Other Name(s):

Atomic number 83, Basic Bismuth Carbonate, Basic Bismuth Gallate (BSG), Basic Bismuth Nitrate (BSN), Bi, Bismuth, Bismuth Aluminate, Bismuth Biskalcitrate, Bismuth Carbomer, Bismuth Citrate, Bismuth Gallate, Bismuth Oxynitrate, Bismuth Phosphate, Bismuth Salts, Bismuth Sodium Triglycollamate, Bismuth Subcarbonate, Bismuth Subcitrate, Bismuth Subgallate, Bismuth Subnitrate, Bismuth Subsalicylate, Bismuth-Peptide Complex (BPC, bicitropeptide), Colloidal Bismuth Subcitrate, Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate, Tripotassium Dicitrato Bismuthate.


Bismuth (Bi) is a chemical element with the atomic number 83. Supplements containing bismuth usually contain bismuth as a salt.

People take bismuth salts by mouth for inflammation of the lining of the colon (colitis), constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, odor caused by an opening in the belly wall during surgery (ileostomy odor), stomach problems caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs, stomach ulcers, stomach flu, and preventing traveler's diarrhea.

People apply bismuth salt to the skin for hemorrhoids.

People use bismuth as an enema for pouchitis. This condition involves inflammation in an artificial rectum created after surgery for ulcerative colitis.

Bismuth salts are also added to cosmetics, batteries, paints, and pigment plastics in manufacturing.

How does it work?

Bismuth salts seem to help eliminate bacteria that cause stomach problems such as diarrhea and stomach ulcers. Bismuth salts also work like an antacid to treat problems such as indigestion. Bismuth also might speed up blood clotting.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Uses & Effectiveness

Likely Effective for...

  • Traveler's diarrhea. Research shows that taking bismuth subsalicylate the day before traveling and continuing until 2 days after returning home reduces the risk of traveler's diarrhea by up to 41%.

Possibly Effective for...

  • Preventing ulcers caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Research shows that taking bismuth by mouth three times daily for 4 weeks does not cure H. pylori infection when taken alone. However, some research shows that bismuth salts might improve healing when taken with antibiotics. But taking bismuth with antibiotics might increase the risk for side effects. Bismuth salts have also been taken in combination with antibiotics and medications that decrease stomach acid (proton pump inhibitors). Research shows that this combination might treat H. pylori infections as well as other antibiotic combination therapies. Also, this combination might work better than antibiotic combination therapies in people who have developed resistance to some of these antibiotics.
  • Stomach ulcers. Early research suggests that taking a certain bismuth salt three times daily for 4 weeks is as effective as taking the drug cimetidine daily for 4 weeks at preventing stomach ulcers from recurring. Taking this bismuth salt might also improve the effects of antibiotics when used to treat stomach ulcers associated with H. pylori infection.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Bleeding. Early research suggests that smearing bismuth paste that also contains adrenaline onto swabs and placing the swabs in the throat around the tonsils and adenoids for 2-3 minutes following adenoid or tonsil-removal surgery reduces operating time and bleeding. However, other research shows that bismuth paste that does not contain adrenaline doesn't affect operating or bleeding time.
  • Inflammation of the lining of the colon (Colitis). Early research shows that taking a certain bismuth salt three times daily for 8 weeks decreases stool frequency in people with colitis.
  • Odor caused by an opening in the belly wall during surgery (Ileostomy odor). Early research suggests that taking a bismuth salt by mouth three times daily for 1 week reduces or eliminates the odor caused by an opening in the belly wall during surgery.
  • Inflammation in an artificial rectum created after surgery for ulcerative colitis (Pouchitis). Early research suggests that using an enema containing elemental bismuth mixed with a particular gel nightly for 45 days reduces pouchitis symptoms. However, other evidence suggests that using bismuth enemas does not improve symptoms of pouchitis.
  • Constipation.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Indigestion.
  • Stomach problems caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs.
  • Stomach flu.
  • Hemorrhoids.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate bismuth for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Taking a certain bismuth salt called bismuth subgallate by mouth, short-term and as directed, is LIKELY SAFE when used to treat odor caused by an opening in the belly wall during surgery. Also, another bismuth salt called bismuth subsalicylate is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth short-term and as directed to treat diarrhea. These two bismuth salts are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat these conditions.

