What Is Clovique and What Is It Used For?
Clovique (trientine hydrochloride capsules) is a chelating compound used to treat patients with Wilson’s disease who are intolerant of penicillamine.
What Are Side Effects of Clovique?
Side effects of Clovique include:
- iron deficiency,
- systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),
- involuntary muscle contractions,
- muscle spasm, and
- myasthenia gravis
Trientine hydrochloride is N,N'-bis (2-aminoethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine dihydrochloride. It is a white to pale yellow crystalline hygroscopic powder. It is freely soluble in water, soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in chloroform and ether.
The empirical formula is C6H18N4·2HCl with a molecular weight of 219.2. The structural formula is:
Trientine hydrochloride is a chelating compound for removal of excess copper from the body. Clovique (Trientine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP) is available as 250 mg capsules for oral administration. Each capsule contains 250 mg trientine hydrochloride, USP and the inactive ingredient stearic acid. The capsule shell consists of gelatin and titanium dioxide. The capsule shell ink contains shellac, titanium dioxide, FD&C yellow #5 aluminum lake, FD&C blue #1 aluminum lake, FD&C blue#2/indigo carmine aluminum lake, and FD&C blue #1/brilliant blue FCF aluminum lake.
Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) is indicated in the treatment of patients with Wilson’s disease who are intolerant of penicillamine. Clinical experience with trientine hydrochloride is limited and alternate dosing regimens have not been well-characterized; all endpoints in determining an individual patient’s dose have not been well defined. Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) and penicillamine cannot be considered interchangeable. Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) should be used when continued treatment with penicillamine is no longer possible because of intolerable or life endangering side effects.
Unlike penicillamine, Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) is not recommended in cystinuria or rheumatoid arthritis. The absence of a sulfhydryl moiety renders it incapable of binding cystine and, therefore, it is of no use in cystinuria. In 15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, trientine hydrochloride was reported not to be effective in improving any clinical or biochemical parameter after 12 weeks of treatment.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Systemic evaluation of dose and/or interval between dose has not been done. However, on limited clinical experience, the recommended initial dose of Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) is 500-750 mg/day for pediatric patients and 750-1250 mg/day for adults given in divided doses two, three or four times daily. This may be increased to a maximum of 2000 mg/day for adults or 1500 mg/day for pediatric patients age 12 or under.
The daily dose of Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) should be increased only when the clinical response is not adequate or the concentration of free serum copper is persistently above 20 mcg/dL. Optimal long-term maintenance dosage should be determined at 6-12 month intervals (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests).
It is important that Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) be given on an empty stomach, at least one hour before meals or two hours after meals and at least one hour apart from any other drug, food, or milk. The capsules should be swallowed whole with water and should not be opened or chewed.
Clovique (Trientine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP), 250 mg, are opaque white capsules coded KD034 250 mg on the body of the capsule printed in green ink and Kadmon® on the cap of the capsule printed in blue ink. They are supplied as follows:
NDC 66435-700-20 carton (contains 10 blister packs)
NDC 66435-700-12 blister pack (contains 12 Clovique (trientine hydrochloride), capsules 250 mg)
Clovique carton should be kept refrigerated at 2-8°C (36°F- and 46°F). For patient convenience, individual blister pack (or tray) may be stored for a maximum single period of 30 days at or below room temperature (25°C (77°F)) with protection from sources of heat and humidity. Capsules stored at room temperature should be discarded after 30 days.
Manufactured by: Xcelience, Tampa, FL 33607 USA. Revised: Dec 2018
Clinical experience with trientine hydrochloride has been limited. The following adverse reactions have been reported in a clinical study in patients with Wilson’s disease who were on therapy with trientine hydrochloride: iron deficiency, systemic lupus erythematosus (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). In addition, the following adverse reactions have been reported in marketed use: dystonia, muscular spasm, myasthenia gravis.
