Other Name(s):

Bourgeon Floral de Clou de Girofle, Bouton Floral de Clou de Girofle, Caryophylli Flos, Caryophyllum, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Clavo de Olor, Clous de Girolfe, Clove Flower, Clove Flowerbud, Clove Leaf, Clove Oil, Clove Stem, Cloves, Cloves Bud, Ding Xiang, Eugenia aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Eugenia caryophyllus, Feuille de Clou de Girofle, Fleur de Clou de Girofle, Flores Caryophylli, Flores Caryophyllum, Gewurznelken Nagelein, Girofle, Giroflier, Huile de Clou de Girofle, Kreteks, Lavang, Lavanga, Oil of Clove, Syzygium aromaticum, Tige de Clou de Girofle.


Clove is an herb. People use the oils, dried flower buds, leaves, and stems to make medicine.

Clove is used for upset stomach and as an expectorant. Expectorants make it easier to cough up phlegm. Clove oil is used for diarrhea, hernia, and bad breath. Clove and clove oil are used for intestinal gas, nausea, and vomiting.

Clove is applied directly to the gums (used topically) for toothache, for pain control during dental work, and for a complication of tooth extraction called “dry socket.” It is also applied to the skin as a counterirritant for pain and for mouth and throat inflammation. In combination with other ingredients, clove is also applied to the skin as part of a multi-ingredient product used to keep men from reaching orgasm too early (premature ejaculation).

In foods and beverages, clove is used as a flavoring.

In manufacturing, clove is used in toothpaste, soaps, cosmetics, perfumes, and cigarettes. Clove cigarettes, also called kreteks, generally contain 60% to 80% tobacco and 20% to 40% ground clove. Eugenol, one of the chemicals in clove, acts like menthol to reduce the harshness of tobacco smoke.

How does it work?

Clove oil contains a chemical that may decrease pain.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Effective for...

  • Premature ejaculation. Research shows that applying a cream containing clove flower plus Panax ginseng root, Angelica root, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, Torlidis seed, Asiasari root, cinnamon bark, and toad venom (SS Cream) to the skin of the penis improves premature ejaculation.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Anal fissures. Early research suggests that applying a clove oil cream to anal fissures for 6 weeks improves healing compared to using stool softeners and applying lignocaine cream.
  • Dental plaque. Early research suggests that using a specific toothpaste (Sudantha, Link Natural Products Ltd.) containing a combination of clove, Acacia chundra Willd., malabar nut, bullet wood tree, black pepper, Indian beech, gall oak, Terminalia, and ginger twice daily for 12 weeks can reduce dental plaque, bleeding, and amount of bacteria in the mouth.
  • Mosquito repellent. Early research suggests that applying clove oil or clove oil gel to the skin can repel mosquitos for up to 5 hours.
  • Pain. Early research suggests that applying a gel containing ground cloves for 5 minutes before being stuck with a needle can reduce needle stick pain similarly to benzocaine.
  • Toothache. Clove oil and eugenol, one of the chemicals it contains, have long been used topically for toothache, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reclassified eugenol, downgrading its effectiveness rating. The FDA now believes there is not enough evidence to rate eugenol as effective for toothache pain.
  • "Dry socket” following tooth extraction.
  • Vomiting.
  • Upset stomach.
  • Nausea.
  • Gas (flatulence).
  • Diarrhea.
  • Hernia.
  • Pain and swelling (inflammation) of the mouth and throat.
  • Cough.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of clove for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Clove seems LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in food amounts. Not enough is known about the safety of taking clove by mouth in larger medicinal amounts.

Clove oil or cream containing clove flower is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin. However, frequent and repeated application of clove oil in the mouth or on the gums can sometimes cause damage to the gums, tooth pulp, skin, and mucous membranes.

Inhaling smoke from clove cigarettes or injecting clove oil into the veins is LIKELY UNSAFE and can cause side effects such as breathing problems and lung infections.

Dried clove can also cause mouth sensitivity and irritation, as well as damage to dental tissues.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Special Precautions & Warnings

Children: In children, clove oil is LIKELY UNSAFE to take by mouth. It can cause severe side effects such as seizures, liver damage, and fluid imbalances.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Clove is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in food amounts. There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking clove in medicinal doses if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Bleeding disorders: Clove oil contains a chemical called eugenol that seems to slow blood clotting. There is a concern that taking clove oil might cause bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Surgery: Clove oil contains a chemical called eugenol that seems to slow blood clotting. There is a concern that it might cause bleeding during or after surgery. Stop using clove at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Clove might slow blood clotting. Taking clove oil along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Clove contains eugenol. Eugenol is the part of clove that might slow blood clotting. Eugenol is very fragrant and gives allspice and clove their distinctive smell.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • In men, to keep from reaching orgasm too early (premature ejaculation): A multi-ingredient cream preparation containing clove flower plus Panax ginseng root, Angelica root, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, Torlidis seed, Asiasari root, Cinnamon bark, and Toad venom (SS Cream) applied to the glans penis one hour before intercourse and washed off immediately before intercourse.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Abbasipour, F., Rastqar, A., Bakhtiar, H., Khalilkhani, H., Aeinehchi, M., and Janahmadi, M. The nociceptive and anti-nociceptive effects of white mineral trioxide aggregate. Int.Endod.J 2009;42(9):794-801. View abstract.

Abdel-Fatah MK, El-Hawa MA, Samia EM, and et al. Antimicrobial activities of some local medicinal plants. Journal of Drug Research (Egypt) 2002;24:179-186.

Abdel-Wahhab, M. A. and Aly, S. E. Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis. J Appl.Toxicol. 2005;25(3):218-223. View abstract.

Abraham, S. K. and Kesavan, P. C. Evaluation of possible mutagenicity of the condiment clove when administered alone or in combination with caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster. Indian J Exp Biol 1978;16(4):518-519. View abstract.

Abraham, S. K., Singh, S. P., and Kesavan, P. C. In vivo antigenotoxic effects of dietary agents and beverages co-administered with urethane: assessment of the role of glutathione S-transferase activity. Mutat.Res 3-16-1998;413(2):103-110. View abstract.

Adhikari, A., Devkota, H. P., Takano, A., Masuda, K., Nakane, T., Basnet, P., and Skalko-Basnet, N. Screening of Nepalese crude drugs traditionally used to treat hyperpigmentation: in vitro tyrosinase inhibition. Int.J Cosmet.Sci 2008;30(5):353-360. View abstract.

Agarwal, V., Lal, P., and Pruthi, V. Prevention of Candida albicans biofilm by plant oils. Mycopathologia 2008;165(1):13-19. View abstract.

Agbaje, E. O. Gastrointestinal effects of Syzigium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae) in animal models. Nig.Q.J Hosp.Med 2008;18(3):137-141. View abstract.

Ahmad, N., Alam, M. K., Shehbaz, A., Khan, A., Mannan, A., Hakim, S. R., Bisht, D., and Owais, M. Antimicrobial activity of clove oil and its potential in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. J Drug Target 2005;13(10):555-561. View abstract.

Al-Subeihi, A. A., Spenkelink, B., Punt, A., Boersma, M. G., van Bladeren, P. J., and Rietjens, I. M. Physiologically based kinetic modeling of bioactivation and detoxification of the alkenylbenzene methyleugenol in human as compared with rat. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 5-1-2012;260(3):271-284. View abstract.

Allen, K. and Cornforth, D. Effect of chelating agents and spice-derived antioxidants on myoglobin oxidation in a lipid-free model system. J Food Sci 2009;74(5):C375-C379. View abstract.

Alqareer, A., Alyahya, A., and Andersson, L. The effect of clove and benzocaine versus placebo as topical anesthetics. J Dent 2006;34(10):747-750. View abstract.

Andersen, K. E., Johansen, J. D., Bruze, M., Frosch, P. J., Goossens, A., Lepoittevin, J. P., Rastogi, S., White, I., and Menne, T. The time-dose-response relationship for elicitation of contact dermatitis in isoeugenol allergic individuals. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 2-1-2001;170(3):166-171. View abstract.

Anonymous. Evaluation of the health hazard of clove cigarettes. Council on Scientific Affairs. JAMA 12-23-1988;260(24):3641-3644. View abstract.

Araki, K., Suda, H., and Spangberg, L. S. Indirect longitudinal cytotoxicity of root canal sealers on L929 cells and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. J Endod. 1994;20(2):67-70. View abstract.

Ardjmand, A., Fathollahi, Y., Sayyah, M., Kamalinejad, M., and Omrani, A. Eugenol depresses synaptic transmission but does not prevent the induction of long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(3):146-151. View abstract.

Arora, D. S. and Kaur, J. Antimicrobial activity of spices. Int.J Antimicrob.Agents 1999;12(3):257-262. View abstract.

Ashton E. Spice prices in the near East in the fifteenth century. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland 1976;1:26-41.

Azuma, Y., Ozasa, N., Ueda, Y., and Takagi, N. Pharmacological studies on the anti-inflammatory action of phenolic compounds. J Dent.Res. 1986;65(1):53-56. View abstract.

Bachiega, T. F., Orsatti, C. L., Pagliarone, A. C., Missima, F., Sousa, J. P., Bastos, J. K., and Sforcin, J. M. Th1/Th2 cytokine production by clove-treated mice. Nat.Prod.Res. 2009;23(16):1552-1558. View abstract.

Bae, E. A., Han, M. J., Kim, N. J., and Kim, D. H. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of herbal medicines. Biol Pharm Bull. 1998;21(9):990-992. View abstract.

Bae, W. J., Chang, S. W., Lee, S. I., Kum, K. Y., Bae, K. S., and Kim, E. C. Human periodontal ligament cell response to a newly developed calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer. J Endod. 2010;36(10):1658-1663. View abstract.

Baer, J. and Maki, J. S. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of three endodontic sealers mixed with amoxicillin. J Endod. 2010;36(7):1170-1173. View abstract.

Bafna, P. A. and Balaraman, R. Antioxidant activity of DHC-1, an herbal formulation, in experimentally-induced cardiac and renal damage. Phytother.Res. 2005;19(3):216-221. View abstract.

Bahuguna, S. and Kushwaha, R. K. Influence of different oils on penetration of human hair by fungi. Int.J Cosmet.Sci 1993;15(1):1-5. View abstract.

Bandell, M., Story, G. M., Hwang, S. W., Viswanath, V., Eid, S. R., Petrus, M. J., Earley, T. J., and Patapoutian, A. Noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 is activated by pungent compounds and bradykinin. Neuron 3-25-2004;41(6):849-857. View abstract.

Banerjee, R. and Bellare, J. R. Comparison of in vitro surface properties of clove oil-phospholipid suspensions with those of ALEC, Exosurf and Survanta. Pulm.Pharmacol.Ther 2001;14(2):85-91. View abstract.

Banerjee, R. and Puniyani, R. R. Effects of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures on rheology of gum tragacanth - possible application for surfactant action on mucus gel simulants. Biomed.Mater.Eng 2000;10(3-4):189-197. View abstract.

Banerjee, S. and Das, S. Anticarcinogenic effects of an aqueous infusion of cloves on skin carcinogenesis. Asian Pac.J Cancer Prev. 2005;6(3):304-308. View abstract.

Banerjee, S., Panda, C. K., and Das, S. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), a potential chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Carcinogenesis 2006;27(8):1645-1654. View abstract.

Bang A and Vikor K. A tale of three 'Shambas'. Part 2. Sudanic Africa: A Journal of Historical Sources 2000;11:1-24.

Barbosa, L. N., Rall, V. L., Fernandes, A. A., Ushimaru, P. I., da, Silva Probst, I, and Fernandes, A., Jr. Essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in minced meat. Foodborne.Pathog.Dis. 2009;6(6):725-728. View abstract.

Barnard, D. R. Repellency of essential oils to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 1999;36(5):625-629. View abstract.

Ben Arfa, A., Combes, S., Preziosi-Belloy, L., Gontard, N., and Chalier, P. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol related to its chemical structure. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2006;43(2):149-154. View abstract.

