Buspar

Medical Editor: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP Last updated on RxList: 10/26/2020
Buspar Side Effects Center

What Is Buspar?

Buspar (buspirone) is an antianxiety agent prescribed for the treatment of anxiety. Buspar is available as a generic drug.

What Are Side Effects of Buspar?

Common side effects of Buspar include:

Dosage for Buspar

Buspar usual adult starting dose is 10-30mg daily in 2-3 divided doses up to a maximum of 60mg a day.

What Drugs, Substances, or Supplements Interact with Buspar?

Common drug interactions of Buspar include monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (for example, isocarboxazid [Marplan]), trazodone (Desyrel), warfarin (Coumadin), erythromycin, itraconazole (Sporanox), nefazodone (Serzone) and rifampin.

Buspar During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

There are no adequate studies of Buspar in pregnant women and it is not known if Buspar is secreted in human breast milk. Use during pregnancy is not recommended unless the potential benefit outweighs the potential unknown risk to the fetus. It is unknown if Buspar passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding.

Additional Information

Our Buspar Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

QUESTION

Schizophrenia is the most disabling mental illness. See Answer
Buspar Consumer Information

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Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • chest pain;
  • shortness of breath; or
  • a light-headed feeling, like you might pass out.

Seek medical attention right away if you have symptoms of serotonin syndrome, such as: agitation, hallucinations, fever, sweating, shivering, fast heart rate, muscle stiffness, twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Common side effects may include:

  • headache;
  • dizziness, feeling light-headed;
  • nausea; or
  • feeling nervous or excited.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the entire detailed patient monograph for Buspar (Buspirone)

SLIDESHOW

Schizophrenia: Symptoms, Types, Causes, Treatment See Slideshow
Buspar Professional Information

SIDE EFFECTS

No information provided.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Psychotropic Agents

MAO Inhibitors

It is recommended that buspirone hydrochloride tablets not be used concomitantly with MAO inhibitors (see WARNINGS).

Amitriptyline

After addition of buspirone to the amitriptyline dose regimen, no statistically significant differences in the steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC, and Cmin) of amitriptyline or its metabolite nortriptyline were observed.

Diazepam

After addition of buspirone to the diazepam dose regimen, no statistically significant differences in the steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC, and Cmin) were observed for diazepam, but increases of about 15% were seen for nordiazepam, and minor adverse clinical effects (dizziness, headache, and nausea) were observed.

Haloperidol

In a study in normal volunteers, concomitant administration of buspirone and haloperidol resulted in increased serum haloperidol concentrations. The clinical significance of this finding is not clear.

Nefazodone

[see Inhibitors and Inducers of Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)].

Trazodone

There is one report suggesting that the concomitant use of Desyrel®# (trazodone hydrochloride) and buspirone may have caused 3- to 6-fold elevations on SGPT (ALT) in a few patients. In a similar study attempting to replicate this finding, no interactive effect on hepatic transaminases was identified.

Triazolam/Flurazepam

Coadministration of buspirone with either triazolam or flurazepam did not appear to prolong or intensify the sedative effects of either benzodiazepine.

Other Psychotropics

Because the effects of concomitant administration of buspirone with most other psychotropic drugs have not been studied, the concomitant use of buspirone with other CNS-active drugs should be approached with caution.

Inhibitors And Inducers Of Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)

Buspirone has been shown in vitro to be metabolized by CYP3A4. This finding is consistent with the in vivo interactions observed between buspirone and the following:

Diltiazem And Verapamil

In a study of nine healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (10 mg as a single dose) with verapamil (80 mg t.i.d.) or diltiazem (60 mg t.i.d.) increased plasma buspirone concentrations (verapamil increased AUC and Cmax of buspirone 3.4-fold while diltiazem increased AUC and Cmax 5.5-fold and 4-fold, respectively.) Adverse events attributable to buspirone may be more likely during concomitant administration with either diltiazem or verapamil. Subsequent dose adjustment may be necessary and should be based on clinical assessment.

Erythromycin

In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (10 mg as a single dose) with erythromycin (1.5 g/day for 4 days) increased plasma buspirone concentrations (5-fold increase in Cmax and 6-fold increase in AUC). These pharmacokinetic interactions were accompanied by an increased incidence of side effects attributable to buspirone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, a low dose of buspirone (e.g., 2.5 mg b.i.d.) is recommended. Subsequent dose adjustment of either drug should be based on clinical assessment.

Grapefruit Juice

In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (10 mg as a single dose) with grapefruit juice (200 mL double-strength t.i.d. for 2 days) increased plasma buspirone concentrations (4.3-fold increase in Cmax; 9.2-fold increase in AUC). Patients receiving buspirone should be advised to avoid drinking such large amounts of grapefruit juice.

Itraconazole

In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (10 mg as a single dose) with itraconazole (200 mg/day for 4 days) increased plasma buspirone concentrations (13-fold increase in Cmax and 19-fold increase in AUC). These pharmacokinetic interactions were accompanied by an increased incidence of side effects attributable to buspirone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, a low dose of buspirone (e.g., 2.5 mg q.d.) is recommended. Subsequent dose adjustment of either drug should be based on clinical assessment.

