Baikal Skullcap

Reviewed on 6/11/2021
Other Name(s):

Baikal Scullcap, Baikal Skullcap Root, Chinese Skullcap, Escutelaria Asiatica, Huang Qin, Huangquin, Hwanggum, Ogon, Ou-gon, Racine de Scutellaire du Lac Baïkal, Radix Scutellariae, Scullcap, Scute, Scutellaire, Scutellaire Chinoise, Scutellaire du Lac Baïkal, Scutellaria, Scutellaria baicalensis, Scutellaria macrantha, Scutellariae Radix, Skullcap, Wogon.


Baikal skullcap (scientific name Scutellaria baicalensis) is a plant. The root is used to make medicine. Common substitutions for Baikal skullcap in Chinese medicine include related plants whose scientific names are Scutellaria viscidula, Scutellaria amonea, and Scutellaria ikoninikovii.

Baikal skullcap is used to treat respiratory infections, hay fever, and fever. It is also used for gastrointestinal (GI) infections, as well as liver problems including viral hepatitis and jaundice.

Some people use Baikal skullcap for HIV/AIDS, kidney infections, pelvic inflammation, and sores or swelling. It is also used for scarlet fever, headache, irritability, red eyes, flushed face, seizures, epilepsy, hysteria, nervous tension, and to relieve a bitter taste in the mouth.

The active ingredient in Baikal skullcap, baicalin, is used in combination with shung hua (ephedra) to treat upper respiratory tract infections. In combination with other herbs, Baikal skullcap is used to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), prostate cancer, a lung condition called bronchiolitis, arthritis, and hemorrhoids.

Baikal skullcap is also sometimes applied to the skin for psoriasis.

How does it work?

It is thought that the active chemicals in Baikal skullcap might be able to decrease inflammation, stop tumor growth, and prevent tumor cell reproduction.


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Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Inflammation of small air passages in the lung (bronchiolitis) and other lung infections. Developing research suggests that a combination of Baikal skullcap, forsythia, and honeysuckle given intravenously (IV) by a healthcare provider might help children who have bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection feel better faster.
  • Arthritis. Some research shows that a specific commercial product (Limbrel, Primus Pharmaceuticals) that contains a combination of chemicals from Baikal skullcap and catechu, also known as flavocoxid, might help for arthritis in the knee. But there is not enough good quality research to know how well this product might work.
  • Psoriasis. There is one report that an ointment containing Baikal skullcap plus phellodendron and isatis improved psoriasis in an 8-year-old boy.
  • Kidney, stomach, and pelvic infections.
  • Hay fever.
  • Seizures.
  • Nervous tension.
  • Hemorrhoids.
  • Prostate cancer.
  • Hepatitis.
  • Sores or swelling.
  • Fever.
  • Headache.
  • Red eyes.
  • Flushed face.
  • Bitter taste in the mouth.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate Baikal skullcap for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Baikal skullcap is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth. It might cause drowsiness. There have been reports of fever and lung inflammation in people who took Baikal skullcap. But there is not enough information to know if Baikal skullcap is the cause of these side effects.

A specific combination product called flavocoxid (Limbrel, Primus Pharmaceuticals) that contains Baikal skullcap was safely used in research studies lasting up to 12 weeks. However, there are concerns that this combination product might cause liver problems in some people. This side effect does not appear to be common and might only occur in people who have a type of allergic reaction to it.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking Baikal skullcap if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Baikal skullcap is POSSIBLY SAFE in children when given intravenously (by IV) by a healthcare provider, short-term. An intravenous preparation that includes Baikal skullcap, forsythia, and honeysuckle has been used under medical supervision with apparent safety in children for up to 7 days. Not enough is known about the safety of Baikal skullcap in children when used long-term.

Bleeding disorders. Baikal skullcap might slow blood clotting. In theory, Baikal skullcap might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Diabetes: Baikal skullcap can affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use Baikal skullcap.

Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Baikal skullcap might have the same effects as the female hormone estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don't use Baikal.

Low blood pressure: Baikal skullcap might lower blood pressure. In theory, Baikal skullcap might lower blood pressure too much in people prone to low blood pressure.