Bennis, S., Chami, F., Chami, N., Bouchikhi, T., and Remmal, A. Surface alteration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by thymol and eugenol. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2004;38(6):454-458. View abstract.

Betoni, J. E., Mantovani, R. P., Barbosa, L. N., Di Stasi, L. C., and Fernandes, Junior A. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases. Mem.Inst.Oswaldo Cruz 2006;101(4):387-390. View abstract.

Bhalla, M. and Thami, G. P. Acute urticaria due to dental eugenol. Allergy 2003;58(2):158. View abstract.

Bhamarapravati, S., Pendland, S. L., and Mahady, G. B. Extracts of spice and food plants from Thai traditional medicine inhibit the growth of the human carcinogen Helicobacter pylori. In Vivo 2003;17(6):541-544. View abstract.

Biven, G. M., Bapna, M. S., and Heuer, M. A. Effect of eugenol and eugenol-containing root canal sealers on the microhardness of human dentin. J Dent.Res. 1972;51(6):1602-1609. View abstract.

Bluma, R. V. and Etcheverry, M. G. Application of essential oils in maize grain: impact on Aspergillus section Flavi growth parameters and aflatoxin accumulation. Food Microbiol. 2008;25(2):324-334. View abstract.

Bolliger, G. A., Kupferman, A., and Leibowitz, H. M. Quantitation of anterior chamber inflammation and its response to therapy. Arch.Ophthalmol. 1980;98(6):1110-1114. View abstract.

Bonneff M. VU DE KUDUS: L'ISLAM À JAVA. Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations 1980;35(3-4):801-815.

Braga, P. C., Dal Sasso, M., Spallino, A., Sturla, C., and Culici, M. Vaginal gel adsorption and retention by human vaginal cells: visual analysis by means of inorganic and organic markers. Int.J Pharm. 5-21-2009;373(1-2):10-15. View abstract.

Braga, P. C., Sasso, M. D., Culici, M., and Alfieri, M. Eugenol and thymol, alone or in combination, induce morphological alterations in the envelope of Candida albicans. Fitoterapia 2007;78(6):396-400. View abstract.

Branan B, Butcher J, and Olsen L. Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol. Journal of Chemical Education 2007;84(12):1979-1981.

Briozzo, J., Nunez, L., Chirife, J., Herszage, L., and D'Aquino, M. Antimicrobial activity of clove oil dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution. J Appl.Bacteriol. 1989;66(1):69-75. View abstract.

Brown, S. A., Biggerstaff, J., and Savidge, G. F. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatocellular necrosis due to clove oil. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 1992;3(5):665-668. View abstract.

Buch, J. G., Dikshit, R. K., and Mansuri, S. M. Effect of certain volatile oils on ejaculated human spermatozoa. Indian J Med Res 1988;87:361-363. View abstract.

Burgoyne, C. C., Giglio, J. A., Reese, S. E., Sima, A. P., and Laskin, D. M. The efficacy of a topical anesthetic gel in the relief of pain associated with localized alveolar osteitis. J Oral Maxillofac.Surg. 2010;68(1):144-148. View abstract.

Burstein S, Varanelli C, and Slade L. Prostaglandins and cannabis. 3. Inhibition of biosynthesis by essential oil components of marihuana. Biochem.Pharmacol. 1975;24:1053-1054.

Burt, S. A. and Reinders, R. D. Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2003;36(3):162-167. View abstract.

Buyukbalci, A. and El, S. N. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2008;63(1):27-33. View abstract.

Cai, L. and Wu, C. D. Compounds from Syzygium aromaticum possessing growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens. J Nat.Prod. 1996;59(10):987-990. View abstract.

Carrasco, F. R., Schmidt, G., Romero, A. L., Sartoretto, J. L., Caparroz-Assef, S. M., Bersani-Amado, C. A., and Cuman, R. K. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2009;61(7):961-967. View abstract.

Cates L and Brandino T. Quantitation of salicylate or other complexing agents in flavors. Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy (Canada) 1979;32:169-170.

Chaieb, K., Hajlaoui, H., Zmantar, T., Kahla-Nakbi, A. B., Rouabhia, M., Mahdouani, K., and Bakhrouf, A. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(6):501-506. View abstract.

Chaieb, K., Zmantar, T., Ksouri, R., Hajlaoui, H., Mahdouani, K., Abdelly, C., and Bakhrouf, A. Antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata and its antifungal activity against a large number of clinical Candida species. Mycoses 2007;50(5):403-406. View abstract.

Chami, F., Chami, N., Bennis, S., Bouchikhi, T., and Remmal, A. Oregano and clove essential oils induce surface alteration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Phytother Res 2005;19(5):405-408. View abstract.

Chami, F., Chami, N., Bennis, S., Trouillas, J., and Remmal, A. Evaluation of carvacrol and eugenol as prophylaxis and treatment of vaginal candidiasis in an immunosuppressed rat model. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2004;54(5):909-914. View abstract.

Chami, N., Bennis, S., Chami, F., Aboussekhra, A., and Remmal, A. Study of anticandidal activity of carvacrol and eugenol in vitro and in vivo. Oral Microbiol.Immunol. 2005;20(2):106-111. View abstract.

Chan, A. S., Pang, H., Yip, E. C., Tam, Y. K., and Wong, Y. H. Carvacrol and eugenol differentially stimulate intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and mitogen-activated protein kinases in Jurkat T-cells and monocytic THP-1 cells. Planta Med 2005;71(7):634-639. View abstract.

Chaudhari LK, Jawale BA Sharma S Sharma H Kumar CD Kulkarni PA. Antimicrobial activity of commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13(1):71-74. View abstract.

Chen, D. C., Lee, Y. Y., Yeh, P. Y., Lin, J. C., Chen, Y. L., and Hung, S. L. Eugenol inhibited the antimicrobial functions of neutrophils. J Endod. 2008;34(2):176-180. View abstract.

Choi, W. I., Lee, E. H., Choi, B. R., Park, H. M., and Ahn, Y. J. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J Econ.Entomol. 2003;96(5):1479-1484. View abstract.

Chong, B. S., Owadally, I. D., Pitt Ford, T. R., and Wilson, R. F. Antibacterial activity of potential retrograde root filling materials. Endod.Dent.Traumatol. 1994;10(2):66-70. View abstract.

Chung, G., Rhee, J. N., Jung, S. J., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Modulation of CaV2.3 calcium channel currents by eugenol. J Dent.Res. 2008;87(2):137-141. View abstract.

Cisak, E., Wojcik-Fatla, A., Zajac, V., and Dutkiewicz, J. Repellents and acaricides as personal protection measures in the prevention of tick-borne diseases. Ann Agric.Environ.Med. 2012;19(4):625-630. View abstract.

Clark, G. C. Comparison of the inhalation toxicity of kretek (clove cigarette) smoke with that of American cigarette smoke. I. One day exposure. Arch.Toxicol. 1989;63(1):1-6. View abstract.

Clark, G. C. Comparison of the inhalation toxicity of kretek (clove cigarette) smoke with that of American cigarette smoke. II. Fourteen days, exposure. Arch.Toxicol. 1990;64(7):515-521. View abstract.

Clark, G. C. Concerning the article "Toxicity studies on clove cigarette smoke and constituents of clove: determination of the LD50 of eugenol by intratracheal instillation in rats and hamsters" by LaVoie et al. (1986). Arch.Toxicol. 1986;59(4):296-299. View abstract.

Correa, G. T., Veranio, G. A., Silva, L. E., Hirata, Junior R., Coil, J. M., and Scelza, M. F. Cytotoxicity evaluation of two root canal sealers and a commercial calcium hydroxide paste on THP1 cell line by Trypan Blue assay. J Appl.Oral Sci 2009;17(5):457-461. View abstract.

Cotter, P. A. and Rodnick, K. J. Differential effects of anesthetics on electrical properties of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heart. Comp Biochem.Physiol A Mol.Integr.Physiol 2006;145(2):158-165. View abstract.

Covello, M., Ciampa, G., and La Rotonda, M. I. [Determination of eugenol in the essence of "Eugenia caryophyllata". Titration in non-aqueous solvent and comparison with other methods of analysis]. Boll.Chim.Farm. 1966;105(11):799-806. View abstract.

Criddle, D. N., Madeira, S. V., and Soares, de Moura. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilator effects of eugenol in the rat mesenteric vascular bed. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2003;55(3):359-365. View abstract.

Culikova, V. Assortment of the plants in the Medieval diet in Czech countries (based on archaeobotanical finds). Acta Univ Carol.Med (Praha) 2000;41(1-4):105-118. View abstract.

Damiani, C. E., Rossoni, L. V., and Vassallo, D. V. Vasorelaxant effects of eugenol on rat thoracic aorta. Vascul.Pharmacol. 2003;40(1):59-66. View abstract.

Daniel A, Sartoretto S, Schmidt G, and et al. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models. evista Brasileira de Farmacognosia (Brazil) 2009;19:212-217.

Del Bufalo A, Bernad J Dardenne C Verda D Meunier JR Rousset F Martinozzi-Teissier S Pipy B. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;256(1):35-43. View abstract.

Deyama, T. and Horiguchi, T. [Studies on the components of essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumberg)]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1971;91(12):1383-1386. View abstract.

Didry, N., Dubreuil, L., and Pinkas, M. Activity of thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on oral bacteria. Pharm.Acta Helv. 1994;69(1):25-28. View abstract.

Dip, E. C., Pereira, N. A., and Fernandes, P. D. Ability of eugenol to reduce tongue edema induced by Dieffenbachia picta Schott in mice. Toxicon 2004;43(6):729-735. View abstract.

Dip, E. C., Pereira, N. A., and Melo, P. A. Tongue angioedema in vivo: antagonist response of anti-inflammatory drugs. Clin Toxicol.(Phila) 2011;49(3):153-160. View abstract.

Dixon Clarke, S. E. and Ramsay, R. R. Dietary inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A. J Neural Transm. 2011;118(7):1031-1041. View abstract.

dos Santos, P. E., Egito, L. C., de Medeiros, S. R., and Agnez-Lima, L. F. Genotoxicity induced by Eugenia caryophyllata infusion. J Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2008;71(7):439-444. View abstract.

du Plooy, W. J., Swart, L., and van Huysteen, G. W. Poisoning with Boophane disticha: a forensic case. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 2001;20(5):277-278. View abstract.

Dudonne, S., Vitrac, X., Coutiere, P., Woillez, M., and Merillon, J. M. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Properties and Total Phenolic Content of 30 Plant Extracts of Industrial Interest Using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD, and ORAC Assays. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-6-2009; View abstract.

Dyrbye, B. A., Dubois, L., Vink, R., and Horn, J. A patient with clove oil intoxication. Anaesth.Intensive Care 2012;40(2):365-366. View abstract.

Eamsobhana, P., Yoolek, A., Kongkaew, W., Lerdthusnee, K., Khlaimanee, N., Parsartvit, A., Malainual, N., and Yong, H. S. Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus. Exp.Appl.Acarol. 2009;47(3):257-262. View abstract.

Eisen, J. S., Koren, G., Juurlink, D. N., and Ng, V. L. N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of clove oil-induced fulminant hepatic failure. J Toxicol.Clin Toxicol. 2004;42(1):89-92. View abstract.

El Hag, E. A., El Nadi, A. H., and Zaitoon, A. A. Toxic and growth retarding effects of three plant extracts on Culex pipiens larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Phytother.Res. 1999;13(5):388-392. View abstract.

El Maraghy, S. S. Effect of some spices as preservatives for storage of lentil (Lens esculenta L.) seeds. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 1995;40(5):490-492. View abstract.

el Naghy, M. A., Maghazy, S. N., Fadl-Allah, E. M., and el Gendy, Z. K. Fungistatic action of natural oils and fatty acids on dermatophytic and saprophytic fungi. Zentralbl.Mikrobiol. 1992;147(3-4):214-220. View abstract.

