiometry; and 2) brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER).
- Behavioral audiometry is performed by a skilled clinical audiologist. The person being examined is placed in a room and his or her responses to different tones are observed.
- For the brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) test, the individual is sedated and earphones are placed over the ears. Tones of different volumes and frequencies are played and the electrical response of the brain is monitored.
If the he or she is capable, behavioral audiometry is the preferred method primarily because sedation is not required. Depending upon specific features of the examination and history, the practitioner may want to obtain blood and urine samples for specialized testing to evaluate for some of the inborn errors of metabolism and to obtain DNA for chromosomal studies and fragile X testing.
If the neurological examination is normal, there may be no need for a brain CT scan or MRI scan. However, if the neurological examination is suggestive of a structural brain lesion, then a neuroimaging study, preferably an MRI, should be performed. Newer imaging procedures such as SPECT or PET scans are used primarily as research tools and have no place in the initial evaluation of the autistic individual. In very specialized instances, such as the autistic person with difficult-to-control seizures, such tests may be useful.
The evaluation of individuals with autism by speech pathologists will provide not only detailed information as to the nature of the language deficits incurred by the afflicted individual, but will also be the first step in formulating a specific treatment plan with respect to language. Occupational assessment may be particularly helpful in determining the day-to-day strengths and vulnerabilities of the individual with autism (for example, sensitivity to clothing and food texture) and assist those who care for the person in promoting his or her strengths and compensating for their challenges.
Given the complex and far-reaching symptoms and effects of autism, it is generally thought that the most accurate and thorough diagnosis of this disorder is obtained by group of health care professionals from various disciplines, also called a multidisciplinary team, that includes a pediatrician, speech and occupational therapists, educators, and often psychiatrists and others.
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