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Chloromycetin

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/16/2018
Drug Description

Chloromycetin® Ophthalmic Ointment, 1%
(chloramphenicol) Ophthalmic Ointment, USP

WARNING

Bone marrow hypoplasia including aplastic anemia and death has been reported following topical application of chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol should not be used when less potentially dangerous agents would be expected to provide effective treatment.

DESCRIPTION

Each gram of Chloromycetin Ophthalmic Ointment, 1% contains 10 mg of chloramphenicol in a special base of liquid petrolatum and polyethylene. It contains no preservatives. Sterile ointment.

The chemical names for chloramphenicol are:

  1. Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl) ethyl]-, and
  2. D-threo-(—)-2,2-Dichloro-N-[β-hydroxy-α-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl] acetamide.

Chloramphenicol has the following empirical and structural formulas:

Chloromycetin®(Chloramphenicol) Structural Formula Illustration

Indications & Dosage

INDICATIONS

Chloramphenicol should be used only in those serious infections for which less potentially dangerous drugs are ineffective or contraindicated. Bacteriological studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their sensitivity to chloramphenicol (see BOX WARNING).

Chloromycetin Ophthalmic Ointment, 1% (Chloramphenicol Ophthalmic Ointment, USP) is indicated for the treatment of surface ocular infections involving the conjunctiva and/or cornea caused by chloramphenicol-susceptible organisms.

The particular antiinfective drug in this product is active against the following common bacterial eye pathogens:

Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus,
including Streptococcus pneumoniae
Escherichia coli

Haemophilus influenzae

Klebsiella/Enterobacter
species
Moraxella lucunata
  (Morax-Axenfeld bacillus)
Neisseria
species

This product does not provide adequate coverage against:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Serratia marcescens

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

A small amount of ointment placed in the lower conjunctival sac every three hours, or more frequently if deemed advisable by the prescribing physician. Administration should be continued day and night the first 48 hours, after which the interval between applications may be increased. Treatment should be continued for at least 48 hours after the eye appears normal.

HOW SUPPLIED

N 0071–3070–07

Chloromycetin Ophthalmic Ointment, 1% (Chloramphenicol Ophthalmic Ointment, USP) is supplied, sterile, in ophthalmic ointment tubes of 3.5 grams.

Chloromycetin, brand of chloramphenicol. Reg US Pat Off Caution—Federal law prohibits dispensing without prescription.

Manufactured by: PARKE-DAVIS Div of Warner-Lambert Co/Morris Plains, NJ 07950 USA. Revised: October 2006.

QUESTION

What causes dry eyes? See Answer
Side Effects & Drug Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

Blood dyscrasias have been reported in association with the use of chloramphenicol (see WARNINGS).

Allergic or inflammatory reactions due to individual hypersensitivity and occasional burning or stinging may occur with the use of Chloromycetin Ophthalmic Ointment.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

No Information Provided

Warnings & Precautions

WARNINGS

SEE BOX WARNING

Ophthalmic ointments may retard corneal wound healing.

PRECAUTIONS

The prolonged use of antibiotics may occasionally result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms including fungi. If new infections appear during medication, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures should be taken.

In all serious infections the topical use of chloramphenicol should be supplemented by appropriate systemic medication.

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE

No Information Provided

CONTRAINDICATIONS

This product is contraindicated in persons sensitive to any of its components.

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic originally isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae. It is primarily bacteriostatic and acts by inhibition of protein synthesis by interfering with the transfer of activated amino acids from soluble RNA to ribosomes. It has been noted that chloramphenicol is found in measurable amounts in the aqueous humor following local application to the eye. Development of resistance to chloramphenicol can be regarded as minimal for staphylococci and many other species of bacteria.

Medication Guide

PATIENT INFORMATION

No information provided. Please refer to the WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections.

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