Surgery: Baikal skullcap might slow blood clotting. There is concern that it might cause extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using Baikal skullcap at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


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AlcoholInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Alcohol can cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Baikal skullcap might also cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Taking large amounts of Baikal skullcap along with alcohol might cause too much sleepiness.

EstrogensInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Baikal skullcap might have some of the same effects as estrogen. However Baikal skullcap is not as strong as estrogen pills. Taking Baikal skullcap along with estrogen pills might decrease the effects of estrogen pills.

Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

LithiumInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Baikal skullcap might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking Baikal skullcap might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Baikal skullcap might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Baikal skullcap along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking Baikal skullcap, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Baikal skullcap might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Baikal skullcap with these medications might decrease how well the medication works. Before taking Baikal skullcap, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), carisoprodol (Soma), citalopram (Celexa), diazepam (Valium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), phenytoin (Dilantin), warfarin (Coumadin), and many others.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Baikal skullcap might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking Baikal skullcap along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Baikal skullcap might lower blood pressure. Taking Baikal skullcap with medications used to treat high blood pressure might cause blood pressure levels to go to low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Baikal skullcap might slow blood clotting. Taking Baikal skullcap along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (Indocin), ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Metformin (Glucophage)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Metformin (Glucophage) is used to help decrease blood sugar. Baikal skullcap might also lower blood sugar. Taking Baikal skullcap along with metformin (Glucophage) might increase the effectiveness of metformin (Glucophage) for lowering blood sugar. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your metformin (Glucophage) might need to be changed.

Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Baikal skullcap might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking Baikal skullcap along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and others.

Sedative medications (CNS depressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Baikal skullcap might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking Baikal skullcap along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.

Medications moved by pumps in cells (P-glycoprotein Substrates)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are moved by pumps into cells. Baikal skullcap might make these pumps less active and increase how much of some medications get absorbed by the body. This might increase the side effects of some medications.

Some medications that are moved by these pumps include etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (Propulsid), fexofenadine (Allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (Imodium), quinidine, and others.

Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Statins)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Baikal skullcap might change the levels of statins in your blood. But there isn't enough information to know if this is an important interaction. Talk with your healthcare provider before using Baikal skullcap if you are taking medications used for lowering cholesterol.

These medications include atorvastatin (Lipitor), cerivastatin (Baycol), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), and simvastatin (Zocor).


The appropriate dose of Baikal skullcap depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for Baikal skullcap. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

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Kim, D. S., Son, E. J., Kim, M., Heo, Y. M., Nam, J. B., Ro, J. Y., and Woo, S. S. Antiallergic herbal composition from Scutellaria baicalensis and Phyllostachys edulis. Planta Med 2010;76(7):678-682. View abstract.

Kim, E. H., Shim, B., Kang, S., Jeong, G., Lee, J. S., Yu, Y. B., and Chun, M. Anti-inflammatory effects of Scutellaria baicalensis extract via suppression of immune modulators and MAP kinase signaling molecules. J Ethnopharmacol. 11-12-2009;126(2):320-331. View abstract.

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Kimura, Y., Matsushita, N., Yokoi-Hayashi, K., and Okuda, H. Effects of baicalein isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Radix on adhesion molecule expression induced by thrombin and thrombin receptor agonist peptide in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Planta Med 2001;67(4):331-334. View abstract.

Kimura, Y., Okuda, H., and Ogita, Z. Effects of flavonoids isolated from scutellariae radix on fibrinolytic system induced by trypsin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Nat Prod 1997;60(6):598-601. View abstract.

Kimura, Y., Yokoi, K., Matsushita, N., and Okuda, H. Effects of flavonoids isolated from scutellariae radix on the production of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 induced by thrombin and thrombin receptor agonist peptide in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Pharm Pharmacol 1997;49(8):816-822. View abstract.

Konoshima, T., Kokumai, M., Kozuka, M., Iinuma, M., Mizuno, M., Tanaka, T., Tokuda, H., Nishino, H., and Iwashima, A. Studies on inhibitors of skin tumor promotion. XI. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis on Epstein-Barr virus activation and their anti-tumor-promoting activities. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1992;40(2):531-533. View abstract.