El Sayed, M. A., Mohamed, Y. A., and Abdelsalam, N. A. Spectrophotometric determination of certain volatile oils. Part 1: Assay for phenols in volatile oils of clove and thyme. Pharmazie 1976;31(6):361-362. View abstract.

Elshafie, A. E., Al Rashdi, T. A., Al Bahry, S. N., and Bakheit, C. S. Fungi and aflatoxins associated with spices in the Sultanate of Oman. Mycopathologia 2002;155(3):155-160. View abstract.

Elwakeel, H. A., Moneim, H. A., Farid, M., and Gohar, A. A. Clove oil cream: a new effective treatment for chronic anal fissure. Colorectal Dis. 2007;9(6):549-552. View abstract.

Fabio, A., Cermelli, C., Fabio, G., Nicoletti, P., and Quaglio, P. Screening of the antibacterial effects of a variety of essential oils on microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(4):374-377. View abstract.

Feng, J. and Lipton, J. M. Eugenol: antipyretic activity in rabbits. Neuropharmacology 1987;26(12):1775-1778. View abstract.

Feng, R., He, W., and Hirotomo, O. [Experimental studies on antioxidation of extracts from several plants used as both medicines and foods in vitro]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2000;23(11):690-693. View abstract.

Feres, M., Figueiredo, L. C., Barreto, I. M., Coelho, M. H., Araujo, M. W., and Cortelli, S. C. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and propolis in saliva samples of healthy and periodontally-involved subjects. J Int.Acad.Periodontol. 2005;7(3):90-96. View abstract.

Fichi, G., Flamini, G., Giovanelli, F., Otranto, D., and Perrucci, S. Efficacy of an essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata against Psoroptes cuniculi. Exp.Parasitol. 2007;115(2):168-172. View abstract.

Fischer, I. U. and Dengler, H. J. Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the determination of eugenol in body fluids. J Chromatogr. 2-23-1990;525(2):369-377. View abstract.

Fotos, P. G., Woolverton, C. J., Van Dyke, K., and Powell, R. L. Effects of eugenol on polymorphonuclear cell migration and chemiluminescence. J Dent.Res. 1987;66(3):774-777. View abstract.

Friedman, M., Henika, P. R., and Mandrell, R. E. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. J Food Prot. 2002;65(10):1545-1560. View abstract.

Friedman, M., Henika, P. R., Levin, C. E., and Mandrell, R. E. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juice. J Agric.Food Chem. 9-22-2004;52(19):6042-6048. View abstract.

Fu, Y., Chen, L., Zu, Y., Liu, Z., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Yao, L., and Efferth, T. The antibacterial activity of clove essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes and its mechanism of action. Arch.Dermatol. 2009;145(1):86-88. View abstract.

Fu, Y., Zu, Y., Chen, L., Shi, X., Wang, Z., Sun, S., and Efferth, T. Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(10):989-994. View abstract.

Fujisawa, S., Atsumi, T., Satoh, K., and Sakagami, H. Interaction between 2-ethoxybenzoic acid (EBA) and eugenol, and related changes in cytotoxicity. J Dent.Res. 2003;82(1):43-47. View abstract.

Fujisawa, S., Muraoka, E., Nakazato, Y., and Okada, N. Effects of visible light irradiation on eugenol-treated oral mucosa. Dent.Mater.J 2005;24(2):202-206. View abstract.

Furukawa, H., Zenno, S., Iwasawa, Y., Morita, H., Yoshida, T., and Nagasawa, T. Ferulic acid production from clove oil by Pseudomonas fluorescens E118. J Biosci.Bioeng. 2003;96(4):404-405. View abstract.

Garg, S. C. and Siddiqui, N. Antifungal activity of some essential oil isolates. Pharmazie 1992;47(6):467-468. View abstract.

Garibaldi, J. A., Greenlaw, J., Choi, J., and Fotovatjah, M. Treatment of post-operative pain. J Calif.Dent.Assoc. 1995;23(4):71-2, 74. View abstract.

Garza Padilla E. Toxicidad local y sistémica del eugenol en un modelo animal. Revista ADM 1998;55(1):46.

Gaydou E and Randriamiharisoa R. Multidimensional analysis of gas chromatographic data, application to the differentiation of clove bud and clove stem essential oils from Madagascar. Perfumer and Flavorist (USA) 1987;12(45):51.

Ghelardini, C., Galeotti, N., Di Cesare, Mannelli L., Mazzanti, G., and Bartolini, A. Local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene. Farmaco 2001;56(5-7):387-389. View abstract.

Gracza L. HPLC determination of phenylpropanoids in medicinal substances: analysis of phenylpropane derivatives. Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung (Germany) 1980;120:1859-1863.

Grush, J., Noakes, D. L., and Moccia, R. D. The efficacy of clove oil as an anesthetic for the zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Zebrafish. 2004;1(1):46-53. View abstract.

Gryzenhout, M., Rodas, C. A., Portales, J. M., Clegg, P., Wingfield, B. D., and Wingfield, M. J. Novel hosts of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis and a new Chrysoporthe species from Colombia. Mycol.Res. 2006;110(Pt 7):833-845. View abstract.

Guenette, S. A., Beaudry, F., Marier, J. F., and Vachon, P. Pharmacokinetics and anesthetic activity of eugenol in male Sprague-Dawley rats. J Vet.Pharmacol.Ther 2006;29(4):265-270. View abstract.

Guidotti, T. L. Critique of available studies on the toxicology of kretek smoke and its constituents by routes of entry involving the respiratory tract. Arch.Toxicol. 1989;63(1):7-12. View abstract.

Guidotti, T. L., Laing, L., and Prakash, U. B. Clove cigarettes. The basis for concern regarding health effects. West J Med 1989;151(2):220-228. View abstract.

Gulati, N., Chandra, S., Aggarwal, P. K., Jaiswal, J. N., and Singh, M. Cytotoxicity of eugenol in sealer containing zinc-oxide. Endod.Dent.Traumatol. 1991;7(4):181-185. View abstract.

Guppy, L., Lowes, N. R., and Walker, M. J. Effect of a proprietary rubefacient "Tiger Balm" on rabbit skin. Food Chem.Toxicol. 1982;20(1):89-93. View abstract.

Gupta C, Kumari A Garg AP Catanzaro R Marotta F. Comparative study of cinnamon oil and clove oil on some oral microbiota. Acta Biomed. 2011;82(3):197-199. View abstract.

Guynot, M. E., Ramos, A. J., Seto, L., Purroy, P., Sanchis, V., and Marin, S. Antifungal activity of volatile compounds generated by essential oils against fungi commonly causing deterioration of bakery products. J Appl.Microbiol. 2003;94(5):893-899. View abstract.

Hackett, P. H., Rodriguez, G., and Roach, R. C. Clove cigarettes and high-altitude pulmonary edema. JAMA 6-28-1985;253(24):3551-3552. View abstract.

Harini, Priya M., Bhat, S. S., and Sundeep, Hegde K. Comparative evaluation of bactericidal potential of four root canal filling materials against microflora of infected non-vital primary teeth. J Clin Pediatr.Dent. 2010;35(1):23-29. View abstract.

Harnden, D. G. Tests for carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Int.Endod.J 1981;14(1):35-40. View abstract.

Hartnoll, G., Moore, D., and Douek, D. Near fatal ingestion of oil of cloves. Arch.Dis Child 1993;69(3):392-393. View abstract.

Hasan, H. A. and Issa, A. A. Influences of chemical fertilizers (in vitro) on aflatoxin and citrinin synthesis by two strains of aspergilli. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 1993;38(6):456-458. View abstract.

Hasan, H. A. and Mahmoud, A. L. Inhibitory effect of spice oils on lipase and mycotoxin production. Zentralbl.Mikrobiol. 1993;148(8):543-548. View abstract.

Hashimoto, S., Uchiyama, K., Maeda, M., Ishitsuka, K., Furumoto, K., and Nakamura, Y. In vivo and in vitro effects of zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) on biosynthesis of cyclo-oxygenase products in rat dental pulp. J Dent.Res. 1988;67(8):1092-1096. View abstract.

He, M., Du, M., Fan, M., and Bian, Z. In vitro activity of eugenol against Candida albicans biofilms. Mycopathologia 2007;163(3):137-143. View abstract.

Hegde, S., Lala, P. K., Dinesh, R. B., and Shubha, A. B. An in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of primary root canal filling materials. J Clin Pediatr.Dent. 2012;37(1):59-64. View abstract.

Hemaiswarya, S. and Doble, M. Synergistic interaction of eugenol with antibiotics against Gram negative bacteria. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(11):997-1005. View abstract.

Herrmann, K., Engst, W., Appel, K. E., Monien, B. H., and Glatt, H. Identification of human and murine sulfotransferases able to activate hydroxylated metabolites of methyleugenol to mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and detection of associated DNA adducts using UPLC-MS/MS methods. Mutagenesis 2012;27(4):453-462. View abstract.

Hildebrand, C. N. and DeRenzis, F. A. Effect of periodontal dressings on fibroblasts in vitro. J Periodontal Res. 1974;9(2):114-120. View abstract.

Ho, Y. C., Huang, F. M., and Chang, Y. C. Mechanisms of cytotoxicity of eugenol in human osteoblastic cells in vitro. Int.Endod.J 2006;39(5):389-393. View abstract.

Hollander F and Goldfischer RL. Histological study of the destruction and regeneration of the gastric mucous barrier following application of eugenol. Preliminary report. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1949;10:339-346.

Howes, M. J., Houghton, P. J., Barlow, D. J., Pocock, V. J., and Milligan, S. R. Assessment of estrogenic activity in some common essential oil constituents. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2002;54(11):1521-1528. View abstract.

Hronek, M., Vachtlova, D., Kudlackova, Z., and Jilek, P. [Antifungal effect in selected natural compounds and probiotics and their possible use in prophylaxis of vulvovaginitis]. Ceska.Gynekol. 2005;70(5):395-399. View abstract.

Huang Y, Choo L, Pang F, and et al. Insecticidal and repellent properties of nine volatile constituents of essential oils against the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.). Pesticide Science 1998;54(3):261.

Hume, W. R. Effect of eugenol on constrictor responses in blood vessels of the rabbit ear. J Dent.Res. 1983;62(9):1013-1015. View abstract.

Hume, W. R. Effect of eugenol on respiration and division in human pulp, mouse fibroblasts, and liver cells in vitro. J Dent.Res. 1984;63(11):1262-1265. View abstract.

Huss, U., Ringbom, T., Perera, P., Bohlin, L., and Vasange, M. Screening of ubiquitous plant constituents for COX-2 inhibition with a scintillation proximity based assay. J Nat Prod. 2002;65(11):1517-1521. View abstract.

Hussein E, Ahu A, and Kadir T. Investigation of bacteremia after toothbrushing in orthodontic patients. Korean Journal of Orthodontics 2009;39(3):177-184.

Hussein, G., Miyashiro, H., Nakamura, N., Hattori, M., Kakiuchi, N., and Shimotohno, K. Inhibitory effects of sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. Phytother.Res. 2000;14(7):510-516. View abstract.

Ibrahim, Y. K. and Ogunmodede, M. S. Growth and survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in some aromatic waters. Pharm Acta Helv. 1991;66(9-10):286-288. View abstract.

Illnesses possibly associated with smoking clove cigarettes. MMWR Morb.Mortal.Wkly.Rep. 5-31-1985;34(21):297-299. View abstract.

Inouye, S., Nishiyama, Y., Uchida, K., Hasumi, Y., Yamaguchi, H., and Abe, S. The vapor activity of oregano, perilla, tea tree, lavender, clove, and geranium oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a closed box. J Infect.Chemother. 2006;12(6):349-354. View abstract.

Inouye, S., Takahashi, M., and Abe, S. Inhibitory activity of hydrosols, herbal teas and related essential oils against filament formation and the growth of Candida albicans. Nippon Ishinkin.Gakkai Zasshi 2009;50(4):243-251. View abstract.