Trientine hydrochloride is not indicated for treatment of biliary cirrhosis, but in one study of 4 patients treated with trientine hydrochloride for primary biliary cirrhosis, the following adverse reactions were reported: heartburn; epigastric pain and tenderness; thickening, fissuring and flaking of the skin; hypochromic microcytic anemia; acute gastritis; aphthoid ulcers; abdominal pain; melena; anorexia; malaise; cramps; muscle pain; weakness; rhabdomyolysis. A causal relationship of these reactions to drug therapy could not be rejected or established.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Kadmon Pharmaceuticals, LLC at 1-877-377-7862 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
In general, mineral supplements should not be given since they may block the absorption of Clovique (trientine hydrochloride). However, iron deficiency may develop, especially in children and menstruating or pregnant women, or as a result of the low copper diet recommended for Wilson’s disease. If necessary, iron may be given in short courses, but since iron and Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) each inhibit absorption of the other, two hours should elapse between administration of Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) and iron.
It is important that Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) be taken on an empty stomach, at least one hour before meals or two hours after meals and at least one hour apart from any other drug, food, or milk. This permits maximum absorption and reduces the likelihood of inactivation of the drug by metal binding in the gastrointestinal tract.
In severe ulcerative colitis, it is hazardous to delay needed surgery while awaiting response to medical treatment.
Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used.
Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.
Usage In Pregnancy
Since adequate human reproduction studies have not been done with corticosteroids, the use of these drugs in pregnancy, nursing mothers or women of child-bearing potential requires that the possible benefits of the drug be weighed against the potential hazards to the mother and embryo or fetus. Neonates born of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroid during pregnancy should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.
Average and large doses of hydrocortisone or cortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary. All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.
While on corticosteroid therapy, patients should not be vaccinated against smallpox. Other immunization procedures should not be undertaken in patients who are on corticosteroids, especially on high dose, because of possible hazards of neurological complications and a lack of antibody response.
Persons who are on drugs which suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chicken pox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in non-immune pediatric patients or adults on corticosteroids. In such pediatric patients or adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route and duration of corticosteroid administration affects the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chicken pox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chicken pox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.
Colocort® Hydrocortisone Rectal Suspension, USP should be used with caution where there is a probability of impending perforation, abscess or other pyogenic infection; fresh intestinal anastomoses; obstruction; or extensive fistulas and sinus tracts. Use with caution in presence of active or latent peptic ulcer; diverticulitis; renal insufficiency; hypertension; osteoporosis; and myasthenia gravis.
Steroid therapy might impair prognosis in surgery by increasing the hazard of infection. If infection is suspected, appropriate antibiotic therapy must be administered, usually in larger than ordinary doses.
Drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may occur with prolonged Colocort® therapy. This is minimized by gradual reduction of dosage. This type of relative insufficiency may persist for months after discontinuation of therapy; therefore, in any situation of stress occurring during that period, hormone therapy should be reinstituted. Since mineralocorticoid secretion may be impaired, salt and/or a mineralocorticoid should be administered concurrently.
There is an enhanced effect of corticosteroids on patients with hypothyroidism and in those with cirrhosis.
Corticosteroid should be used cautiously in patients with ocular herpes simplex because of possible corneal perforation.
The lowest possible dose of corticosteroid should be used to control the conditions under treatment, and when reduction in dosage is possible, the reduction should be gradual.
Psychic derangement may appear when corticosteroids are used, ranging from euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes, and severe depression, to frank psychotic manifestations. Also, existing emotional instability or psychotic tendencies may be aggravated by corticosteroids.
Aspirin should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids in hypoprothrombinemia.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Growth and development of pediatric patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should be carefully observed.
Information For Patients
Persons who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chicken pox or measles. Patients should also be advised that if they are exposed, medical advice should be sought without delay.
Wilson’s disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is an autosomal inherited metabolic defect resulting in an inability to maintain a near-zero balance of copper. Excess copper accumulates possibly because the liver lacks the mechanism to excrete free copper into the bile. Hepatocytes store excess copper but when their capacity is exceeded copper is released into the blood and is taken up into extrahepatic sites. This condition is treated with a low copper diet and the use of chelating agents that bind copper to facilitate its excretion from the body.