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Krakauer, T., Li, B. Q., and Young, H. A. The flavonoid baicalin inhibits superantigen-induced inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. FEBS Lett. 6-29-2001;500(1-2):52-55. View abstract.

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Kumagai, T., Muller, C. I., Desmond, J. C., Imai, Y., Heber, D., and Koeffler, H. P. Scutellaria baicalensis, a herbal medicine: anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity against acute lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines. Leuk.Res 2007;31(4):523-530. View abstract.

Lai, M. Y., Hsiu, S. L., Chen, C. C., Hou, Y. C., and Chao, P. D. Urinary pharmacokinetics of baicalein, wogonin and their glycosides after oral administration of Scutellariae Radix in humans. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26(1):79-83. View abstract.

Lam, T. L., Lam, M. L., Au, T. K., Ip, D. T., Ng, T. B., Fong, W. P., and Wan, D. C. A comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protease inhibition activities by the aqueous and methanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Life Sci 10-27-2000;67(23):2889-2896. View abstract.

Lee, B. S., Shim, S. M., Heo, J., Pae, H. O., Seo, B. Y., Han, S. Y., Sohn, D. H., Jang, S. I., and Chung, H. T. Wogonin suppresses TARC expression induced by mite antigen via heme oxygenase 1 in human keratinocytes. Suppressive effect of wogonin on mite antigen-induced TARC expression. J Dermatol Sci 2007;46(1):31-40. View abstract.

Lee, C. Y., Wang, J. Y., Chen, T. C., Jiang, J. K., Peng, C. H., Kuo, C. D., Chang, W. C., Chiu, J. H., and Wu, C. W. Effects of S/B remedy containing Scutellaria baicalensis and Bupleurum scorzonerifolfium on hepatic interleukin-6 related signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation in mice through cell-cell interaction. Biol Pharm Bull 2011;34(5):727-733. View abstract.

Lee, E., Enomoto, R., Suzuki, C., Ohno, M., Ohashi, T., Miyauchi, A., Tanimoto, E., Maeda, K., Hirano, H., Yokoi, T., and Sugahara, C. Wogonin, a plant flavone, potentiates etoposide-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007;1095:521-526. View abstract.

Lee, S. W., Song, G. S., Kwon, C. H., and Kim, Y. K. Beneficial effect of flavonoid baicalein in cisplatin-induced cell death of human glioma cells. Neurosci Lett. 7-1-2005;382(1-2):71-75. View abstract.

Lee, S., Kim, D. H., Jung, J. W., Oh, J. H., Park, H. J., Park, C., Huh, Y., Cheong, J. H., Oh, T. H., and Ryu, J. H. Schizandra chinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis counter stress behaviors in mice. Phytother.Res 2007;21(12):1187-1192. View abstract.

Lee, Y. M., Cheng, P. Y., Chim, L. S., Kung, C. W., Ka, S. M., Chung, M. T., and Sheu, J. R. Baicalein, an active component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, improves cardiac contractile function in endotoxaemic rats via induction of heme oxygenase-1 and suppression of inflammatory responses. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-26-2011;135(1):179-185. View abstract.

Lee, Y., Yeo, H., Liu, S. H., Jiang, Z., Savizky, R. M., Austin, D. J., and Cheng, Y. C. Increased anti-P-glycoprotein activity of baicalein by alkylation on the A ring. J Med Chem 10-21-2004;47(22):5555-5566. View abstract.

Lei, W., Sun, M., Luo, K. M., Shui, X. R., Sun, Y. M., and Tang, H. [Compute simulation to characterize structure and function of chalcone synthase from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi]. Mol Biol (Mosk) 2009;43(6):1082-1087. View abstract.

Leung, H. W., Yang, W. H., Lai, M. Y., Lin, C. J., and Lee, H. Z. Inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase during baicalein-induced human lung nonsmall carcinoma H460 cell apoptosis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45(3):403-411. View abstract.

Li T.T, Xu H.M, and Liang Z.W. Study on the effects of extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis combined with cisplatin on apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV-3. Maternal and Child Health Care of China 2011;26(10):1529-1531.

Li, B. Q., Fu, T., Dongyan, Y., Mikovits, J. A., Ruscetti, F. W., and Wang, J. M. Flavonoid baicalin inhibits HIV-1 infection at the level of viral entry. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 9-24-2000;276(2):534-538. View abstract.

Li, B. Q., Fu, T., Yan, Y. D., Baylor, N. W., Ruscetti, F. W., and Kung, H. F. Inhibition of HIV infection by baicalin--a flavonoid compound purified from Chinese herbal medicine. Cell Mol Biol Res 1993;39(2):119-124. View abstract.

Li, H. N., Nie, F. F., Liu, W., Dai, Q. S., Lu, N., Qi, Q., Li, Z. Y., You, Q. D., and Guo, Q. L. Apoptosis induction of oroxylin A in human cervical cancer HeLa cell line in vitro and in vivo. Toxicology 3-4-2009;257(1-2):80-85. View abstract.

Li, T., Li, N., Guo, Q., Ji, H., Zhao, D., Xie, S., Li, X., Qiu, Z., Han, D., Chen, X., and You, Q. Inhibitory effects of wogonin on catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human liver microsomes. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 6-29-2011; View abstract.

Li-Weber, M. New therapeutic aspects of flavones: the anticancer properties of Scutellaria and its main active constituents Wogonin, Baicalein and Baicalin. Cancer Treat Rev 2009;35(1):57-68. View abstract.

Liao, H. L. and Hu, M. K. Synthesis and anticancer activities of 5,6,7-trimethylbaicalein derivatives. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2004;52(10):1162-1165. View abstract.

Lin, A. M., Ping, Y. H., Chang, G. F., Wang, J. Y., Chiu, J. H., Kuo, C. D., and Chi, C. W. Neuroprotective effect of oral S/B remedy (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Bupleurum scorzonerifolfium Willd) on iron-induced neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-12-2011;134(3):884-891. View abstract.

Lin, C. C., Kuo, C. L., Lee, M. H., Lai, K. C., Lin, J. P., Yang, J. S., Yu, C. S., Lu, C. C., Chiang, J. H., Chueh, F. S., and Chung, J. G. Wogonin triggers apoptosis in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells through the endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-3-dependent signaling pathways. Int J Oncol. 2011;39(1):217-224. View abstract.

Lin, X. C., Liu, X. G., Chen, X. W., Chen, W. Z., and Liang, N. C. [Inhibitory effect and its kinetic analysis of baicalein on recombinant human protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme]. Ai.Zheng. 2004;23(8):874-878. View abstract.

Lin, Y. L., Dai, Z. K., Lin, R. J., Chu, K. S., Chen, I. J., Wu, J. R., and Wu, B. N. Baicalin, a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, activates large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels via cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in mesenteric artery. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(10):760-770. View abstract.

Liu, C. Z. and Chen, D. W. [Sanhuang tablets research]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi 2007;32(17):1827-1829. View abstract.

Liu, G., Rajesh, N., Wang, X., Zhang, M., Wu, Q., Li, S., Chen, B., and Yao, S. Identification of flavonoids in the stems and leaves of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. J Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol Biomed.Life Sci 4-15-2011;879(13-14):1023-1028. View abstract.

Liu, J. J., Huang, T. S., Cheng, W. F., and Lu, F. J. Baicalein and baicalin are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis: Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Int J Cancer 9-10-2003;106(4):559-565. View abstract.

Liu, S., Ma, Z., Cai, H., Li, Q., Rong, W., and Kawano, M. Inhibitory effect of baicalein on IL-6-mediated signaling cascades in human myeloma cells. Eur J Haematol. 2-1-2010;84(2):137-144. View abstract.

Liu, W., Mu, R., Nie, F. F., Yang, Y., Wang, J., Dai, Q. S., Lu, N., Qi, Q., Rong, J. J., Hu, R., Wang, X. T., You, Q. D., and Guo, Q. L. MAC-related mitochondrial pathway in oroxylin-A-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Cancer Lett. 11-1-2009;284(2):198-207. View abstract.