Inouye, S., Uchida, K., Nishiyama, Y., Hasumi, Y., Yamaguchi, H., and Abe, S. Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a foot bath. Nippon Ishinkin.Gakkai Zasshi 2007;48(1):27-36. View abstract.

Interaminense, L. F., Leal-Cardoso, J. H., Magalhaes, P. J., Duarte, G. P., and Lahlou, S. Enhanced hypotensive effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves and its main constituent, eugenol, in DOCA-salt hypertensive conscious rats. Planta Med 2005;71(4):376-378. View abstract.

Isaacs, G. Permanent local anaesthesia and anhidrosis after clove oil spillage. Lancet 4-16-1983;1(8329):882. View abstract.

Islam, S. N., Ferdous, A. J., Ahsan, M., and Faroque, A. B. Antibacterial activity of clove extracts against phagogenic strains including clinically resistant isolates of Shigella and Vibrio cholerae. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 1990;3(1):1-5. View abstract.

Jadhav, B. K., Khandelwal, K. R., Ketkar, A. R., and Pisal, S. S. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive tablets containing eugenol for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Drug Dev.Ind.Pharm. 2004;30(2):195-203. View abstract.

Jaganathan, S. K. and Supriyanto, E. Antiproliferative and molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Molecules. 2012;17(6):6290-6304. View abstract.

Jagdale, G. B. and Grewal, P. S. Identification of alternatives for the management of foliar nematodes in floriculture. Pest.Manag.Sci 2002;58(5):451-458. View abstract.

Jager, S., Trojan, H., Kopp, T., Laszczyk, M. N., and Scheffler, A. Pentacyclic triterpene distribution in various plants - rich sources for a new group of multi-potent plant extracts. Molecules. 2009;14(6):2016-2031. View abstract.

Janes, S. E., Price, C. S., and Thomas, D. Essential oil poisoning: N-acetylcysteine for eugenol-induced hepatic failure and analysis of a national database. Eur.J Pediatr 2005;164(8):520-522. View abstract.

Jayashankar, S., Panagoda, G. J., Amaratunga, E. A., Perera, K., and Rajapakse, P. S. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of a herbal toothpaste on gingival bleeding, oral hygiene and microbial variables. Ceylon Med.J 2011;56(1):5-9. View abstract.

Jeng, J. H., Hahn, L. J., Lu, F. J., Wang, Y. J., and Kuo, M. Y. Eugenol triggers different pathobiological effects on human oral mucosal fibroblasts. J Dent.Res. 1994;73(5):1050-1055. View abstract.

Jin, S. and Cho, K. H. Water extracts of cinnamon and clove exhibits potent inhibition of protein glycation and anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo hypolipidemic activity in zebrafish. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2011;49(7):1521-1529. View abstract.

Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Stoilova, I., Stoyanova, A., Krastanov, A., and Schmidt, E. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-23-2006;54(17):6303-6307. View abstract.

Joe, B. and Lokesh, B. R. Role of capsaicin, curcumin and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lowering the generation of reactive oxygen species in rat peritoneal macrophages. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 11-10-1994;1224(2):255-263. View abstract.

Jorkjend, L. and Skoglund, L. A. Effect of non-eugenol- and eugenol-containing periodontal dressings on the incidence and severity of pain after periodontal soft tissue surgery. J Clin Periodontol. 1990;17(6):341-344. View abstract.

Juglal, S., Govinden, R., and Odhav, B. Spice oils for the control of co-occurring mycotoxin-producing fungi. J Food Prot. 2002;65(4):683-687. View abstract.

Kadey M. Lost in spice. Natural Health 2007;37(9):43-50.

Kamble VA and Patil SD. Spice-Derived Essential Oils: Effective Antifungal and Possible Therapeutic Agents. Journal of Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants (USA) 2008;14:129-143.

Kaschula, C. H., Hunter, R., Hassan, H. T., Stellenboom, N., Cotton, J., Zhai, X. Q., and Parker, M. I. Anti-proliferation activity of synthetic ajoene analogues on cancer cell-lines. Anticancer Agents Med.Chem 2011;11(3):260-266. View abstract.

Kasugai, S., Hasegawa, N., and Ogura, H. Application of the MTT colorimetric assay to measure cytotoxic effects of phenolic compounds on established rat dental pulp cells. J Dent.Res. 1991;70(2):127-130. View abstract.

Khaldun, A. O. [Antibacterial action of ether oils of some plants]. Zh.Mikrobiol.Epidemiol.Immunobiol. 2006;(3):92-93. View abstract.

Khan, M. S., Zahin, M., Hasan, S., Husain, F. M., and Ahmad, I. Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated bacterial functions by plant essential oils with special reference to clove oil. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2009;49(3):354-360. View abstract.

Khan, R., Islam, B., Akram, M., Shakil, S., Ahmad, A., Ali, S. M., Siddiqui, M., and Khan, A. U. Antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts against multi drug resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and fungus of clinical origin. Molecules. 2009;14(2):586-597. View abstract.

Kharfi, M., El, Fekih N., Zayan, F., Mrad, S., and Kamoun, M. R. [Temporary tatooing: black henna or harkous?]. Med.Trop.(Mars.) 2009;69(5):527-528. View abstract.

Kim, B. J., Kim, J. H., Kim, H. P., and Heo, M. Y. Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity. Int.J Cosmet.Sci. 1997;19(6):299-307. View abstract.

Kim, D. O. and Lee, C. Y. Comprehensive study on vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of various polyphenolics in scavenging a free radical and its structural relationship. Crit Rev.Food Sci.Nutr. 2004;44(4):253-273. View abstract.

Kim, E. H., Kim, H. K., and Ahn, Y. J. Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil compounds against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J Agric.Food Chem. 2-12-2003;51(4):885-889. View abstract.

Kim, H. J., Lee, J. S., Woo, E. R., Kim, M. K., Yang, B. S., Yu, Y. G., Park, H., and Lee, Y. S. Isolation of virus-cell fusion inhibitory components from Eugenia caryophyllata. Planta Med 2001;67(3):277-279. View abstract.

Kim, H. M., Lee, E. H., Hong, S. H., Song, H. J., Shin, M. K., Kim, S. H., and Shin, T. Y. Effect of Syzygium aromaticum extract on immediate hypersensitivity in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;60(2):125-131. View abstract.

Kim, H. M., Lee, E. H., Kim, C. Y., Chung, J. G., Kim, S. H., Lim, J. P., and Shin, T. Y. Antianaphylactic properties of eugenol. Pharmacol Res 1997;36(6):475-480. View abstract.

Kim, S. I., Na, Y. E., Yi, J. H., Kim, B. S., and Ahn, Y. J. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Vet.Parasitol. 4-30-2007;145(3-4):377-382. View abstract.

Kim, S. S., Oh, O. J., Min, H. Y., Park, E. J., Kim, Y., Park, H. J., Nam, Han Y., and Lee, S. K. Eugenol suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Life Sci. 6-6-2003;73(3):337-348. View abstract.

Kluth, D., Banning, A., Paur, I., Blomhoff, R., and Brigelius-Flohe, R. Modulation of pregnane X receptor- and electrophile responsive element-mediated gene expression by dietary polyphenolic compounds. Free Radic.Biol.Med 2-1-2007;42(3):315-325. View abstract.

Knaap G. Kruidnagelen en Christenen. De Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie en de Bevolking van Ambon 1656-1696. Dissertation Abstracts International Section C 1985;46(4):46-4329c.


Kobayashi, M., Tsutsui, T. W., Kobayashi, T., Ohno, M., Higo, Y., Inaba, T., and Tsutsui, T. Sensitivity of human dental pulp cells to eighteen chemical agents used for endodontic treatments in dentistry. Odontology. 2013;101(1):43-51. View abstract.

Kong, B., Wang, J., and Xiong, Y. L. Antimicrobial activity of several herb and spice extracts in culture medium and in vacuum-packaged pork. J Food Prot. 2007;70(3):641-647. View abstract.

Korany M, Salam N, and Salem M. Colorimetric determination of thymol and eugenol in volatile oils. J.Assoc.Off.Anal.Chem. 1978;61:169-171.

Koseoglu, B. G., Tanrikulu, S., Subay, R. K., and Sencer, S. Anesthesia following overfilling of a root canal sealer into the mandibular canal: a case report. Oral Surg.Oral Med Oral Pathol.Oral Radiol.Endod. 2006;101(6):803-806. View abstract.

Koulaouzidou, E. A., Papazisis, K. T., Economides, N. A., Beltes, P., and Kortsaris, A. H. Antiproliferative effect of mineral trioxide aggregate, zinc oxide-eugenol cement, and glass-ionomer cement against three fibroblastic cell lines. J Endod. 2005;31(1):44-46. View abstract.

Kozam, G. and Mantell, G. M. The effect of eugenol on oral mucous membranes. J Dent.Res. 1978;57(11-12):954-957. View abstract.

Kreydiyyeh, S. I., Usta, J., and Copti, R. Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum. Food Chem Toxicol 2000;38(9):755-762. View abstract.

Kripke, B. J., Kupferman, A., and Luu, K. C. Suppression of chemotaxis to corneal inflammation by nitrous oxide. Zhonghua Min Guo.Wei Sheng Wu Ji.Mian.Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1987;20(4):302-310. View abstract.

Kumar, P. and Singh, D. K. Molluscicidal activity of Ferula asafoetida, Syzygium aromaticum and Carum carvi and their active components against the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Chemosphere 2006;63(9):1568-1574. View abstract.

Kumar, P., Ansari, S. H., and Ali, J. Herbal remedies for the treatment of periodontal disease--a patent review. Recent Pat Drug Deliv.Formul. 2009;3(3):221-228. View abstract.

Lahlou, S., Interaminense, Lde F., Leal-Cardoso, J. H., Morais, S. M., and Duarte, G. P. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves in rats: role of the autonomic nervous system. Clin Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol 2004;31(4):219-225. View abstract.

Lane, B. W., Ellenhorn, M. J., Hulbert, T. V., and McCarron, M. Clove oil ingestion in an infant. Hum.Exp Toxicol. 1991;10(4):291-294. View abstract.

Lapalus, P., Bayer, V., and Lapalus, F. [Effects of chromocarb diethylamine and prednisolone in experimental uveitis induced by clove oil in rabbits]. J Fr.Ophtalmol. 1986;9(2):123-126. View abstract.

Larhsini, M., Oumoulid, L., Lazrek, H. B., Wataleb, S., Bousaid, M., Bekkouche, K., and Jana, M. Antibacterial activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants. Phytother.Res. 2001;15(3):250-252. View abstract.

Laroche C. LA VIE INTELLECTUELLE A L'ILE DE FRANCE SOUS L'ADMINISTRATION ROYALE: 1776-1790. Revue Historique des Armées 1964;20(1):19-32.

LaVoie, E. J., Adams, J. D., Reinhardt, J., Rivenson, A., and Hoffmann, D. Toxicity studies on clove cigarette smoke and constituents of clove: determination of the LD50 of eugenol by intratracheal instillation in rats and hamsters. Arch.Toxicol. 1986;59(2):78-81. View abstract.

Lawrence B. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer and Flavorist (USA) 1991;16:49-55.

Lawrence B. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer and Flavorist (USA) 1997;22:57-66.

Leal-Cardoso, J. H., Lahlou, S., Coelho-de-Souza, A. N., Criddle, D. N., Pinto Duarte, G. I., Santos, M. A., and Magalhaes, P. J. Inhibitory actions of eugenol on rat isolated ileum. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;80(9):901-906. View abstract.

Lee, G. I., Ha, J. Y., Min, K. R., Nakagawa, H., Tsurufuji, S., Chang, I. M., and Kim, Y. Inhibitory effects of Oriental herbal medicines on IL-8 induction in lipopolysaccharide-activated rat macrophages. Planta Med 1995;61(1):26-30. View abstract.

Lee, J. I., Lee, H. S., Jun, W. J., Yu, K. W., Shin, D. H., Hong, B. S., Cho, H. Y., and Yang, H. C. Purification and characterization of antithrombotics from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MErr. & PERRY. Biol.Pharm.Bull 2001;24(2):181-187. View abstract.