Nefazodone

In a study of steady-state pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (2.5 or 5 mg b.i.d.) with nefazodone (250 mg b.i.d.) resulted in marked increases in plasma buspirone concentrations (increases up to 20-fold in Cmax and up to 50-fold in AUC) and statistically significant decreases (about 50%) in plasma concentrations of the buspirone metabolite 1-PP. With 5 mg b.i.d. doses of buspirone, slight increases in AUC were observed for nefazodone (23%) and its metabolites hydroxynefazodone (HO-NEF) (17%) and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (9%). Slight increases in Cmax were observed for nefazodone (8%) and its metabolite HO-NEF (11%).

Subjects receiving buspirone 5 mg b.i.d. and nefazodone 250 mg b.i.d experienced lightheadedness, asthenia, dizziness, and somnolence, adverse events also observed with either drug alone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, a low dose of buspirone (e.g., 2.5 mg q.d.) is recommended. Subsequent dose adjustment of either drug should be based on clinical assessment.

Rifampin

In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (30 mg as a single dose) with rifampin (600 mg/day for 5 days) decreased the plasma concentrations (83.7% decrease in Cmax; 89.6% decrease in AUC) and pharmacodynamic effects of buspirone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, the dosage of buspirone may need adjusting to maintain anxiolytic effect.

Other Inhibitors And Inducers Of CYP3A4

Substances that inhibit CYP3A4, such as ketoconazole or ritonavir, may inhibit buspirone metabolism and increase plasma concentrations of buspirone while substances that induce CYP3A4, such as dexamethasone, or certain anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine), may increase the rate of buspirone metabolism. If a patient has been titrated to a stable dosage on buspirone, a dose adjustment of buspirone may be necessary to avoid adverse events attributable to buspirone or diminished anxiolytic activity. Consequently, when administered with a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, a low dose of buspirone used cautiously is recommended. When used in combination with a potent inducer of CYP3A4 the dosage of buspirone may need adjusting to maintain anxiolytic effect.

Other Drugs

Cimetidine

Coadministration of buspirone with cimetidine was found to increase Cmax (40%) and Tmax (2–fold), but had minimal effects on the AUC of buspirone.

Protein Binding

In vitro, buspirone does not displace tightly bound drugs like phenytoin, propranolol, and warfarin from serum proteins. However, there has been one report of prolonged prothrombin time when buspirone was added to the regimen of a patient treated with warfarin. The patient was also chronically receiving phenytoin, phenobarbital, digoxin, and Synthroid®*. In vitro, buspirone may displace less firmly bound drugs like digoxin. The clinical significance of this property is unknown.

Therapeutic levels of aspirin, desipramine, diazepam, flurazepam, ibuprofen, propranolol, thioridazine, and tolbutamide had only a limited effect on the extent of binding of buspirone to plasma proteins (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Buspirone hydrochloride may interfere with the urinary metanephrine/catecholamine assay. It has been mistakenly read as metanephrine during routine assay testing for pheochromocytoma, resulting in a false positive laboratory result. Buspirone hydrochloride should therefore be discontinued for at least 48 hours prior to undergoing a urine collection for catecholamines.

Drug Abuse and Dependence

Controlled Substance Class

Buspirone hydrochloride is not a controlled substance.

Physical And Psychological Dependence

In human and animal studies, buspirone has shown no potential for abuse or diversion and there is no evidence that it causes tolerance, or either physical or psychological dependence. Human volunteers with a history of recreational drug or alcohol usage were studied in two doubleblind clinical investigations. None of the subjects were able to distinguish between buspirone hydrochloride tablets and placebo. By contrast, subjects showed a statistically significant preference for methaqualone and diazepam. Studies in monkeys, mice, and rats have indicated that buspirone lacks potential for abuse. Following chronic administration in the rat, abrupt withdrawal of buspirone did not result in the loss of body weight commonly observed with substances that cause physical dependency.

Although there is no direct evidence that buspirone hydrochloride tablets causes physical dependence or drug-seeking behavior, it is difficult to predict from experiments the extent to which a CNS-active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, physicians should carefully evaluate patients for a history of drug abuse and follow such patients closely, observing them for signs of buspirone hydrochloride tablets misuse or abuse (e.g., development of tolerance, incrementation of dose, drug-seeking behavior).

Controlled Substance Class

Buspirone hydrochloride is not a controlled substance.

Physical And Psychological Dependence

In human and animal studies, buspirone has shown no potential for abuse or diversion and there is no evidence that it causes tolerance, or either physical or psychological dependence. Human volunteers with a history of recreational drug or alcohol usage were studied in two doubleblind clinical investigations. None of the subjects were able to distinguish between buspirone hydrochloride tablets and placebo. By contrast, subjects showed a statistically significant preference for methaqualone and diazepam. Studies in monkeys, mice, and rats have indicated that buspirone lacks potential for abuse. Following chronic administration in the rat, abrupt withdrawal of buspirone did not result in the loss of body weight commonly observed with substances that cause physical dependency.

Although there is no direct evidence that buspirone hydrochloride tablets causes physical dependence or drug-seeking behavior, it is difficult to predict from experiments the extent to which a CNS-active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, physicians should carefully evaluate patients for a history of drug abuse and follow such patients closely, observing them for signs of buspirone hydrochloride tablets misuse or abuse (e.g., development of tolerance, incrementation of dose, drug-seeking behavior).

Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Buspar (Buspirone)

© Buspar Patient Information is supplied by Cerner Multum, Inc. and Buspar Consumer information is supplied by First Databank, Inc., used under license and subject to their respective copyrights.

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