Lixuan, Z., Jingcheng, D., Wenqin, Y., Jianhua, H., Baojun, L., and Xiaotao, F. Baicalin attenuates inflammation by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation in cigarette smoke induced inflammatory models. Pulm.Pharmacol Ther 2010;23(5):411-419. View abstract.

Lu, H. F., Hsueh, S. C., Ho, Y. T., Kao, M. C., Yang, J. S., Chiu, T. H., Huamg, S. Y., Lin, C. C., and Chung, J. G. ROS mediates baicalin-induced apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells through the expression of the Gadd153 and mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Anticancer Res 2007;27(1A):117-125. View abstract.

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Morgan SL, Baggott JE, Morel, L, Desmond R, and Kendrach AC. The safety of flavocoxid, a medical food, in the dietary management of knee osteoarthritis. Journal of medicinal food 2009;12(5):1143-8.

Mu, R., Qi, Q., Gu, H., Wang, J., Yang, Y., Rong, J., Liu, W., Lu, N., You, Q., and Guo, Q. Involvement of p53 in oroxylin A-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2009;48(12):1159-1169. View abstract.

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Park, K. I., Park, H. S., Kang, S. R., Nagappan, A., Lee, D. H., Kim, J. A., Han, D. Y., and Kim, G. S. Korean Scutellaria baicalensis water extract inhibits cell cycle G1/S transition by suppressing cyclin D1 expression and matrix-metalloproteinase-2 activity in human lung cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-27-2011;133(2):634-641. View abstract.

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Regulska-Ilow, B., Biernat, J., Grajeta, H., Ilow, R., and Drzewicka, M. Influence of bioflavonoids from the radix extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on the level of serum lipids, and the development of laboratory rats fed with fresh and oxidized fats. Nahrung 2004;48(2):123-128. View abstract.

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Shang, Y. Z., Qin, B. W., Cheng, J. J., and Miao, H. Effect of Scutellaria flavonoids on KCN-induced damages in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Indian J Med Res 2008;127(6):610-615. View abstract.

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Shieh, D. E., Cheng, H. Y., Yen, M. H., Chiang, L. C., and Lin, C. C. Baicalin-induced apoptosis is mediated by Bcl-2-dependent, but not p53-dependent, pathway in human leukemia cell lines. Am J Chin Med 2006;34(2):245-261. View abstract.

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Shurygin, A. Y., Bezzubov, N. V., Ignatova, E. A., Nikolaev, S. M., and Viktorov, I. V. Baikal skullcap extract stimulates neurite growth in cultures of rat dorsal root Ganglia. Bull Exp Biol Med 2002;134(1):47-49. View abstract.

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Song, S. J., Li, F. F., Xu, Y., Zhang, L. H., Yuan, F., and Zhang, Y. [Effects of Honeysuckle flower and Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi on constraction and electric activity of rabbit small intestine smooth muscle]. Zhongguo Ying.Yong.Sheng Li Xue.Za Zhi 2009;25(3):344-348. View abstract.

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Takahashi, H., Chen, M. C., Pham, H., Angst, E., King, J. C., Park, J., Brovman, E. Y., Ishiguro, H., Harris, D. M., Reber, H. A., Hines, O. J., Gukovskaya, A. S., Go, V. L., and Eibl, G. Baicalein, a component of Scutellaria baicalensis, induces apoptosis by Mcl-1 down-regulation in human pancreatic cancer cells. Biochim.Biophys Acta 2011;1813(8):1465-1474. View abstract.

Tan, H., Tang, Y., Zhou, X., Xiao, X., and Li, J. [Effect of Radix scutellariae on the growth and form of Porphyromanus endodontics in vitro]. Sichuan.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao.Yi.Xue.Ban. 2003;34(3):504-506. View abstract.

Tarrago, T., Kichik, N., Claasen, B., Prades, R., Teixido, M., and Giralt, E. Baicalin, a prodrug able to reach the CNS, is a prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor. Bioorg.Med Chem 8-1-2008;16(15):7516-7524. View abstract.

Tian, X. Y., Cheung, L. M., Leung, K., Qi, C., Deng, B., Deng, P. X., and Xu, M. The effects of Scutellaria baicalensis extract on embryonic development in mice. Birth Defects Res B Dev.Reprod.Toxicol. 2009;86(2):79-84. View abstract.

Tong, R., Mehendale, S. R., Wang, C. Z., Shao, Z., and Yuan, C. S. Comparison of antioxidant effects of various Scutellaria baicalensis fractions and the potential role of catalase upregulation. Am J Chin Med 2009;37(3):621-623. View abstract.

Tsao, T. F., Newman, M. G., Kwok, Y. Y., and Horikoshi, A. K. Effect of Chinese and western antimicrobial agents on selected oral bacteria. J Dent Res 1982;61(9):1103-1106. View abstract.

Tseng, Y. P., Wu, Y. C., Leu, Y. L., Yeh, S. F., and Chou, C. K. Scutellariae radix suppresses hepatitis B virus production in human hepatoma cells. Front Biosci.(Elite.Ed) 2010;2:1538-1547. View abstract.

Tseng-Crank J, Sung S, Jia Q, and et al. A Medicinal Plant Extract of Scutellaria Baicalensis and Acacia Catechu Reduced LPS-Stimulated Gene Expression in Immune Cells: A Comprehensive Genomic Study Using QPCR, ELISA, and Microarray. Journal of Dietary Supplements 2010;7:253.

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Waisundara, V. Y., Hsu, A., Huang, D., and Tan, B. K. Scutellaria baicalensis enhances the anti-diabetic activity of metformin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Am J Chin Med 2008;36(3):517-540. View abstract.

Wang R.T, Zhang J.X, and Dong Y.J. Protective effect of scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid against hippocampus neurodamage induced by injection Aß25-35. Chinese Journal of Gerontology 2010;30(7):926-928.

Wang, G. F., Wu, Z. F., Wan, L., Wang, Q. T., and Chen, F. M. Influence of baicalin on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand in cultured human periodontal ligament cells. Pharmacology 2006;77(2):71-77. View abstract.

Wang, H. W., Lin, C. P., Chiu, J. H., Chow, K. C., Kuo, K. T., Lin, C. S., and Wang, L. S. Reversal of inflammation-associated dihydrodiol dehydrogenases (AKR1C1 and AKR1C2) overexpression and drug resistance in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells by wogonin and chrysin. Int J Cancer 5-1-2007;120(9):2019-2027. View abstract.

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Wang, Z. Z., Jing, X. L., Guo, X. H., and Zhu, Y. Y. [Application of XRF to the analysis of Scutellaria baicalensis with space mutagenesis]. Guang.Pu.Xue.Yu Guang.Pu.Fen.Xi. 2011;31(4):1130-1132. View abstract.

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Woo, K. J., Lim, J. H., Suh, S. I., Kwon, Y. K., Shin, S. W., Kim, S. C., Choi, Y. H., Park, J. W., and Kwon, T. K. Differential inhibitory effects of baicalein and baicalin on LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression through inhibition of C/EBPbeta DNA-binding activity. Immunobiology 2006;211(5):359-368. View abstract.

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Wu, J. Y., Chung, K. T., Liu, Y. W., Lu, F. J., Tsai, R. S., Chen, C. H., and Chen, C. H. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel C(6) modified baicalein derivatives as antioxidative agents. J Agric Food Chem 4-23-2008;56(8):2838-2845. View abstract.

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Yang, L., Zheng, X. L., Sun, H., Zhong, Y. J., Wang, Q., He, H. N., Shi, X. W., Zhou, B., Li, J. K., Lin, Y., Zhang, L., and Wang, X. Catalase suppression-mediated H(2)O(2) accumulation in cancer cells by wogonin effectively blocks tumor necrosis factor-induced NF-kappaB activation and sensitizes apoptosis. Cancer Sci 2011;102(4):870-876. View abstract.

Yang, X., Huang, S., Chen, J., Song, N., Wang, L., Zhang, Z., Deng, G., Zheng, H., Zhu, X. Q., and Lu, F. Evaluation of the adjuvant properties of Astragalus membranaceus and Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI in the immune protection induced by UV-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii in mouse models. Vaccine 1-8-2010;28(3):737-743. View abstract.

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