Lee, K. G. and Shibamoto, T. Inhibition of malonaldehyde formation from blood plasma oxidation by aroma extracts and aroma components isolated from clove and eucalyptus. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2001;39(12):1199-1204. View abstract.

Lee, M. H., Yeon, K. Y., Park, C. K., Li, H. Y., Fang, Z., Kim, M. S., Choi, S. Y., Lee, S. J., Lee, S., Park, K., Lee, J. H., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Eugenol inhibits calcium currents in dental afferent neurons. J Dent.Res. 2005;84(9):848-851. View abstract.

Lee, S. Y. and Jin, H. H. Inhibitory activity of natural antimicrobial compounds alone or in combination with nisin against Enterobacter sakazakii. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2008;47(4):315-321. View abstract.

Lee, Y. Y., Hung, S. L., Pai, S. F., Lee, Y. H., and Yang, S. F. Eugenol suppressed the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory mediators in human macrophages. J Endod. 2007;33(6):698-702. View abstract.

Lee, Y. Y., Yang, S. F., Ho, W. H., Lee, Y. H., and Hung, S. L. Eugenol modulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B in human osteoblasts. J Endod. 2007;33(10):1177-1182. View abstract.

Leite A, Lima E, de Souza E, and et al. Inhibitory effect of beta-pinene, alpha-pinene and eugenol on the growth of potential infectious endocarditis causing Gram-positive bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Farmaceuticas) 2007;43:121-126.

Leuschner, R. G. and Ielsch, V. Antimicrobial effects of garlic, clove and red hot chilli on Listeria monocytogenes in broth model systems and soft cheese. Int J Food Sci.Nutr. 2003;54(2):127-133. View abstract.

Li, H. Y., Park, C. K., Jung, S. J., Choi, S. Y., Lee, S. J., Park, K., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Eugenol inhibits K+ currents in trigeminal ganglion neurons. J Dent.Res. 2007;86(9):898-902. View abstract.

Lima I, Oliveira R, Lima E, and et al. Inhibitory effect of some phytochemicals in the growth of yeasts potentially causing opportunistic infections. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Farmaceuticas) 2005;41:199-203.

Lindberg, C. M., Melathopoulos, A. P., and Winston, M. L. Laboratory evaluation of miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae), a honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) parasite. J Econ.Entomol. 2000;93(2):189-198. View abstract.

Linde H. About 2 phenols in cloves. Archiv der Pharmazie (Weinheim, Germany) 1983;316:971-972.

Lindqvist, L. and Otteskog, P. Eugenol: liberation from dental materials and effect on human diploid fibroblast cells. Scand.J Dent.Res. 1980;88(6):552-556. View abstract.

Lindqvist, L., Bartfai, T., Berg, J. O., and Blomlof, L. In vivo and in vitro studies of inhibitory effects of restorative dental materials on salivary esterases. Scand.J Dent.Res. 1980;88(3):229-235. View abstract.

Liu, X., Han, Y., Peng, K., Liu, Y., Li, J., and Liu, H. Effect of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs on Candida spp. from patients with HIV/AIDS. Adv.Dent.Res 2011;23(1):56-60. View abstract.

Llewellyn, G. C., Burkett, M. L., and Eadie, T. Potential mold growth, aflatoxin production, and antimycotic activity of selected natural spices and herbs. J Assoc.Off Anal.Chem. 1981;64(4):955-960. View abstract.

Lofrano-Alves, M. S., Oliveira, E. L., Damiani, C. E., Kassouf-Silva, I., and Fogaca, R. T. Eugenol-induced contractions of saponin-skinned fibers are inhibited by heparin or by a ryanodine receptor blocker. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;83(12):1093-1100. View abstract.

Lopez, P., Sanchez, C., Batlle, R., and Nerin, C. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. J Agric.Food Chem 8-24-2005;53(17):6939-6946. View abstract.

Mabrouk, S. S. and El Shayeb, N. M. Inhibition of aflatoxin formation by some spices. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1980;171(5):344-347. View abstract.

Macova, S., Dolezelova, P., Pistekova, V., Svobodova, Z., Bedanova, I., and Voslarova, E. Comparison of acute toxicity of 2-phenoxyethanol and clove oil to juvenile and embryonic stages of Danio rerio. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2008;29(5):680-684. View abstract.

Mandrioli, R., Musenga, A., Ferranti, A., Lasaponara, S. S., Fanali, S., and Raggi, M. A. Separation and analysis of the major constituents of cloves by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J Sep.Sci 2005;28(9-10):966-972. View abstract.

Maralhas, A., Monteiro, A., Martins, C., Kranendonk, M., Laires, A., Rueff, J., and Rodrigues, A. S. Genotoxicity and endoreduplication inducing activity of the food flavouring eugenol. Mutagenesis 2006;21(3):199-204. View abstract.

Martinez Nadal NG and Montalvo AE. Antimicrobial properties of bay and other phenolic essential oils. Cosmet.Perfum 1973;88(10):37-38.

Martins, M. L., Martins, H. M., and Bernardo, F. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal. Food Addit.Contam 2001;18(4):315-319. View abstract.

Mayaud, L., Carricajo, A., Zhiri, A., and Aubert, G. Comparison of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 essential oils against strains with varying sensitivity to antibiotics. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2008;47(3):167-173. View abstract.

Mayer, T., Pioch, T., Duschner, H., and Staehle, H. J. Dentinal adhesion and histomorphology of two dentinal bonding agents under the influence of eugenol. Quintessence.Int. 1997;28(1):57-62. View abstract.

McDonald H. Colonic Hydrotherapy for Digestive Problems. Positive Health 2007;(134):32.

McDonald, J. W. and Heffner, J. E. Eugenol causes oxidant-mediated edema in isolated perfused rabbit lungs. Am Rev Respir.Dis 1991;143(4 Pt 1):806-809. View abstract.

McDougal, R. A., Delano, E. O., Caplan, D., Sigurdsson, A., and Trope, M. Success of an alternative for interim management of irreversible pulpitis. J Am Dent.Assoc 2004;135(12):1707-1712. View abstract.

Mejlholm, O. and Dalgaard, P. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2002;34(1):27-31. View abstract.

Mesbah, H. A., Mourad, A. K., and Rokaia, A. Z. Efficacy of some plant oils alone and/or combined with different insecticides on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Egypt. Commun.Agric.Appl.Biol.Sci. 2006;71(2 Pt B):305-328. View abstract.

Meyer, R. Comment on Guenette, S.A., Beaudry, F., Marier, J.F., and Vachon, P. (2006). Pharmacokinetics and anesthetic activity of eugenol in male Sprague-Dawley rats. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 29, 265-270. J Vet.Pharmacol.Ther 2007;30(1):91. View abstract.

Meyer, S. L., Lakshman, D. K., Zasada, I. A., Vinyard, B. T., and Chitwood, D. J. Dose-response effects of clove oil from Syzygium aromaticum on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Pest.Manag.Sci 2008;64(3):223-229. View abstract.

Minami, E., Shibata, H., Nomoto, M., and Fukuda, T. Effect of shitei-to, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, on pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(1):69-72. View abstract.

Minet, E. F., Daniela, G., Meredith, C., and Massey, E. D. A comparative in vitro kinetic study of [14C]-eugenol and [14C]-methyleugenol activation and detoxification in human, mouse, and rat liver and lung fractions. Xenobiotica 2012;42(5):429-441. View abstract.

Mishra, R. K. and Singh, S. K. Safety assessment of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (clove) extract with respect to testicular function in mice. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2008;46(10):3333-3338. View abstract.

Mitchell, R. Treatment of fibrinolytic alveolitis by a collagen paste (Formula K). A preliminary report. Int J Oral Maxillofac.Surg. 1986;15(2):127-133. View abstract.

Miyazawa, M. and Hisama, M. Antimutagenic activity of phenylpropanoids from clove (Syzygium aromaticum). J Agric.Food Chem. 10-22-2003;51(22):6413-6422. View abstract.

Miyazawa, M. and Hisama, M. Suppression of chemical mutagen-induced SOS response by alkylphenols from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 umu test. J Agric.Food Chem. 2001;49(8):4019-4025. View abstract.

Montes-Belmont, R. and Carvajal, M. Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components. J Food Prot. 1998;61(5):616-619. View abstract.

Morsy, M. A. and Fouad, A. A. Mechanisms of gastroprotective effect of eugenol in indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(10):1361-1366. View abstract.

Mortazavi, M. and Mesbahi, M. Comparison of zinc oxide and eugenol, and Vitapex for root canal treatment of necrotic primary teeth. Int J Paediatr.Dent. 2004;14(6):417-424. View abstract.

Mortensen, H. [A case of allergic stomatitis due to eugenol]. Tandlaegebladet. 1968;72(12):1155-1158. View abstract.

Moskaug, J. O., Borge, G. I., Fagervoll, A. M., Paur, I., Carlsen, H., and Blomhoff, R. Dietary polyphenols identified as intracellular protein kinase A inhibitors. Eur.J Nutr. 2008;47(8):460-469. View abstract.

Muehlbauer, P. A. and Schuler, M. J. Measuring the mitotic index in chemically-treated human lymphocyte cultures by flow cytometry. Mutat.Res. 6-6-2003;537(2):117-130. View abstract.

Munerato, M. C., Sinigaglia, M., Reguly, M. L., and de Andrade, H. H. Genotoxic effects of eugenol, isoeugenol and safrole in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat.Res. 4-4-2005;582(1-2):87-94. View abstract.

Muniz, L. and Mathias, P. The influence of sodium hypochlorite and root canal sealers on post retention in different dentin regions. Oper.Dent. 2005;30(4):533-539. View abstract.

Muraz, B. and Chaigneau, M. [Decontamination of spices by ethylene oxide. The case of cloves (Eugenia caryophyllus Spreng.) and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.)]. Ann.Pharm.Fr. 1985;43(1):15-21. View abstract.

Musenga, A., Ferranti, A., Saracino, M. A., Fanali, S., and Raggi, M. A. Simultaneous determination of aromatic and terpenic constituents of cloves by means of HPLC with diode array detection. J Sep.Sci 2006;29(9):1251-1258. View abstract.

Mutalik, S. and Udupa, N. Effect of some penetration enhancers on the permeation of glibenclamide and glipizide through mouse skin. Pharmazie 2003;58(12):891-894. View abstract.

Naithani, V. and Kakkar, P. Effect of ecological variation on heavy metal content of some medicinal plants used as herbal tea ingredients in India. Bull Environ.Contam Toxicol. 2006;76(2):285-292. View abstract.

Naithani, V. and Kakkar, P. Estimation of organochlorine pesticide residues in two popular spices extensively used as herbal tea ingredients in India. Bull Environ.Contam Toxicol. 2006;76(3):429-435. View abstract.

Nangle, M. R., Gibson, T. M., Cotter, M. A., and Cameron, N. E. Effects of eugenol on nerve and vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Planta Med 2006;72(6):494-500. View abstract.

Nanjee, M. N., Verhagen, H., van Poppel, G., Rompelberg, C. J., van Bladeren, P. J., and Miller, N. E. Do dietary phytochemicals with cytochrome P-450 enzyme-inducing activity increase high-density-lipoprotein concentrations in humans? Am.J Clin Nutr. 1996;64(5):706-711. View abstract.

Nassar, M. I. Flavonoid triglycosides from the seeds of Syzygium aromaticum. Carbohydr.Res. 1-16-2006;341(1):160-163. View abstract.

Natural compounds fight oral pathogens. J Am.Dent.Assoc. 1996;127(11):1582. View abstract.

Nelson, R. L., Thomas, K., Morgan, J., and Jones, A. Non surgical therapy for anal fissure. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;2:CD003431. View abstract.

Ogata, M. [Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of dimeric phenol compounds]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128(8):1149-1158. View abstract.