Other forms of bismuth salts are POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately, short-term. Bismuth salts, including ranitidine bismuth citrate, colloidal bismuth subcitrate, and bismuth subnitrate appear to be safe when taken in doses of 400-2100 mg daily for up to 56 days.

Bismuth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in large amounts due to the risk for kidney failure, and when taken over the long-term due to the risk of nerve damage.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking bismuth if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Bismuth subgallate and bismuth subsalicylate are LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth short-term and as directed. Taking 200-400 mg of bismuth subgallate by mouth up to four times daily is approved by the US FDA as a deodorant drug for children at least 12 years-old. Taking 1.05 grams of bismuth subsalicylate by mouth hourly as needed (no more than 4.2 grams daily) for up to 2 days is approved by the US FDA for diarrhea in children at least 12 years-old. There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking other bismuth salts by mouth in children. Bismuth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in large amounts or over a prolonged time period.

Allergy to salicylate: Many bismuth supplements contain the bismuth salt called bismuth subsalicylate. When taken by mouth, bismuth subsalicylate breaks down in the stomach to form bismuth and salicylate. In theory, people who are sensitive to salicylate might have a serious side effect to these supplements


AspirinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Many dietary supplements contain bismuth in the form of bismuth subsalicylate. When taken by mouth, bismuth subsalicylate is broken down into bismuth and salicylate. Because aspirin contains salicylate, taking bismuth with aspirin might increase the effects and side effects of aspirin.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are taken to slow blood clotting. Bismuth salts might increase how quickly blood clots. Taking bismuth salts with these medications might reduce their effects and increase the risk of blood clots. Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Omeprazole (Prilosec)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Omeprazole increases how much bismuth the body absorbs. Taking omeprazole with bismuth might increase the effects and side effects of bismuth.

Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

There is some concern that a specific bismuth salt called bismuth subsalicylate might decrease the effects of warfarin. People using warfarin should avoid using bismuth subsalicylate. However, this interaction is not likely for other bismuth salts.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

By mouth:

For preventing ulcers caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori): As a triple therapy, 120 mg bismuth subcitrate, 500 mg amoxicillin, and 250 mg metronidazole four times daily for 14 days have been used. As a bismuth quadruple therapy (BQT), 240-1680 mg of bismuth salts daily, 400-1500 mg of metronidazole daily, 1500-2000 mg of tetracycline daily, and a medication that decreases stomach acid (proton pump inhibitor) for a total of 7 to 14 days have been used.

For stomach ulcers: 700 mg of bismuth subnitrate three times daily for 4 weeks has been used. Also, 300 mg of bismuth subnitrate four times daily, 20 mg of omeprazole twice daily, and 500 mg of amoxicillin four times daily for 2 weeks have been used.

For traveler's diarrhea prevention: 1.05-2.1 grams of bismuth subsalicylate in two divided doses daily beginning the day before traveling and continuing until 2 days after returning home has been used.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Addrizzo-Harris, D. J., Churg, A., and Rom, W. N. Radio-opaque punctate opacities on the chest radiograph following intravenous injection of a bismuth compound. Thorax 1997;52(3):303-304. View abstract.

Araujo Castillo, R., Pinto Valdivia, J. L., Ramirez, D., Cok Garcia, J., and Bussalleu Rivera, A. [New ultrashort scheme for helicobacter pylori infection eradication using tetracyline, furazolidone and colloidal bismuth subcitrate in dyspeptic patients with or without peptic ulceration in the National Hospital Cayetano Heredia]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 2005;25(1):23-41. View abstract.

Bianchi Porro, G., Lazzaroni, M., and Cortvriendt, W. R. Maintenance therapy with colloidal bismuth subcitrate in duodenal ulcer disease. Digestion 1987;37 Suppl 2:47-52. View abstract.

Bingham AL, Brown RO, Dickerson RN. Inadvertent exaggerated anticoagulation following use of bismuth subsalicylate in an enterally fed patient receiving warfarin therapy. Nutr Clin Pract 2013;28(6):766-9. View abstract.

Bujanda, L., Sanchez, A., Iriondo, C., Santos, A., Cosme, A., and Munoz, C. [Comparative study of the eradication of Helicobacter pylori: ranitidine bismuth citrate versus omeprazole plus two antibiotics for seven days]. An Med Interna 2001;18(7):361-363. View abstract.

Callanan, V., Curran, A. J., Smyth, D. A., and Gormley, P. K. The influence of bismuth subgallate and adrenaline paste upon operating time and operative blood loss in tonsillectomy. J Laryngol Otol 1995;109(3):206-208. View abstract.

Carvalho, A. F., Fiorelli, L. A., Jorge, V. N., Da Silva, C. M., De Nucci, G., Ferraz, J. G., and Pedrazzoli, J. Addition of bismuth subnitrate to omeprazole plus amoxycillin improves eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998;12(6):557-561. View abstract.

Cengiz, N., Uslu, Y., Gok, F., and Anarat, A. Acute renal failure after overdose of colloidal bismuth subcitrate. Pediatr Nephrol 2005;20(9):1355-1358. View abstract.

Chey, W. D., Fisher, L., Elta, G. H., Barnett, J. L., Nostrant, T., DelValle, J., Hasler, W. L., and Scheiman, J. M. Bismuth subsalicylate instead of metronidazole with lansoprazole and clarithromycin for Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized trial. Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92(9):1483-1486. View abstract.

Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 - Foods and Drugs. Chapter 1 - Food and Drug Administration. Subchapter D - Drugs for Human Use. Part 335 Antidiarrheal drug products for over-the-counter human use. Available at:

Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 - Foods and Drugs. Chapter 1 - Food and Drug Administration. Subchapter D - Drugs for Human Use. Part 357 Miscellaneous internal drug products for over-the-counter human use. Available at:

Cohen PR. Black tongue secondary to bismuth subsalicylate: case report and review of exogenous causes of macular lingual pigmentation. J Drugs Dermatol 2009;8(12):1132-5. View abstract.

DuPont, H. L., Ericsson, C. D., Johnson, P. C., Bitsura, J. A., DuPont, M. W., and de la Cabada, F. J. Prevention of travelers' diarrhea by the tablet formulation of bismuth subsalicylate. JAMA 1987;257(10):1347-1350. View abstract.

DuPont, H. L., Sullivan, P., Evans, D. G., Pickering, L. K., Evans, D. J., Jr., Vollet, J. J., Ericsson, C. D., Ackerman, P. B., and Tjoa, W. S. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea (emporiatric enteritis). Prophylactic administration of subsalicylate bismuth). JAMA 1980;243(3):237-241. View abstract.

DuPont, H. L., Sullivan, P., Pickering, L. K., Haynes, G., and Ackerman, P. B. Symptomatic treatment of diarrhea with bismuth subsalicylate among students attending a Mexican university. Gastroenterology 1977;73(4 Pt 1):715-718. View abstract.

FILIPOVA, J. and SRBOVA, J. [Calcium-disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTACAL Spofa) in the treatment of thallium and bismuth poisoning]. Prac Lek 1960;12:152-155. View abstract.

Fine K, Ogunji F, Lee E, Lafon G, Tanzi M. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of bismuth subsalicylate for microscopic colitis. Gastroenterology 1999; Vol. 116, issue 4:G3825.

Fine, K. D. and Lee, E. L. Efficacy of open-label bismuth subsalicylate for the treatment of microscopic colitis. Gastroenterology 1998;114(1):29-36. View abstract.

Fischbach LA, van Zanten S, Dickason J. Meta-analysis: the efficacy, adverse events, and adherence related to first-line anti-Helicobacter pylori quadruple therapies. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20(10):1071-82. View abstract.

Ford AC, Malfertheiner P, Giguere M, et al. Adverse events with bismuth salts for Helicobacter pylori eradication: systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14(48):7361-70. View abstract.

Gené E, Calvet X, Azagra R, Gisbert JP. Triple vs. quadruple therapy for treating Helicobacter pylori infection: a meta-analysis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17(9):1137-43. View abstract.

Gionchetti, P., Rizzello, F., Venturi, A., Ferretti, M., Brignola, C., Peruzzo, S., Belloli, C., Poggioli, G., Miglioli, M., and Campieri, M. Long-term efficacy of bismuth carbomer enemas in patients with treatment-resistant chronic pouchitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997;11(4):673-678. View abstract.

Gisbert JP, Pajares R, Pajares JM. Evolution of Helicobacter pylori therapy from a meta-analytical perspective. Helicobacter 2007;12 Suppl 2:50-8. View abstract.

Gisbert, J. P., Marcos, S., Gisbert, J. L., and Pajares, J. M. High efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole twice daily for only five days in Helicobacter pylori Eradication. Helicobacter 2001;6(2):157-162. View abstract.

GOELTNER, E. [Versenate treatment of alopecia following bismuth therapy]. Z Haut Geschlechtskr 1961;31:164-169. View abstract.

Goldenberg, M. M., Honkomp, L. J., and Davis, C. S. Antinauseant and antiemetic properties of bismuth subsalicylate in dogs and humans. J Pharm Sci 1976;65(9):1398-1400. View abstract.

Heckers, H., Mannl, M. R., Muskat, E., Stelz, A., and Bodeker, R. H. [Absorption and renal elimination of bismuth from 6 different bismuth salts after a single dosage]. Z Gastroenterol 1994;32(7):375-381. View abstract.

Hoffman, J. S., Katz, L. M., and Cave, D. R. Efficacy of a 1-week regimen of ranitidine bismuth citrate in combination with metronidazole and clarithromycin for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;13(4):503-506. View abstract.

Ioffreda MD, Gordon CA, Adams DR, Naides SJ, Miller JJ. Black tongue. Arch Dermatol 2001;137(7):968-9. View abstract.

Jacobsen JB, Hüttel MS. [Methemhemoglobinemia after excessive intake of a subnitrate containing antacid]. Ugeskr Laeger 1982;144(32):2349-50. View abstract.

James JA. Acute renal failure due to a bismuth preparation. Calif Med 1968;109(4):317-9. View abstract.

Johnson, P. C., Ericsson, C. D., DuPont, H. L., Morgan, D. R., Bitsura, J. A., and Wood, L. V. Comparison of loperamide with bismuth subsalicylate for the treatment of acute travelers' diarrhea. JAMA 1986;255(6):757-760. View abstract.

Kaviani, M. J., Malekzadeh, R., Vahedi, H., Sotoudeh, M., Kamalian, N., Amini, M., and Massarrat, S. Various durations of a standard regimen (amoxycillin, metronidazole, colloidal bismuth sub-citrate for 2 weeks or with additional ranitidine for 1 or 2 weeks) on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Iranian peptic ulcer patients. A randomized controlled trial. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13(8):915-919. View abstract.

Kim, S. H., Tramontina, V. A., Papalexiou, V., and Luczyszyn, S. M. Bismuth subgallate as a topical hemostatic agent at palatal donor sites. Quintessence Int 2010;41(8):645-649. View abstract.

Koch, K. M., Kerr, B. M., Gooding, A. E., and Davis, I. M. Pharmacokinetics of bismuth and ranitidine following multiple doses of ranitidine bismuth citrate. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1996;42(2):207-211. View abstract.

Konturek, S. J., Brzozowski, T., Majka, J., Szlachcic, A., and Pytko-Polonczyk, J. Implications of nitric oxide in the action of cytoprotective drugs on gastric mucosa. J Clin Gastroenterol 1993;17 Suppl 1:S140-S145. View abstract.

Lacey, L. F., Frazer, N. M., Keene, O. N., and Smith, J. T. Comparative pharmacokinetics of bismuth from ranitidine bismuth citrate (GR122311X), a novel anti-ulcerant and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB). Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1994;47(2):177-180. View abstract.

Lambert JR. Pharmacology of bismuth-containing compounds. Rev Infect Dis 1991;13(8):S691-S695. View abstract.

Lambert, J. R. and Midolo, P. The actions of bismuth in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997;11 Suppl 1:27-33. View abstract.

Leonard NM, Wieland LC, Mohan RS. Applications of bismuth(III) compounds in organic synthesis. Tetrahedron 2002;58:8373-8397.

Lerang F, Moum B, Ragnhildstveit E, et al. A comparison between omeprazole-based triple therapy and bismuth-based triple therapy for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: a prospective randomized 1-yr follow-up study. Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92(4):653-8. View abstract.

Mach, T. [Morphology of the gastric mucosa in patients with duodenal ulcer treated with bismuth-containing drugs]. Folia Med Cracov 1995;36(1-4):53-75. View abstract.

Masannat Y, Nazer E. Pepto bismuth associated neurotoxicity: A rare side effect of a commonly used medication. W V Med J 2013;109(3):32-4. View abstract.

Mishkin, S. Intriguing gastrointestinal properties of bismuth: a folk remedy brought into the realm of clinical and investigative medicine. Can J Gastroenterol 1998;12(8):569-570. View abstract.

Moeschlin, S. [Clinical-hematological demonstrations: aplastic anemia, acute leukemias, polyneuropathy in Waldenstrom's disease, acute porphyria]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1975;105(40):1289-1298. View abstract.

Murin, M. B., Belyi, IuN, Barchukov, V. G., and Salenko, IuA. [The use of enterosorbents for preventing and stopping chronic toxic stress in submariners]. Voen Med Zh 2000;321(3):62-7, 96. View abstract.

Newton, D., Talbot, R. J., and Priest, N. D. Human biokinetics of injected bismuth-207. Hum Exp Toxicol 2001;20(12):601-609. View abstract.

Nijevitch, A. A., Farztdinov, K. M., Sataev, V. U., Khasanov, R. Sh., Katayev, V. A., Khusnutdinov, S. M., Akhunov, E. D., and Kazykhanov, N. S. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood: results of management with ranitidine bismuth citrate plus amoxicillin and tinidazole. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000;15(11):1243-1250. View abstract.

Nwokolo, C. U., Prewett, E. J., Sawyerr, A. M., Hudson, M., and Pounder, R. E. The effect of histamine H2-receptor blockade on bismuth absorption from three ulcer-healing compounds. Gastroenterology 1991;101(4):889-894. View abstract.

Phillips, R. H., Whitehead, M. W., Lacey, S., Champion, M., Thompson, R. P., and Powell, J. J. Solubility, absorption, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of bismuth subnitrate and colloidal bismuth subcitrate: In vitro data Do not predict In vivo efficacy. Helicobacter 2000;5(3):176-182. View abstract.

Pozzato, P., Zagari, M., Cardelli, A., Catalano, F. A., Giglio, A., Lami, F., Pilotto, A., Scarpulla, G., Spadaccini, A., Susi, D., Tosatto, R., Olivieri, A., Bazzoli, F., and Roda, E. Ranitidine bismuth citrate plus clarithromycin 7-day regimen is effective in eradicating Helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998;12(5):447-451. View abstract.

Prewett, E. J., Nwokolo, C. U., Hudson, M., Sawyerr, A. M., Fraser, A., and Pounder, R. E. The effect of GR122311X, a bismuth compound with H2-antagonist activity, on 24-hour intragastric acidity. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1991;5(5):481-490. View abstract.

Pugh, S. and Lewin, M. R. Mechanism of action of Roter (bismuth subnitrate) in patients with duodenal ulcer disease and healthy volunteers. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1990;5(4):382-386. View abstract.

Scott, B. B. Bismuth-containing single-antibiotic 1-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998;12(3):277-279. View abstract.

Slikkerveer, A. and de Wolff, F. A. Bismuth poisoning and chelation. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1993;31(2):365-366. View abstract.

Slikkerveer, A., Jong, H. B., Helmich, R. B., and de Wolff, F. A. Development of a therapeutic procedure for bismuth intoxication with chelating agents. J Lab Clin Med 1992;119(5):529-537. View abstract.

Slikkerveer, A., Noach, L. A., Tytgat, G. N., Van der Voet, G. B., and De Wolff, F. A. Comparison of enhanced elimination of bismuth in humans after treatment with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid and D,L-2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid. Analyst 1998;123(1):91-92. View abstract.

Sontag, S. J., O'Connell, S., Schnell, T., Chejfec, G., Seidel, J., and Sonnenberg, A. Reduced symptoms and need for antisecretory therapy in veterans 3 years after Helicobacter pylori eradication with ranitidine bismuth citrate/amoxicillin/clarithromycin. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96(5):1390-1395. View abstract.

Sorensen, W. T., Henrichsen, J., and Bonding, P. Does bismuth subgallate have haemostatic effects in tonsillectomy? Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 1999;24(1):72-74. View abstract.

Sparberg, M. Correspondence: Bismuth subgallate as an effective means for the control of ileostomy odor: a double blind study. Gastroenterology 1974;66(3):476. View abstract.

Steffen R, DuPont HL, Heusser R, et al. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea by the tablet form of bismuth subsalicylate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1986;29(4):625-7. View abstract.

Supino-Viterbo V, Sicard C, Risvegliato M, Rancurel G, Buge A. Toxic encephalopathy due to ingestion of bismuth salts: clinical and EEG studies of 45 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1977;40(8):748-52. View abstract.

Thijs JC, van Zwet AA, Moolenaar W, Wolfhagen MJ, ten Bokkel Huinink J. Triple therapy vs. amoxicillin plus omeprazole for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled study of efficacy and side effects. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91(1):93-7. View abstract.

Topfmeier, P., Eberhardt, R., Mateblowski, M., and Kuhn, D. Ulcer relapse rates following initial treatment with bismuth subnitrate as compared with cimetidine respectively. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1991;29(11):437-440. View abstract.

Treiber, G., Walker, S., and Klotz, U. Omeprazole-induced increase in the absorption of bismuth from tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994;55(5):486-491. View abstract.

Tremaine, W. J., Sandborn, W. J., Wolff, B. G., Carpenter, H. A., Zinsmeister, A. R., and Metzger, P. P. Bismuth carbomer foam enemas for active chronic pouchitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997;11(6):1041-1046. View abstract.

Tucci A, Poli L, Gasperoni S, et al. Evaluation of two therapeutic regimens for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Ital J Gastroenterol 1994;26(3):107-10. View abstract.

Unge, P. and Ekstrom, P. Effects of Combination Therapy with Omeprazole and an Antibiotic on Helicobacter pylori and Duodenal Ulcer Disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 1993;28(s196):17-18.

Venerito M, Krieger T, Ecker T, Leandro G, Malfertheiner P. Meta-analysis of bismuth quadruple therapy versus clarithromycin triple therapy for empiric primary treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Digestion 2013;88(1):33-45. View abstract.

Wagstaff, A. J., Benfield, P., and Monk, J. P. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its therapeutic use in peptic ulcer disease. Drugs 1988;36(2):132-157. View abstract.

Whitehead, M. W., Phillips, R. H., Sieniawska, C. E., Delves, H. T., Seed, P. T., Thompson, R. P., and Powell, J. J. Double-blind comparison of absorbable colloidal bismuth subcitrate and nonabsorbable bismuth subnitrate in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and the relief of nonulcer dyspepsia. Helicobacter 2000;5(3):169-175. View abstract.

Wilhelmsen, I., Weberg, R., Berstad, K., Hausken, T., Hundal, O., and Berstad, A. Helicobacter pylori eradication with bismuth subnitrate, oxytetracycline and metronidazole in patients with peptic ulcer disease. Hepatogastroenterology 1994;41(1):43-47. View abstract.

Worku, M. L., Sidebotham, R. L., and Karim, Q. N. Effects of ranitidine bismuth citrate on Helicobacter pylori motility, morphology and survival. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;13(6):753-760. View abstract.

Wormald, P. J. and Sellars, S. L. Bismuth subgallate: a safe means to a faster adenotonsillectomy. J Laryngol Otol 1994;108(9):761-762. View abstract.

Yang N, Sun H. Biocoordination chemistry of bismuth: Recent advances. Coord Chem Rev 2007;251:2354-2366.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors