Reviewed on 6/11/2021
Other Name(s):

Albahaca, Basilic, Basilic Commun, Basilic Grand, Basilic Grand Vert, Basilic Romain, Basilic aux Sauces, Basilici Herba, Basilici Herba, Common Basil, Garden Basil, Krishna Tulsi, Munjariki, Ocimum basilicum, St. Josephwort, Surasa, Sweet Basil, Vanatulasi, Varvara, Visva Tulsi.


Basil is an herb. The parts of the plant that grow above the ground are used to make medicine.

Basil is used for stomach spasms, loss of appetite, intestinal gas, kidney conditions, fluid retention, head colds, warts, and worm infections. It is also used to treat snake and insect bites.

Women sometimes use basil before and after childbirth to promote blood circulation, and also to start the flow of breast milk.

Some people use it as a gargle.

In foods, basil is used for flavor.

How does it work?

Basil contains many chemicals. These chemicals might help get rid of intestinal worms. Basil is a good source of vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and iron.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Acne. Early research suggests that applying a gel containing basil and sweet orange essential oils to the skin for 8 weeks might help clear breakouts in people with acne.
  • Mental alertness. Early research suggests that aromatherapy with basil, peppermint, and sandy everlasting essential oils for one week might improve attention, mental alertness, and mental focus in some people who report feelings of mental exhaustion.
  • Head colds.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Intestinal gas.
  • Stomach spasms.
  • Kidney disorders.
  • Blood circulation.
  • Worms.
  • Warts.
  • Snake and insect bites.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of basil for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Basil is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in food amounts.

Basil is POSSIBLY SAFE for adults when taken by mouth as a medicine, short-term. In some people basil can cause low blood sugar.

The above-ground parts of basil and basil oil are POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth as a medicine, long-term. These contain estragole, a chemical that might increase the risk of getting liver cancer.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Basil is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant and breast-feeding women in food amounts. But larger medicinal amounts are POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Basil contains a chemical, estragole, which has caused liver cancer in laboratory mice.

Children: Basil is LIKELY SAFE for children in food amounts. But larger medicinal amounts are POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Basil contains a chemical, estragole, which has caused liver cancer in laboratory mice.

Bleeding disorders: Basil oils and extracts might slow blood clotting and increase bleeding. In theory, basil oils and extracts might make bleeding disorders worse.

Low blood pressure: Basil extracts might lower blood pressure. In theory, taking basil extracts might make blood pressure become too low in people with low blood pressure.

Surgery: Basil oils and extracts might slow blood clotting. In theory, basil oils or extracts might increase the risk for bleeding during surgical procedures. Stop using basil at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Basil extract might decrease blood pressure in some people. Taking basil extract along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low. Do not take too much basil if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Basil oils and extracts might slow blood clotting. Taking basil oils or extracts along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.


The appropriate dose of basil depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for basil. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

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Iijima, Y., Davidovich-Rikanati, R., Fridman, E., Gang, D. R., Bar, E., Lewinsohn, E., and Pichersky, E. The biochemical and molecular basis for the divergent patterns in the biosynthesis of terpenes and phenylpropenes in the peltate glands of three cultivars of basil. Plant Physiol 2004;136(3):3724-3736. View abstract.

Iijima, Y., Gang, D. R., Fridman, E., Lewinsohn, E., and Pichersky, E. Characterization of geraniol synthase from the peltate glands of sweet basil. Plant Physiol 2004;134(1):370-379. View abstract.

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Itoh, K., Nakamura, K., Utsukihara, T., Sakamaki, H., and Horiuchi, C. A. Stereoselective oxidation of racemic 1-arylethanols by basil cultured cells of Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens. Biotechnol.Lett. 2008;30(5):951-954. View abstract.

Iyer, L. V., Ho, M. N., Shinn, W. M., Bradford, W. W., Tanga, M. J., Nath, S. S., and Green, C. E. Glucuronidation of 1'-hydroxyestragole (1'-HE) by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases UGT2B7 and UGT1A9. Toxicol Sci 2003;73(1):36-43. View abstract.

Jaganathan, S. K. and Supriyanto, E. Antiproliferative and molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Molecules. 2012;17(6):6290-6304. View abstract.

Javanmardi, J., Khalighi, A., Kashi, A., Bais, H. P., and Vivanco, J. M. Chemical characterization of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) found in local accessions and used in traditional medicines in Iran. J Agric.Food Chem 10-9-2002;50(21):5878-5883. View abstract.