Ogata, M., Hoshi, M., Urano, S., and Endo, T. Antioxidant activity of eugenol and related monomeric and dimeric compounds. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 2000;48(10):1467-1469. View abstract.

Ogata, M., Kaneya, D., Shin-Ya, K., Li, L., Abe, Y., Katoh, H., Seki, S., Seki, Y., Gonda, R., Urano, S., and Endo, T. Trapping effect of eugenol on hydroxyl radicals induced by L-DOPA in vitro. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 2005;53(9):1167-1170. View abstract.

Ohkubo, T. and Kitamura, K. Eugenol activates Ca(2+)-permeable currents in rat dorsal root ganglion cells. J Dent.Res. 1997;76(11):1737-1744. View abstract.

Ohkubo, T. and Shibata, M. The selective capsaicin antagonist capsazepine abolishes the antinociceptive action of eugenol and guaiacol. J Dent.Res. 1997;76(4):848-851. View abstract.

Olasupo, N. A., Fitzgerald, D. J., Gasson, M. J., and Narbad, A. Activity of natural antimicrobial compounds against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2003;37(6):448-451. View abstract.

Oparaeke A, Dike M, and Amatobi C. Field Activity of Three Mixture Levels of Plant Extract Formulations for the Management of Post-Flowering Insect Pests of Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp-The Flower Thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom). Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 2006;28(4):45-54.

Ouattara, B., Simard, R. E., Holley, R. A., Piette, G. J., and Begin, A. Antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils against six meat spoilage organisms. Int.J Food Microbiol. 7-22-1997;37(2-3):155-162. View abstract.

Owen P and Johns T. Antioxidants in Medicines and Spices as Cardioprotective Agents in Tibetan Highlanders. Pharmaceutical Biology 2002;40(5):346.

Oya, T., Osawa, T., and Kawakishi, S. Spice constituents scavenging free radicals and inhibiting pentosidine formation in a model system. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 1997;61(2):263-266. View abstract.

Ozalp, N., Saroglu, I., and Sonmez, H. Evaluation of various root canal filling materials in primary molar pulpectomies: an in vivo study. Am J Dent. 2005;18(6):347-350. View abstract.

Pallares, D. E. Link between clove cigarettes and urticaria? Postgrad.Med 10-1-1999;106(4):153. View abstract.

Palmero, M., Bellot, J. L., Alcoriza, N., Garcia-Cabanes, C., and Orts, A. The ocular pharmacokinetics of topical diclofenac is affected by ocular inflammation. Ophthalmic Res 1999;31(4):309-316. View abstract.

Pandey, B. N. and Mishra, K. P. Modification of thymocytes membrane radiooxidative damage and apoptosis by eugenol. J Environ.Pathol.Toxicol.Oncol. 2004;23(2):117-122. View abstract.

Park, B. S., Song, Y. S., Yee, S. B., Lee, B. G., Seo, S. Y., Park, Y. C., Kim, J. M., Kim, H. M., and Yoo, Y. H. Phospho-ser 15-p53 translocates into mitochondria and interacts with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in eugenol-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2005;10(1):193-200. View abstract.

Park, C. K., Kim, K., Jung, S. J., Kim, M. J., Ahn, D. K., Hong, S. D., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Molecular mechanism for local anesthetic action of eugenol in the rat trigeminal system. Pain 2009;144(1-2):84-94. View abstract.

Park, C. K., Li, H. Y., Yeon, K. Y., Jung, S. J., Choi, S. Y., Lee, S. J., Lee, S., Park, K., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Eugenol inhibits sodium currents in dental afferent neurons. J Dent.Res. 2006;85(10):900-904. View abstract.

Park, I. K. and Shin, S. C. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe). J Agric.Food Chem. 6-1-2005;53(11):4388-4392. View abstract.

Park, M. J., Gwak, K. S., Yang, I., Kim, K. W., Jeung, E. B., Chang, J. W., and Choi, I. G. Effect of citral, eugenol, nerolidol and alpha-terpineol on the ultrastructural changes of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Fitoterapia 2009;80(5):290-296. View abstract.

Pawar, V. C. and Thaker, V. S. In vitro efficacy of 75 essential oils against Aspergillus niger. Mycoses 2006;49(4):316-323. View abstract.

Pei, R. S., Zhou, F., Ji, B. P., and Xu, J. Evaluation of combined antibacterial effects of eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol against E. coli with an improved method. J Food Sci 2009;74(7):M379-M383. View abstract.

Pemberton R. THE TRINIDAD BOTANIC GARDENS AND COLONIAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT, 1818-1899. Revista -- Review Interamericana 1999;29:1-4.

Perez, C. and Anesini, C. Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth. Am.J Chin Med 1994;22(2):169-174. View abstract.

Petel, R., Moskovitz, M., Tickotsky, N., Halabi, A., Goldstein, J., and Houri-Haddad, Y. Cytotoxicity and proliferative effects of Iodoform-containing root canal-filling material on RAW 264.7 macrophage and RKO epithelial cell lines. Arch.Oral Biol 2013;58(1):75-81. View abstract.

Peterson T and Bryan J. A kinetic study of the isomerization of eugenol. Journal of Chemical Education 1993;70(4):96.

Petriska, I., Polasek, M., and Sladkovsky, R. Assay of terpene alcohols in pharmacopoeial essential oils by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). Pharmazie 2006;61(12):989-993. View abstract.

Pezo, D., Salafranca, J., and Nerin, C. Determination of the antioxidant capacity of active food packagings by in situ gas-phase hydroxyl radical generation and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr.A 1-18-2008;1178(1-2):126-133. View abstract.

Picon S. ZANZIBAR, TERRE D'ESCLAVES. L'Histoire 1980;29:52-60.

Pinto, E., Vale-Silva, L., Cavaleiro, C., and Salgueiro, L. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58(Pt 11):1454-1462. View abstract.

Polzin, G. M., Stanfill, S. B., Brown, C. R., Ashley, D. L., and Watson, C. H. Determination of eugenol, anethole, and coumarin in the mainstream cigarette smoke of Indonesian clove cigarettes. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45(10):1948-1953. View abstract.

Ponce, A., Roura, S. I., and Moreira, Mdel R. Essential oils as biopreservatives: different methods for the technological application in lettuce leaves. J Food Sci. 2011;76(1):M34-M40. View abstract.

Pongprayoon, U., Baeckstrom, P., Jacobsson, U., Lindstrom, M., and Bohlin, L. Compounds inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis isolated from Ipomoea pes-caprae. Planta Med 1991;57(6):515-518. View abstract.

Pourgholami, M. H., Kamalinejad, M., Javadi, M., Majzoob, S., and Sayyah, M. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64(2):167-171. View abstract.

Prabuseenivasan, S., Jayakumar, M., and Ignacimuthu, S. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2006;6:39. View abstract.

Prashar, A., Locke, I. C., and Evans, C. S. Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells. Cell Prolif. 2006;39(4):241-248. View abstract.

Quirce, S., Fernandez-Nieto, M., del, Pozo, V, Sastre, B., and Sastre, J. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by eugenol in a hairdresser. Allergy 2008;63(1):137-138. View abstract.

Raghavenra, H., Diwakr, B. T., Lokesh, B. R., and Naidu, K. A. Eugenol--the active principle from cloves inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene-C4 in human PMNL cells. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2006;74(1):23-27. View abstract.

Rahim, Z. H. and Khan, H. B. Comparative studies on the effect of crude aqueous (CA) and solvent (CM) extracts of clove on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans. J Oral Sci 2006;48(3):117-123. View abstract.

Ramanoelina, A. R., Terrom, G. P., Bianchini, J. P., and Coulanges, P. [Antibacterial action of essential oils extracted from Madagascar plants]. Arch.Inst.Pasteur Madagascar 1987;53(1):217-226. View abstract.

Ranly, D. M., Garcia-Godoy, F., and Horn, D. A comparison of the effects of cresol and eugenol on bovine pulp. Endod.Dent.Traumatol. 1988;4(2):70-75. View abstract.

Rao, C. S., Schoenwald, R. D., Barfknecht, C. F., and Laban, S. L. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of ibufenac, ibuprofen, and their hydroxyethoxy analogs in the rabbit eye. J Pharmacokinet.Biopharm. 1992;20(4):357-388. View abstract.

Rastogi, S., Pandey, M. M., and Rawat, A. K. High-performance thin-layer chromatography densitometric method for the simultaneous determination of three phenolic acids in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. J AOAC Int. 2008;91(5):1169-1173. View abstract.

Rattanachaikunsopon, P. and Phumkhachorn, P. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2009;73(9):2085-2089. View abstract.

Reddy, A. C. and Lokesh, B. R. Effect of curcumin and eugenol on iron-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Toxicology 1-22-1996;107(1):39-45. View abstract.

Reid A. AN 'AGE OF COMMERCE' IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN HISTORY. Modern Asian Studies 1990;24(1):1-30.

Reiner, G. N., Labuckas, D. O., and Garcia, D. A. Lipophilicity of some GABAergic phenols and related compounds determined by HPLC and partition coefficients in different systems. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 4-5-2009;49(3):686-691. View abstract.

Reiter, M. and Brandt, W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneimittelforschung. 1985;35(1A):408-414. View abstract.

Revay, E. E., Junnila, A., Xue, R. D., Kline, D. L., Bernier, U. R., Kravchenko, V. D., Qualls, W. A., Ghattas, N., and Muller, G. C. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes. Acta Trop. 2013;125(2):226-230. View abstract.

Robin, O., Alaoui-Ismaili, O., Dittmar, A., and Vernet-Maury, E. Emotional responses evoked by dental odors: an evaluation from autonomic parameters. J Dent.Res. 1998;77(8):1638-1646. View abstract.

Rodrigues, T. G., Fernandes, A., Jr., Sousa, J. P., Bastos, J. K., and Sforcin, J. M. In vitro and in vivo effects of clove on pro-inflammatory cytokines production by macrophages. Nat.Prod.Res. 2009;23(4):319-326. View abstract.

Rodriguez Q, Rojas J, Kana A, and Polanco S. Efecto del Eugenol del cemento Rooth 801 sobre la adhesión en el cementado con resina de postes prefabricados. (Spanish). Revista Oral 2003;4(1):203-204.

Romaguera, C., Alomar, A., Camarasa, J. M., Garcia, Bravo B., Garcia, Perez A., Grimalt, F., Guerra, P., Lopez, Gorretcher B., Pascual, A. M., Miranda, A., and . Contact dermatitis in children. Contact Dermatitis 1985;12(5):283-284. View abstract.

Rompelberg, C. J., Vogels, J. T., de Vogel, N., Bruijntjes-Rozier, G. C., Stenhuis, W. H., Bogaards, J. J., and Verhagen, H. Effect of short-term dietary administration of eugenol in humans. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 1996;15(2):129-135. View abstract.

Saad, el, Hussien, R., Saher, F., and Ahmed, Z. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J Zhejiang.Univ Sci B 2006;7(12):957-962. View abstract.

Saeed, S. A. and Gilani, A. H. Antithrombotic activity of clove oil. J Pak Med Assoc 1994;44(5):112-115. View abstract.

Saeki, Y., Ito, Y., Shibata, M., Sato, Y., Okuda, K., and Takazoe, I. Antimicrobial action of natural substances on oral bacteria. Bull.Tokyo Dent Coll. 1989;30(3):129-135. View abstract.

Saenz, M. T., Garcia, M. D., and de la, Puerta R. Cytostatic activity of some essential oils against HEp-2 cells. Farmaco 1996;51(7):539-540. View abstract.

Sagsen, B., Er, O., Esel, D., Yagmur, G., and Altintop, Y. In vitro pharmacodynamic activities of root canal sealers on Enterococcus faecalis. J Contemp.Dent.Pract. 2009;10(3):35-42. View abstract.

Saini, A., Sharma, S., and Chhibber, S. Induction of resistance to respiratory tract infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice fed on a diet supplemented with tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and clove (Syzgium aromaticum) oils. J Microbiol.Immunol.Infect. 2009;42(2):107-113. View abstract.

Saito, K., Kohno, M., Yoshizaki, F., and Niwano, Y. Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2008;63(2):65-70. View abstract.

Sakano, K., Inagaki, Y., Oikawa, S., Hiraku, Y., and Kawanishi, S. Copper-mediated oxidative DNA damage induced by eugenol: possible involvement of O-demethylation. Mutat.Res. 12-31-2004;565(1):35-44. View abstract.

Saltzman, B., Sigal, M., Clokie, C., Rukavina, J., Titley, K., and Kulkarni, G. V. Assessment of a novel alternative to conventional formocresol-zinc oxide eugenol pulpotomy for the treatment of pulpally involved human primary teeth: diode laser-mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy. Int J Paediatr.Dent. 2005;15(6):437-447. View abstract.

Samara, A., Sarri, Y., Stravopodis, D., Tzanetakis, G. N., Kontakiotis, E. G., and Anastasiadou, E. A comparative study of the effects of three root-end filling materials on proliferation and adherence of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. J Endod. 2011;37(6):865-870. View abstract.

Sanchez-Perez, J. and Garcia-Diez, A. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from eugenol, oil of cinnamon and oil of cloves in a physiotherapist. Contact Dermatitis 1999;41(6):346-347. View abstract.

Santiesteban-Lopez, A., Palou, E., and Lopez-Malo, A. Susceptibility of food-borne bacteria to binary combinations of antimicrobials at selected a(w) and pH. J Appl.Microbiol. 2007;102(2):486-497. View abstract.

Santoro, G. F., Cardoso, M. G., Guimaraes, L. G., Mendonca, L. Z., and Soares, M. J. Trypanosoma cruzi: activity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium L., Syzygium aromaticum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes. Exp.Parasitol. 2007;116(3):283-290. View abstract.

Sarrami, N., Pemberton, M. N., Thornhill, M. H., and Theaker, E. D. Adverse reactions associated with the use of eugenol in dentistry. Br.Dent.J 9-14-2002;193(5):257-259. View abstract.

Sastry, C. S., Rao, K. E., and Prasad, U. V. Spectrophotometric determination of some phenols with sodium metaperiodate and aminophenols. Talanta 1982;29(11 Pt 1):917-920. View abstract.

Scarparo, R. K., Grecca, F. S., and Fachin, E. V. Analysis of tissue reactions to methacrylate resin-based, epoxy resin-based, and zinc oxide-eugenol endodontic sealers. J Endod. 2009;35(2):229-232. View abstract.

Scelza, M. Z., Linhares, A. B., da Silva, L. E., Granjeiro, J. M., and Alves, G. G. A multiparametric assay to compare the cytotoxicity of endodontic sealers with primary human osteoblasts. Int Endod.J 2012;45(1):12-18. View abstract.

Schapoval, E. E., Silveira, S. M., Miranda, M. L., Alice, C. B., and Henriques, A. T. Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of Eugenia uniflora L. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994;44(3):137-142. View abstract.

Schattner, P. and Randerson, D. Tiger Balm as a treatment of tension headache. A clinical trial in general practice. Aust.Fam.Physician 1996;25(2):216, 218, 220. View abstract.

Schecter, A., Lucier, G. W., Cunningham, M. L., Abdo, K. M., Blumenthal, G., Silver, A. G., Melnick, R., Portier, C., Barr, D. B., Barr, J. R., Stanfill, S. B., Patterson, D. G., Jr., Needham, L. L., Stopford, W., Masten, S., Mignogna, J., and Tung, K. C. Human consumption of methyleugenol and its elimination from serum. Environ.Health Perspect. 2004;112(6):678-680. View abstract.

Schiestl, R. H., Chan, W. S., Gietz, R. D., Mehta, R. D., and Hastings, P. J. Safrole, eugenol and methyleugenol induce intrachromosomal recombination in yeast. Mutat.Res. 1989;224(4):427-436. View abstract.

Schnitzler, P., Wiesenhofer, K., and Reichling, J. Comparative study on the cytotoxicity of different Myrtaceae essential oils on cultured vero and RC-37 cells. Pharmazie 2008;63(11):830-835. View abstract.

Segura, J. J. and Jimenez-Rubio, A. Effect of eugenol on macrophage adhesion in vitro to plastic surfaces. Endod.Dent.Traumatol. 1998;14(2):72-74. View abstract.

Sekizawa, J. and Shibamoto, T. Genotoxicity of safrole-related chemicals in microbial test systems. Mutat.Res 1982;101(2):127-140. View abstract.

Sensch, O., Vierling, W., Brandt, W., and Reiter, M. Effects of inhibition of calcium and potassium currents in guinea-pig cardiac contraction: comparison of beta-caryophyllene oxide, eugenol, and nifedipine. Br J Pharmacol 2000;131(6):1089-1096. View abstract.

Shakila, R. J., Vasundhara, T. S., and Rao, D. V. Inhibitory effect of spices on in vitro histamine production and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii and on the biogenic amine formation in mackerel stored at 30 degrees C. Z Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1996;203(1):71-76. View abstract.

Shapiro, S., Meier, A., and Guggenheim, B. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria. Oral Microbiol.Immunol. 1994;9(4):202-208. View abstract.

Shen, Q., Li, W., and Li, W. The effect of clove oil on the transdermal delivery of ibuprofen in the rabbit by in vitro and in vivo methods. Drug Dev.Ind.Pharm. 2007;33(12):1369-1374. View abstract.

Sher, N. A., Doughman, D. J., Mindrup, E., and Minaai, L. A. Macrophage migration inhibition factor activity in the aqueous humor during experimental corneal xenograft and allograft rejection. Am.J Ophthalmol. 1976;82(6):858-865. View abstract.

Shon, W. J., Bae, K. S., Baek, S. H., Kum, K. Y., Han, A. R., and Lee, W. C. Effects of calcium phosphate endodontic sealers on the behavior of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and MG63 osteoblast-like cells. J Biomed.Mater.Res B Appl.Biomater. 2012;100(8):2141-2147. View abstract.

Siddiqui A and Ansari A, Khan S. Antibacterial Activity of Some Commonly Used Food Commodities Against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 2009;52:143-145.

Silva, E. J., Accorsi-Mendonca, T., Almeida, J. F., Ferraz, C. C., Gomes, B. P., and Zaia, A. A. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and up-regulation of gelatinases in human fibroblast cells by four root canal sealers. Int Endod.J 2012;45(1):49-56. View abstract.

Silva, M. R., Oliveira, J. G., Jr., Fernandes, O. F., Passos, X. S., Costa, C. R., Souza, L. K., Lemos, J. A., and Paula, J. R. Antifungal activity of Ocimum gratissimum towards dermatophytes. Mycoses 2005;48(3):172-175. View abstract.

Singh S and Fogueria LR. Investigation of effects of terpene skin penetration enhancers on stability and biological activity of lysozyme. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2008;72

Singh, U. P., Singh, D. P., Maurya, S., Maheshwari, R., Singh, M., Dubey, R. S., and Singh, R. B. Investigation on the phenolics of some spices having pharmacotherapeuthic properties. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2004;4(4):27-42. View abstract.

Sladky, K. K., Swanson, C. R., Stoskopf, M. K., Loomis, M. R., and Lewbart, G. A. Comparative efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate and clove oil for use as anesthetics in red pacu (Piaractus brachypomus). Am J Vet.Res 2001;62(3):337-342. View abstract.

Slamenova, D., Horvathova, E., Wsolova, L., Sramkova, M., and Navarova, J. Investigation of anti-oxidative, cytotoxic, DNA-damaging and DNA-protective effects of plant volatiles eugenol and borneol in human-derived HepG2, Caco-2 and VH10 cell lines. Mutat.Res. 2009;677(1-2):46-52. View abstract.

Smith, B., Cadby, P., Leblanc, J. C., and Setzer, R. W. Application of the margin of exposure (MoE) approach to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic: example: methyleugenol, CASRN: 93-15-2. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48 Suppl 1:S89-S97. View abstract.

Smith-Palmer, A., Stewart, J., and Fyfe, L. Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against five important food-borne pathogens. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1998;26(2):118-122. View abstract.

Smith-Palmer, A., Stewart, J., and Fyfe, L. Influence of subinhibitory concentrations of plant essential oils on the production of enterotoxins A and B and alpha-toxin by Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53(Pt 10):1023-1027. View abstract.

Smith-Palmer, A., Stewartt, J., and Fyfe, L. Inhibition of listeriolysin O and phosphatidylcholine-specific production in Listeria monocytogenes by subinhibitory concentrations of plant essential oils. J Med Microbiol. 2002;51(7):567-574. View abstract.

Soetiarto, F. The relationship between habitual clove cigarette smoking and a specific pattern of dental decay in male bus drivers in Jakarta, Indonesia. Caries Res 1999;33(3):248-250. View abstract.

Somova, L. O., Nadar, A., Rammanan, P., and Shode, F. O. Cardiovascular, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of oleanolic and ursolic acids in experimental hypertension. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(2-3):115-121. View abstract.

Sosto, F. and Benvenuti, C. Controlled study on thymol + eugenol vaginal douche versus econazole in vaginal candidiasis and metronidazole in bacterial vaginosis. Arzneimittelforschung. 2011;61(2):126-131. View abstract.

Soudamini, K. K., Unnikrishnan, M. C., Sukumaran, K., and Kuttan, R. Mutagenicity and anti-mutagenicity of selected spices. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1995;39(4):347-353. View abstract.

Srivastava, K. C. and Malhotra, N. Acetyl eugenol, a component of oil of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) inhibits aggregation and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1991;42(1):73-81. View abstract.

Srivastava, K. C. Antiplatelet principles from a food spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum L) [corrected]. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1993;48(5):363-372. View abstract.

Sticht, F. D. and Smith, R. M. Eugenol: some pharmacologic observations. J Dent.Res. 1971;50(6):1531-1535. View abstract.

Stojicevic, M., Dordevic, O., Kostic, L., Madanovic, N., and Karanovic, D. [Action of clove oil, eugenol, and zinc-oxide eugenol paste on the dental pulp within "in vitro" conditions]. Stomatol.Glas.Srb. 1980;27(2):85-89. View abstract.

Stroh, J., Wan, M. T., Isman, M. B., and Moul, D. J. Evaluation of the acute toxicity to juvenile Pacific coho salmon and rainbow trout of some plant essential oils, a formulated product, and the carrier. Bull Environ.Contam Toxicol. 1998;60(6):923-930. View abstract.

Suzuki H, Park W, and Lim S. Analyses of Glycolipids in Clove, Red Pepper, and Nutmeg by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Journal of Food Science 2000;65(6):931-933.

Svedman, C., Engfeldt, M., Api, A. M., Politano, V. T., Belsito, D. V., Gruvberger, B., and Bruze, M. Does the new standard for eugenol designed to protect against contact sensitization protect those sensitized from elicitation of the reaction? Dermatitis 2012;23(1):32-38. View abstract.

Tajuddin, Ahmad, S., Latif, A., and Qasmi, I. A. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 11-5-2004;4:17. View abstract.

Takemasa, N., Ohnishi, S., Tsuji, M., Shikata, T., and Yokoigawa, K. Screening and analysis of spices with ability to suppress verocytotoxin production by Escherichia coli O157. J Food Sci 2009;74(8):M461-M466. View abstract.

Tayel, A. A. and El Tras, W. F. Possibility of fighting food borne bacteria by egyptian folk medicinal herbs and spices extracts. J Egypt.Public Health Assoc. 2009;84(1-2):21-32. View abstract.

Thobunluepop, P. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage. Pak.J Biol.Sci 8-15-2009;12(16):1102-1110. View abstract.

Thompson, D. C., Constantin-Teodosiu, D., and Moldeus, P. Metabolism and cytotoxicity of eugenol in isolated rat hepatocytes. Chem Biol.Interact. 1991;77(2):137-147. View abstract.

Thompson, D., Constantin-Teodosiu, D., Norbeck, K., Svensson, B., and Moldeus, P. Metabolic activation of eugenol by myeloperoxidase and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Chem.Res.Toxicol. 1989;2(3):186-192. View abstract.

To, L. P., Hunt, T. P., and Andersen, M. E. Mutagenicity of trans-anethole, estragole, eugenol, and safrole in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Bull Environ.Contam Toxicol. 1982;28(6):647-654. View abstract.

Tobias, R. S., Browne, R. M., and Wilson, C. A. Antibacterial activity of dental restorative materials. Int.Endod.J 1985;18(3):161-171. View abstract.

Toda, M., Kawabata, J., and Kasai, T. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from clove (Syzgium aromaticum). Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2000;64(2):294-298. View abstract.

Toda, M., Kawabata, J., and Kasai, T. Inhibitory effects of ellagi- and gallotannins on rat intestinal alpha-glucosidase complexes. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2001;65(3):542-547. View abstract.

Toda, S., Ohnishi, M., Kimura, M., and Toda, T. Inhibitory effects of eugenol and related compounds on lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen. Planta Med 1994;60(3):282. View abstract.

Tominaga, H., Kobayashi, Y., Goto, T., Kasemura, K., and Nomura, M. DPPH radical-scavenging effect of several phenylpropanoid compounds and their glycoside derivatives. Yakugaku Zasshi 2005;125(4):371-375. View abstract.

Tragoolpua, Y. and Jatisatienr, A. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and essential oil, eugenol. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(12):1153-1158. View abstract.

Trongtokit, Y., Curtis, C. F., and Rongsriyam, Y. Efficacy of repellent products against caged and free flying Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Southeast Asian J Trop.Med Public Health 2005;36(6):1423-1431. View abstract.

Trongtokit, Y., Rongsriyam, Y., Komalamisra, N., and Apiwathnasorn, C. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites. Phytother Res 2005;19(4):303-309. View abstract.

Trongtokit, Y., Rongsriyam, Y., Komalamisra, N., Krisadaphong, P., and Apiwathnasorn, C. Laboratory and field trial of developing medicinal local Thai plant products against four species of mosquito vectors. Southeast Asian J Trop.Med Public Health 2004;35(2):325-333. View abstract.

Tsai, P. J., Tsai, T. H., Yu, C. H., and Ho, S. C. Evaluation of NO-suppressing activity of several Mediterranean culinary spices. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45(3):440-447. View abstract.

Uchibayashi, M. [Etymology of clove]. Yakushigaku.Zasshi 2001;36(2):167-170. View abstract.

Umehara, K., Takagi, R., Kuroyanagi, M., Ueno, A., Taki, T., and Chen, Y. J. Studies on differentiation-inducing activities of triterpenes. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 1992;40(2):401-405. View abstract.

Usta, J., Kreydiyyeh, S., Bajakian, K., and Nakkash-Chmaisse, H. In vitro effect of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde on membrane potential and respiratory chain complexes in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40(7):935-940. View abstract.

Usta, J., Kreydiyyeh, S., Barnabe, P., Bou-Moughlabay, Y., and Nakkash-Chmaisse, H. Comparative study on the effect of cinnamon and clove extracts and their main components on different types of ATPases. Hum.Exp Toxicol 2003;22(7):355-362. View abstract.

Valero, M. and Salmeron, M. C. Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth. Int.J Food Microbiol. 8-15-2003;85(1-2):73-81. View abstract.

Varel, V. H. and Miller, D. L. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste. J Appl.Microbiol. 2004;97(5):1001-1005. View abstract.

Venturini, L. and Sordi, G. A. Radioactivity in and committed effective dose from some Brazilian foodstuffs. Health Phys. 1999;76(3):311-313. View abstract.

Villa, C., Gambaro, R., Mariani, E., and Dorato, S. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of 24 fragrance allergens to study scented products. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 7-27-2007;44(3):755-762. View abstract.

Walsh, S. E., Maillard, J. Y., Russell, A. D., Catrenich, C. E., Charbonneau, D. L., and Bartolo, R. G. Activity and mechanisms of action of selected biocidal agents on Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. J Appl.Microbiol. 2003;94(2):240-247. View abstract.

Wang, H. F., Wang, Y. K., and Yih, K. H. DPPH free-radical scavenging ability, total phenolic content, and chemical composition analysis of forty-five kinds of essential oils. J Cosmet.Sci. 2008;59(6):509-522. View abstract.

Warnke, P. H., Becker, S. T., Podschun, R., Sivananthan, S., Springer, I. N., Russo, P. A., Wiltfang, J., Fickenscher, H., and Sherry, E. The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections. J Craniomaxillofac.Surg. 2009;37(7):392-397. View abstract.

Webb, J. G., Jr. and Bussell, N. E. A comparison of the inflammatory response produced by commercial eugenol and purified eugenol. J Dent.Res. 1981;60(9):1724-1728. View abstract.

Wei, A. and Shibamoto, T. Antioxidant activities of essential oil mixtures toward skin lipid squalene oxidized by UV irradiation. Cutan.Ocul.Toxicol. 2007;26(3):227-233. View abstract.

Welliver T. The Clove Factor in Colonial Zanzibar, 1890-1950. Dissertation Abstracts International 1991;51(12):4245-A.

Willershausen, I., Callaway, A., Briseno, B., and Willershausen, B. In vitro analysis of the cytotoxicity and the antimicrobial effect of four endodontic sealers. Head Face.Med. 2011;7:15. View abstract.

Williams, R. N., Paterson, C. A., Eakins, K. E., and Bhattacherjee, P. Quantification of ocular inflammation: evaluation of polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltration by measuring myeloperoxidase activity. Curr.Eye Res. 1982;2(7):465-470. View abstract.

Woolverton, C. J., Fotos, P. G., Mokas, M. J., and Mermigas, M. E. Evaluation of eugenol for mutagenicity by the mouse micronucleus test. J Oral Pathol. 1986;15(8):450-453. View abstract.

Xing, F., Tan, Y., Yan, G. J., Zhang, J. J., Shi, Z. H., Tan, S. Z., Feng, N. P., and Liu, C. H. Effects of Chinese herbal cataplasm Xiaozhang Tie on cirrhotic ascites. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-31-2012;139(2):343-349. View abstract.

Xu, H., Delling, M., Jun, J. C., and Clapham, D. E. Oregano, thyme and clove-derived flavors and skin sensitizers activate specific TRP channels. Nat.Neurosci. 2006;9(5):628-635. View abstract.

Yadav, A. S. and Bhatnagar, D. Free radical scavenging activity, metal chelation and antioxidant power of some of the Indian spices. Biofactors 2007;31(3-4):219-227. View abstract.

Yadav, A. S. and Bhatnagar, D. Modulatory effect of spice extracts on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver. Biofactors 2007;29(2-3):147-157. View abstract.

Yang, B. H., Piao, Z. G., Kim, Y. B., Lee, C. H., Lee, J. K., Park, K., Kim, J. S., and Oh, S. B. Activation of vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) by eugenol. J Dent.Res. 2003;82(10):781-785. View abstract.

Yang, Y. C., Lee, S. H., Lee, W. J., Choi, D. H., and Ahn, Y. J. Ovicidal and adulticidal effects of Eugenia caryophyllata bud and leaf oil compounds on Pediculus capitis. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-13-2003;51(17):4884-4888. View abstract.

Yano, Y., Satomi, M., and Oikawa, H. Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Int.J Food Microbiol. 8-15-2006;111(1):6-11. View abstract.

Yarnell E and Abascal E. Herbal Support for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections. Alternative & Complementary Therapies (England) 2009;15:189-195.

Yarnell E and Abascal K. Botanical medicines for headache. Alternative & Complementary Therapies (England) 2007;13:148-152.

Yasuda, M., Sonda, T., Hiraoka, T., Horita, A., and Tabata, M. Effects of the molecular properties of mixed solvents on the elution of alkyl benzoates in RPLC. Anal.Sci. 2003;19(12):1637-1641. View abstract.

Yoo, C. B., Han, K. T., Cho, K. S., Ha, J., Park, H. J., Nam, J. H., Kil, U. H., and Lee, K. T. Eugenol isolated from the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata induces a reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Cancer Lett. 7-8-2005;225(1):41-52. View abstract.

Zanata, R. L., Navarro, M. F., Barbosa, S. H., Lauris, J. R., and Franco, E. B. Clinical evaluation of three restorative materials applied in a minimal intervention caries treatment approach. J Public Health Dent. 2003;63(4):221-226. View abstract.

Zhang, S. B. and Guo, Y. S. [Study on determination of metal elements in buds of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry by ICP-AES]. Guang.Pu.Xue.Yu Guang.Pu.Fen.Xi. 2006;26(7):1339-1341. View abstract.

Zhang, W. J. [Mildewproof of Chinese traditional medicinal materials]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 1994;19(9):532-4, 574. View abstract.

Zhu D, Lu Y, and Zheng Q. Isolation of eugenol from volatile oil of cloves by inclusion method. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (China) 2003;34:NIL.

Zhu, B. C., Henderson, G., Chen, F., Fei, H., and Laine, R. A. Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite. J Chem.Ecol. 2001;27(8):1617-1625. View abstract.

Asha MK, Prashanth D, Murali B, et al. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum sanctum and eugenol. Fitoterapia 2001;72:669-70. View abstract.

Chen SJ, Wang MH, Chen IJ. Antiplatelet and calcium inhibitory properties of eugenol and sodium eugenol acetate. Gen Pharmacol 1996;27:629-33. View abstract.

Choi HK, Jung GW, Moon KH, et al. Clinical study of SS-Cream in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Urology 2000;55:257-61. View abstract.

Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association, 1996.

Dorman HJ, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 2000;88:308-16. View abstract.

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at:

Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.

Giordani R, Regli P, Kaloustian J, et al. Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris. Phytother Res 2004;18:990-5. . View abstract.

Hong CH, Hur SK, Oh OJ, et al. Evaluation of natural products on inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured mouse macrophage cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;83:153-9. View abstract.

Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62. View abstract.

Kaya GS, Yapici G, Savas Z, et al. Comparison of alvogyl, SaliCept patch, and low-level laser therapy in the management of alveolar osteitis.J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69:1571-7. View abstract.

Kirsch CM, Yenokida GG, Jensen WA, et al. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema due to the intravenous administration of clove oil. Thorax 1990;45:235-6. View abstract.

Kumari MV. Modulatory influences of clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus, L) on hepatic detoxification systems and bone marrow genotoxicity in male Swiss albino mice. Cancer Lett 1991;60:67-73. View abstract.

Kurokawa M, Nagasaka K, Hirabayashi T, et al. Efficacy of traditional herbal medicines in combination with acyclovir against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Res 1995;27:19-37. View abstract.

Li, Y., Xu, C., Zhang, Q., Liu, J. Y., and Tan, R. X. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 4-26-2005;98(3):329-333. View abstract.

Malson JL, Lee EM, Murty R, et al. Clove cigarette smoking: biochemical, physiological, and subjective effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003;74:739-45. View abstract.

Murch SJ, Simmons CB, Saxena PK. Melatonin in feverfew and other medicinal plants. Lancet 1997;350:1598-9. View abstract.

Prasad RC, Herzog B, Boone B, et al. An extract of Syzygium aromaticum represses genes encoding hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;96:295-301. View abstract.

Ramos A, Visozo A, Piloto J, et al. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;87:241-6. View abstract.

Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Tyler's Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.

Shiraki K, Yukawa T, Kurokawa M, Kageyama S. [Cytomegalovirus infection and its possible treatment with herbal medicines]. Nippon Rinsho 1998;56:156-60. View abstract.

Yukawa TA, Kurokawa M, Sato H, et al. Prophylactic treatment of cytomegalovirus infection with traditional herbs. Antiviral Res 1996;32:63-70. View abstract.

Zheng GQ, Kenney PM, Lam LK. Sesquiterpenes from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) as potential anticarcinogenic agents. J Nat Prod 1992;55:999-1003. View abstract.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors