What are the initial signs and symptoms of breast cancer?
Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow uncontrollably and destroy the normal cells. When breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it is called metastasized cancer. The initial signs of breast cancer include:
- A lump in the breast or underarms is often the first sign. It may also be associated with pain, itching and tenderness.
- Changes in the nipple area, nipple retraction and inverted nipple are common warning signs of breast cancer.
- Bleeding from the nipple may be limited and difficult to see, but if an individual notices bloodstains on bra and if the secretions are unusual, bloody or continuous, the individual may need urgent medical attention.
- Change in color and/or thickening of the skin on the breast is a warning sign of breast cancer. If the breast skin changes color, typically to a pink or reddish hue that covers more than half of the breast, you need to show your doctor.
- A nonhealing sore anywhere on the breast, including the nipple with or without blood or fluid from the nipple, maybe a warning sign of breast cancer.
- Increased warmth in the breast with change in size and appearance of the breast is a sign of breast cancer.
How can we detect breast cancer in the early stage?
Regular mammograms can help an individual detect breast cancer in early stages. Mammogram is a screening test that usually detects breast cancer when it’s about one-quarter inch in size or smaller. Mammograms can also diagnose some early precancerous conditions and early-stage cancers that appear as tiny calcifications (microcalcifications) on mammography but are not detectable by physical examination. There are two types of mammogram:
- Screening mammogram: It is usually performed annually in cases where there is no known problem.
- Diagnostic mammogram: It is performed when there is a known problem that requires careful evaluation. Diagnostic mammograms provide much more extensive images than screening mammograms, such as views from additional angles and compression or blow-up views. Often, an ultrasound will be performed in addition to the mammogram if there is a palpable lump.
- Screening ultrasound and biopsy of the lump are performed when the lump is noticed and to confirm if the lump is cancer or aggressive.
What are the different stages of breast cancer?
The stages of breast cancer are as follows:
- Stage 0: Doctors consider breast cancer at this stage noninvasive, and it is only present in the ducts or the lobules. Ductal carcinoma in situ is a form of stage 0 breast cancer.
- Stage 1: Breast cancer at this stage is invasive, but it remains small and near the primary site. Stage 1A involves tumors that are 2 cm or smaller and have not reached the lymph nodes. At stage 1B, the cancer has reached the lymph nodes.
- Stage 2: Stage 2 breast cancers are invasive. Tumors may be larger than that in stage 1 and the cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes.
- Stage 3: Stage 3 breast cancer is invasive, tumors may be larger and cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, possibly to several lymph nodes. Breast cancer at this stage has not spread to further organs.
- Stage 4: Breast cancer has developed in other areas of the body outside the breast and lymph nodes, often in the bones, lungs, brain or liver. Treatment at this stage focuses on controlling the cancer and preventing it from spreading any farther.