Jayasinghe, C., Gotoh, N., Aoki, T., and Wada, S. Phenolics composition and antioxidant activity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J Agric.Food Chem. 7-16-2003;51(15):4442-4449. View abstract.

Jeurissen, S. M., Claassen, F. W., Havlik, J., Bouwmans, E. E., Cnubben, N. H., Sudholter, E. J., Rietjens, I. M., and van Beek, T. A. Development of an on-line high performance liquid chromatography detection system for human cytochrome P450 1A2 inhibitors in extracts of natural products. J Chromatogr.A 2-2-2007;1141(1):81-89. View abstract.

Jeurissen, S. M., Punt, A., Delatour, T., and Rietjens, I. M. Basil extract inhibits the sulfotransferase mediated formation of DNA adducts of the procarcinogen 1'-hydroxyestragole by rat and human liver S9 homogenates and in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Food Chem.Toxicol 2008;46(6):2296-2302. View abstract.

Kapteyn, J., Qualley, A. V., Xie, Z., Fridman, E., Dudareva, N., and Gang, D. R. Evolution of Cinnamate/p-coumarate carboxyl methyltransferases and their role in the biosynthesis of methylcinnamate. Plant Cell 2007;19(10):3212-3229. View abstract.

Kaya, I., Yigit, N., and Benli, M. Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. and observation of the inhibition effect on bacterial cells by use of scanning electron microscopy. Afr.J Tradit.Complement Altern.Med. 2008;5(4):363-369. View abstract.

Keita, S. M., Vincent, C., Schmit, J., Arnason, J. T., and Belanger, A. Efficacy of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and O. gratissimum L. applied as an insecticidal fumigant and powder to control Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). J Stored.Prod.Res 2001;37(4):339-349. View abstract.

Keita, S. M., Vincent, C., Schmit, J., Ramaswamy, S., and Belanger, A. Effect of various essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J Stored.Prod.Res 10-15-2000;36(4):355-364. View abstract.

Ketoh, G. K., Glitho, A. I., and Huignard, J. Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils. J Econ.Entomol. 2002;95(1):174-182. View abstract.

Kim, H. J., Chen, F., Wang, X., and Rajapakse, N. C. Effect of chitosan on the biological properties of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J Agric.Food Chem. 5-4-2005;53(9):3696-3701. View abstract.

Kim, O. K., Murakami, A., Nakamura, Y., and Ohigashi, H. Screening of edible Japanese plants for nitric oxide generation inhibitory activities in RAW 264.7 cells. Cancer Lett. 3-13-1998;125(1-2):199-207. View abstract.

Kintzios, S., Kollias, H., Straitouris, E., and Makri, O. Scale-up micropropagation of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in an airlift bioreactor and accumulation of rosmarinic acid. Biotechnol.Lett. 2004;26(6):521-523. View abstract.

Kintzios, S., Makri, O., Panagiotopoulos, E., and Scapeti, M. In vitro rosmarinic acid accumulation in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Biotechnol.Lett. 2003;25(5):405-408. View abstract.

Kivilompolo, M. and Hyotylainen, T. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography in analysis of Lamiaceae herbs: characterisation and quantification of antioxidant phenolic acids. J Chromatogr.A 3-23-2007;1145(1-2):155-164. View abstract.

Kivilompolo, M. and Hyotylainen, T. On-line coupled dynamic sonication-assisted extraction-liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in Lamiaceae herbs. J Chromatogr.A 2-6-2009;1216(6):892-896. View abstract.

Kniel, K. E., Shearer, A. E., Cascarino, J. L., Wilkins, G. C., and Jenkins, M. C. High hydrostatic pressure and UV light treatment of produce contaminated with Eimeria acervulina as a Cyclospora cayetanensis surrogate. J Food Prot. 2007;70(12):2837-2842. View abstract.

Koeduka, T., Fridman, E., Gang, D. R., Vassao, D. G., Jackson, B. L., Kish, C. M., Orlova, I., Spassova, S. M., Lewis, N. G., Noel, J. P., Baiga, T. J., Dudareva, N., and Pichersky, E. Eugenol and isoeugenol, characteristic aromatic constituents of spices, are biosynthesized via reduction of a coniferyl alcohol ester. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S A 6-27-2006;103(26):10128-10133. View abstract.

Koeduka, T., Louie, G. V., Orlova, I., Kish, C. M., Ibdah, M., Wilkerson, C. G., Bowman, M. E., Baiga, T. J., Noel, J. P., Dudareva, N., and Pichersky, E. The multiple phenylpropene synthases in both Clarkia breweri and Petunia hybrida represent two distinct protein lineages. Plant J 2008;54(3):362-374. View abstract.

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Kostic, M., Popovic, Z., Brkic, D., Milanovic, S., Sivcev, I., and Stankovic, S. Larvicidal and antifeedant activity of some plant-derived compounds to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Limantriidae). Bioresour.Technol. 2008;99(16):7897-7901. View abstract.

Kristinsson, K. G., Magnusdottir, A. B., Petersen, H., and Hermansson, A. Effective treatment of experimental acute otitis media by application of volatile fluids into the ear canal. J Infect.Dis. 6-1-2005;191(11):1876-1880. View abstract.

Kusamran, W. R., Ratanavila, A., and Tepsuwan, A. Effects of neem flowers, Thai and Chinese bitter gourd fruits and sweet basil leaves on hepatic monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferase activities, and in vitro metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens in rats. Food Chem.Toxicol 1998;36(6):475-484. View abstract.

Kusamran, W. R., Tepsuwan, A., and Kupradinun, P. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potentials of some Thai vegetables. Mutat.Res 6-18-1998;402(1-2):247-258. View abstract.

Lachowicz, K. J., Jones, G. P., Briggs, D. R., Bienvenu, F. E., Wan, J., Wilcock, A., and Coventry, M. J. The synergistic preservative effects of the essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) against acid-tolerant food microflora. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 1998;26(3):209-214. View abstract.

Lalko, J. and Api, A. M. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44(5):739-746. View abstract.

Lalonde, L. F. and Gajadhar, A. A. Highly sensitive and specific PCR assay for reliable detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2008;74(14):4354-4358. View abstract.

Lang, E. and Horster, H. [Sugar bound regular monoterpenes, (part) II production and accumulation of essential oils in Ocimum basilicum callus and suspension cultures (author's transl)]. Planta Med 1977;31(2):112-118. View abstract.

Lavilla, I., Filgueiras, A. V., and Bendicho, C. Comparison of digestion methods for determination of trace and minor metals in plant samples. J Agric.Food Chem. 1999;47(12):5072-5077. View abstract.

Lee, K. G. and Shibamoto, T. Determination of antioxidant potential of volatile extracts isolated from various herbs and spices. J Agric.Food Chem 8-14-2002;50(17):4947-4952. View abstract.

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Lewinsohn, E., Ziv-Raz, I., I, Dudai, N., Tadmor, Y., Lastochkin, E., Larkov, O., Chaimovitsh, D., Ravid, U., Putievsky, E., Pichersky, E., and Shoham, Y. Biosynthesis of estragole and methyl-eugenol in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L). Developmental and chemotypic association of allylphenol O-methyltransferase activities. Plant Sci. 12-7-2000;160(1):27-35. View abstract.

Li, Z., Wang, X., Chen, F., and Kim, H. J. Chemical changes and overexpressed genes in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) upon methyl jasmonate treatment. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-7-2007;55(3):706-713. View abstract.

Logarto, Parra A., Silva, Yhebra R., Guerra, Sardinas, I, and Iglesias, Buela L. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine. 2001;8(5):395-400. View abstract.

Lopez, A. S., Dodson, D. R., Arrowood, M. J., Orlandi Jr, P. A., da Silva, A. J., Bier, J. W., Hanauer, S. D., Kuster, R. L., Oltman, S., Baldwin, M. S., Won, K. Y., Nace, E. M., Eberhard, M. L., and Herwaldt, B. L. Outbreak of cyclosporiasis associated with basil in Missouri in 1999. Clin.Infect.Dis. 4-1-2001;32(7):1010-1017. View abstract.

Lopez, P., Sanchez, C., Batlle, R., and Nerin, C. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. J Agric.Food Chem 8-24-2005;53(17):6939-6946. View abstract.

Loughrin, J. H. and Kasperbauer, M. J. Light reflected from colored mulches affects aroma and phenol content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. J Agric.Food Chem. 2001;49(3):1331-1335. View abstract.

Louie, G. V., Baiga, T. J., Bowman, M. E., Koeduka, T., Taylor, J. H., Spassova, S. M., Pichersky, E., and Noel, J. P. Structure and reaction mechanism of basil eugenol synthase. PLoS.One. 2007;2(10):e993. View abstract.

Lucchesi, M. E., Chemat, F., and Smadja, J. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation. J Chromatogr.A 7-23-2004;1043(2):323-327. View abstract.

Maeda, O., Oikawa, C., Noguchi, K., Shiomi, N., Toriba, A., and Hayakawa, K. Quantification of iprodione in dry basil using silica gel supported titanium dioxide. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-10-2010;58(3):1416-1419. View abstract.

Makino, T., Ono, T., Liu, N., Nakamura, T., Muso, E., and Honda, G. Suppressive effects of rosmarinic acid on mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in rats. Nephron 2002;92(4):898-904. View abstract.

Makino, T., Ono, T., Muso, E., Yoshida, H., Honda, G., and Sasayama, S. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid on the proliferation of cultured murine mesangial cells. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2000;15(8):1140-1145. View abstract.

Maleki, A. and Zarasvand, M. A. Heavy metals in selected edible vegetables and estimation of their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran. Southeast Asian J Trop.Med.Public Health 2008;39(2):335-340. View abstract.

Manosroi, J., Dhumtanom, P., and Manosroi, A. Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines. Cancer Lett. 6-22-2005; View abstract.

Maralhas, A., Monteiro, A., Martins, C., Kranendonk, M., Laires, A., Rueff, J., and Rodrigues, A. S. Genotoxicity and endoreduplication inducing activity of the food flavouring eugenol. Mutagenesis 2006;21(3):199-204. View abstract.

Marzouk, A. M. Hepatoprotective triterpenes from hairy root cultures of Ocimum basilicum L. Z.Naturforsch.C. 2009;64(3-4):201-209. View abstract.

Matiz, G., Osorio, M. R., Camacho, F., Atencia, M., and Herazo, J. [Effectiveness of antimicrobial formulations for acne based on orange (Citrus sinensis) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L) essential oils]. Biomedica. 2012;32(1):125-133. View abstract.

Meera, R., Devi, P., Kameswari, B., Madhumitha, B., and Merlin, N. J. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Ocimum basilicum Linn. and Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. against H2O2 and CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity in goat liver. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2009;47(7):584-590. View abstract.

Mejlholm, O. and Dalgaard, P. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2002;34(1):27-31. View abstract.

Miele, M., Dondero, R., Ciarallo, G., and Mazzei, M. Methyleugenol in Ocimum basilicum L. Cv. genovese gigante. J Agric.Food Chem. 2001;49(1):517-521. View abstract.

Miele, M., Ledda, B., Falugi, C., and Mazzei, M. Methyleugenol and eugenol variation in Ocimum basilicum cv. Genovese gigante grown in greenhouse and in vitro. Boll.Soc.Ital.Biol.Sper. 2001;77(4-6):43-50. View abstract.

Montes-Belmont, R. and Carvajal, M. Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components. J Food Prot. 1998;61(5):616-619. View abstract.

Moreira-Lobo, D. C., Linhares-Siqueira, E. D., Cruz, G. M., Cruz, J. S., Carvalho-de-Souza, J. L., Lahlou, S., Coelho-de-Souza, A. N., Barbosa, R., Magalhaes, P. J., and Leal-Cardoso, J. H. Eugenol modifies the excitability of rat sciatic nerve and superior cervical ganglion neurons. Neurosci.Lett. 3-26-2010;472(3):220-224. View abstract.

Muller, L., Kasper, P., Muller-Tegethoff, K., and Petr, T. The genotoxic potential in vitro and in vivo of the allyl benzene etheric oils estragole, basil oil and trans-anethole. Mutat.Res 1994;325(4):129-136. View abstract.

Murugan, K., Murugan, P., and Noortheen, A. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Albizzia amara Boivin and Ocimum basilicum Linn against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Insecta:Diptera:Culicidae). Bioresour.Technol. 2007;98(1):198-201. View abstract.

Negishi, O., Negishi, Y., and Ozawa, T. Effects of food materials on removal of Allium-specific volatile sulfur compounds. J Agric.Food Chem. 6-19-2002;50(13):3856-3861. View abstract.

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NICHOLAS, H. J. Determination of sterol and triterpene content of Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis at various stages of growth. J Pharm Sci. 1961;50:645-647. View abstract.

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Niture, S. K., Rao, U. S., and Srivenugopal, K. S. Chemopreventative strategies targeting the MGMT repair protein: augmented expression in human lymphocytes and tumor cells by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of several Indian medicinal plants. Int J Oncol. 2006;29(5):1269-1278. View abstract.

Opalchenova, G. and Obreshkova, D. Comparative studies on the activity of basil--an essential oil from Ocimum basilicum L.--against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of the genera Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas by using different test methods. J.Microbiol.Methods 2003;54(1):105-110. View abstract.

Orhan, I., Kartal, M., Kan, Y., and Sener, B. Activity of essential oils and individual components against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. Z.Naturforsch.C. 2008;63(7-8):547-553. View abstract.

Oswald, M., Fischer, M., Dirninger, N., and Karst, F. Monoterpenoid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res 2007;7(3):413-421. View abstract.

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Oxenham, S. K., Svoboda, K. P., and Walters, D. R. Altered growth and polyamine catabolism following exposure of the chocolate spot pathogen Botrytis fabae to the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum. Mycologia. 2005;97(3):576-579. View abstract.

Oyebola, D. D. Cow's urine concoction: its chemical composition, pharmacological actions and mode of lethality. Afr.J Med Med Sci 1983;12(1):57-63. View abstract.

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Pakalniskiene, J., Falkenhorst, G., Lisby, M., Madsen, S. B., Olsen, K. E., Nielsen, E. M., Mygh, A., Boel, J., and Molbak, K. A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark, November 2006. Epidemiol.Infect. 2009;137(3):396-401. View abstract.

Pathak, A. K., Bhutani, M., Nair, A. S., Ahn, K. S., Chakraborty, A., Kadara, H., Guha, S., Sethi, G., and Aggarwal, B. B. Ursolic acid inhibits STAT3 activation pathway leading to suppression of proliferation and chemosensitization of human multiple myeloma cells. Mol.Cancer Res 2007;5(9):943-955. View abstract.

Pavela, R. Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 2004;75(7-8):745-749. View abstract.

Pavela, R. Larvicidal effects of various Euro-Asiatic plants against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol.Res 2008;102(3):555-559. View abstract.

Pezzoli, L., Elson, R., Little, C. L., Yip, H., Fisher, I., Yishai, R., Anis, E., Valinsky, L., Biggerstaff, M., Patel, N., Mather, H., Brown, D. J., Coia, J. E., van Pelt, W., Nielsen, E. M., Ethelberg, S., de Pinna, E., Hampton, M. D., Peters, T., and Threlfall, J. Packed with Salmonella--investigation of an international outbreak of Salmonella Senftenberg infection linked to contamination of prepacked basil in 2007. Foodborne.Pathog.Dis. 2008;5(5):661-668. View abstract.

Pezzoli, L., Elson, R., Little, C., Fisher, I., Yip, H., Peters, T., Hampton, M., de Pinna, E., Coia, J. E., Mather, H. A., Brown, D. J., Nielsen, E. M., Ethelberg, S., Heck, M., de Jager, C., and Threlfall, J. International outbreak of Salmonella Senftenberg in 2007. Euro.Surveill 2007;12(6):E070614. View abstract.

Phasomkusolsil, S. and Soonwera, M. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate. Southeast Asian J Trop.Med.Public Health 2010;41(4):831-840. View abstract.

Phippen, W. B. and Simon, J. E. Anthocyanin inheritance and instability in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)]. J Hered. 2000;91(4):289-296. View abstract.

Pogany, D., Bell, C. L., and Kirch, E. R. Isolation and identification of benzyl ether in a sample of basil oil. J Pharm Sci. 1967;56(4):532-533. View abstract.

Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J. M., and Alves, S. H. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54(11):950-956. View abstract.

Pusapukdepob, J., Sawangwong, P., Pulket, C., Satraphat, D., Saowakontha, S., and Panutrakul, S. Health risk assessment of villagers who live near a lead mining area: a case study of Klity village, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop.Med.Public Health 2007;38(1):168-177. View abstract.

Qiao, S., Li, W., Tsubouchi, R., Haneda, M., Murakami, K., Takeuchi, F., Nisimoto, Y., and Yoshino, M. Rosmarinic acid inhibits the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in RAW264.7 macrophages. Free Radic.Res 2005;39(9):995-1003. View abstract.

Rady, M. R. and Nazif, N. M. Rosmarinic acid content and RAPD analysis of in vitro regenerated basil (Ocimum americanum) plants. Fitoterapia 2005;76(6):525-533. View abstract.

Rai, M. K., Qureshi, S., and Pandey, A. K. In vitro susceptibility of opportunistic Fusarium spp. to essential oils. Mycoses 1999;42(1-2):97-101. View abstract.

Reiter, M. and Brandt, W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneimittelforschung. 1985;35(1A):408-414. View abstract.

Renzulli, C., Galvano, F., Pierdomenico, L., Speroni, E., and Guerra, M. C. Effects of rosmarinic acid against aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin-A-induced cell damage in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2). J Appl Toxicol 2004;24(4):289-296. View abstract.

Sacchetti, G., Medici, A., Maietti, S., Radice, M., Muzzoli, M., Manfredini, S., Braccioli, E., and Bruni, R. Composition and functional properties of the essential oil of amazonian basil, Ocimum micranthum Willd., Labiatae in comparison with commercial essential oils. J Agric.Food Chem. 6-2-2004;52(11):3486-3491. View abstract.

Santoro, G. F., Cardoso, M. G., Guimaraes, L. G., Mendonca, L. Z., and Soares, M. J. Trypanosoma cruzi: activity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium L., Syzygium aromaticum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes. Exp.Parasitol. 2007;116(3):283-290. View abstract.

Saraswat, M., Muthenna, P., Suryanarayana, P., Petrash, J. M., and Reddy, G. B. Dietary sources of aldose reductase inhibitors: prospects for alleviating diabetic complications. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(4):558-565. View abstract.

Satoh, T. and Sugawara, Y. Effects on humans elicited by inhaling the fragrance of essential oils: sensory test, multi-channel thermometric study and forehead surface potential wave measurement on basil and peppermint. Anal.Sci. 2003;19(1):139-146. View abstract.

Schulz, H., Schrader, B., Quilitzsch, R., Pfeffer, S., and Kruger, H. Rapid classification of basil chemotypes by various vibrational spectroscopy methods. J Agric.Food Chem. 4-23-2003;51(9):2475-2481. View abstract.

Seyoum, A., Palsson, K., Kung'a, S., Kabiru, E. W., Lwande, W., Killeen, G. F., Hassanali, A., and Knols, B. G. Traditional use of mosquito-repellent plants in western Kenya and their evaluation in semi-field experimental huts against Anopheles gambiae: ethnobotanical studies and application by thermal expulsion and direct burning. Trans.R.Soc.Trop.Med.Hyg. 2002;96(3):225-231. View abstract.

Siddiqui, B. S., Aslam, H., Ali, S. T., Begum, S., and Khatoon, N. Two new triterpenoids and a steroidal glycoside from the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 2007;55(4):516-519. View abstract.

Siddiqui, B. S., Aslam, H., Begum, S., and Ali, S. T. New cinnamic acid esters from Ocimum basilicum. Nat.Prod.Res 7-10-2007;21(8):736-741. View abstract.

Silva, M. G., Vieira, I. G., Mendes, F. N., Albuquerque, I. L., dos Santos, R. N., Silva, F. O., and Morais, S. M. Variation of ursolic acid content in eight Ocimum species from northeastern Brazil. Molecules. 2008;13(10):2482-2487. View abstract.

Singh, S. Evaluation of gastric anti-ulcer activity of fixed oil of Ocimum basilicum Linn. and its possible mechanism of action. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1999;37(3):253-257. View abstract.

Siurin, S. A. [Effects of essential oil on lipid peroxidation and lipid metabolism in patients with chronic bronchitis]. Klin.Med (Mosk) 1997;75(10):43-45. View abstract.

Skrovankova, S., Misurcova, L., and Machu, L. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants. Adv.Food Nutr Res 2012;67:75-139. View abstract.

Soliman, K. M. and Badeaa, R. I. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food Chem.Toxicol 2002;40(11):1669-1675. View abstract.

Steele, M., Unger, S., and Odumeru, J. Sensitivity of PCR detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis in raspberries, basil, and mesclun lettuce. J.Microbiol.Methods 2003;54(2):277-280. View abstract.

Sugawara, Y., Hino, Y., Kawasaki, M., Hara, C., Tamura, K., Sugimoto, N., Yamanishi, Y., Miyauchi, M., Masujima, T., and Aoki, T. Alteration of perceived fragrance of essential oils in relation to type of work: a simple screening test for efficacy of aroma. Chem Senses 1999;24(4):415-421. View abstract.

Suppakul, P., Miltz, J., Sonneveld, K., and Bigger, S. W. Antimicrobial properties of basil and its possible application in food packaging. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-21-2003;51(11):3197-3207. View abstract.

Tawfiq, N., Wanigatunga, S., Heaney, R. K., Musk, S. R., Williamson, G., and Fenwick, G. R. Induction of the anti-carcinogenic enzyme quinone reductase by food extracts using murine hepatoma cells. Eur.J Cancer Prev. 1994;3(3):285-292. View abstract.

Tognolini, M., Barocelli, E., Ballabeni, V., Bruni, R., Bianchi, A., Chiavarini, M., and Impicciatore, M. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity. Life Sci. 2-23-2006;78(13):1419-1432. View abstract.

Tohti, I., Tursun, M., Umar, A., Turdi, S., Imin, H., and Moore, N. Aqueous extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) decrease platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin in vitro and rats arterio--venous shunt thrombosis in vivo. Thromb.Res 2006;118(6):733-739. View abstract.

Toussaint, J. P., Smith, F. A., and Smith, S. E. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can induce the production of phytochemicals in sweet basil irrespective of phosphorus nutrition. Mycorrhiza. 2007;17(4):291-297. View abstract.

Tsai, P. J., Tsai, T. H., Yu, C. H., and Ho, S. C. Evaluation of NO-suppressing activity of several Mediterranean culinary spices. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45(3):440-447. View abstract.

Tuntipopipat, S., Muangnoi, C., and Failla, M. L. Anti-inflammatory activities of extracts of Thai spices and herbs with lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. J Med.Food 2009;12(6):1213-1220. View abstract.

Umar, A., Imam, G., Yimin, W., Kerim, P., Tohti, I., Berke, B., and Moore, N. Antihypertensive effects of Ocimum basilicum L. (OBL) on blood pressure in renovascular hypertensive rats. Hypertens.Res 5-7-2010; View abstract.

Varney, E. and Buckle, J. Effect of inhaled essential oils on mental exhaustion and moderate burnout: a small pilot study. J Altern.Complement Med. 2013;19(1):69-71. View abstract.

Vassao, D. G., Gang, D. R., Koeduka, T., Jackson, B., Pichersky, E., Davin, L. B., and Lewis, N. G. Chavicol formation in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum): cleavage of an esterified C9 hydroxyl group with NAD(P)H-dependent reduction. Org Biomol.Chem. 7-21-2006;4(14):2733-2744. View abstract.

Velazquez, C., Calzada, F., Torres, J., Gonzalez, F., and Ceballos, G. Antisecretory activity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Mexico. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-3-2006;103(1):66-70. View abstract.

Vieira, R. F., Grayer, R. J., and Paton, A. J. Chemical profiling of Ocimum americanum using external flavonoids. Phytochemistry 2003;63(5):555-567. View abstract.

Wan, J., Wilcock, A., and Coventry, M. J. The effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens. J Appl.Microbiol. 1998;84(2):152-158. View abstract.

Wang, T., Cui, S. Y., Hu, X. L., and Lu, R. H. [Study on the constituents of volatile oil from Ocimum basilicum]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2003;28(8):740-742. View abstract.

Wannissorn, B., Jarikasem, S., Siriwangchai, T., and Thubthimthed, S. Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 2005;76(2):233-236. View abstract.

Xie, Z., Kapteyn, J., and Gang, D. R. A systems biology investigation of the MEP/terpenoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways points to multiple levels of metabolic control in sweet basil glandular trichomes. Plant J 2008;54(3):349-361. View abstract.

Yadav, S., Mittal, P. K., Saxena, P. N., and Singh, R. K. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae. J Commun.Dis. 2009;41(1):33-38. View abstract.

Yamasaki, K., Nakano, M., Kawahata, T., Mori, H., Otake, T., Ueba, N., Oishi, I., Inami, R., Yamane, M., Nakamura, M., Murata, H., and Nakanishi, T. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae. Biol.Pharm Bull 1998;21(8):829-833. View abstract.

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