Forty-one patients (18 male and 23 female) between the ages of 6 and 54 with a diagnosis of Wilson’s disease and who were intolerant of d-penicillamine were treated in two separate studies with trientine hydrochloride. The dosage varied from 450 to 2400 mg per day. The average dosage required to achieve an optimal clinical response varied between 1000 mg and 2000 mg per day. The mean duration of trientine hydrochloride therapy was 48.7 months (range 2-164 months). Thirty-four of the 41 patients improved, 4 had no change in clinical global response, 2 were lost to follow-up and one showed deterioration in clinical condition. One of the patients who improved while on therapy with trientine hydrochloride experienced a recurrence of the symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus which had appeared originally during therapy with penicillamine. Therapy with trientine hydrochloride was discontinued. No other adverse reactions, except iron deficiency, were noted among any of these 41 patients.
One investigator treated 13 patients with trientine hydrochloride following their development of intolerance to d-penicillamine. Retrospectively, he compared these patients to an additional group of 12 patients with Wilson’s disease who were both tolerant of and controlled with d-penicillamine therapy, but who failed to continue any copper chelation therapy. The mean age at onset of disease of the latter group was 12 years as compared to 21 years for the former group. The trientine hydrochloride group received d-penicillamine for an average of 4 years as compared to an average of 10 years for the non-treated group.
Various laboratory parameters showed changes in favor of the patients treated with trientine hydrochloride. Free and total serum copper, SGOT, and serum bilirubin all showed mean increases over baseline in the untreated group which were significantly larger than with the patients treated with trientine hydrochloride. In the 13 patients treated with trientine hydrochloride, previous symptoms and signs relating to d-penicillamine intolerance disappeared in 8 patients, improved in 4 patients, and remained unchanged in one patient. The neurological status in the trientine hydrochloride group was unchanged or improved over baseline, whereas in the untreated group, 6 patients remained unchanged and 6 worsened. Kayser-Fleischer rings improved significantly during trientine hydrochloride treatment.
The clinical outcome of the two groups also differed markedly. Of the 13 patients on therapy with trientine hydrochloride (mean duration of therapy 4.1 years; range 1 to 13 years), all were alive at the data cutoff date, and in the non-treated group (mean years with no therapy 2.7 years; range 3 months to 9 years), 9 of the 12 died of hepatic disease.
Studies in animals have shown that trientine hydrochloride has cupriuretic activities in both normal and copper-loaded rats. In general, the effects of trientine hydrochloride on urinary copper excretion are similar to those of equimolar doses of penicillamine, although in one study they were significantly smaller.
Renal clearance studies were carried out with penicillamine and trientine hydrochloride on separate occasions in selected patients treated with penicillamine for at least one year. Six-hour excretion rates of copper were determined off treatment and after a single dose of 500 mg of penicillamine or 1.2 g of trientine hydrochloride. The mean urinary excretion rates of copper were as follows:
|No. of Patients||Single Dose Treatment||Basal Excretion Rate|
(mcg Cu + + /6hr)
|Test-dose Excretion Rate|
(mcg Cu + + /6hr)
|6||Trientine, 1.2 g||19||234|
In patients not previously treated with chelating agents, a similar comparison was made:
|No. of Patients||Single Dose Treatment||Basal Excretion Rate|
(mcg Cu + + /6hr)
|Test-dose Excretion Rate|
(mcg Cu + + /6hr)
|8||Trientine, 1.2 g||71||1326|
These results demonstrate that trientine hydrochloride is effective as a cupriuretic agent in patients with Wilson’s disease although on a molar basis it appears to be less potent or less effective than penicillamine. Evidence from a radio-labelled copper study indicates that the different cupriuretic effect between these two drugs could be due to a difference in selectivity of the drugs for different copper pools within the body.
Data on the pharmacokinetics of trientine hydrochloride are not available. Dosage adjustment recommendations are based upon clinical use of the drug (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Patients should be directed to take Clovique (trientine hydrochloride) on an empty stomach, at least one hour before meals or two hours after meals and at least one hour apart from any other drug, food, or milk. The capsules should be swallowed whole with water and should not be opened or chewed. Because of the potential for contact dermatitis, any site of exposure to the capsule contents should be washed with water promptly. For the first month of treatment, the patient should have his temperature taken nightly, and he should be asked to report any symptom such as fever or skin eruption.
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