Other Name(s):

Bolivian Coca, Coca de Java, Coca Péruvienne, Cocaine Plant, Erythroxylum coca, Erythroxylum novogranatense, Gu Ko Yi, Health Inca Tea, Huanuco Coca, Inca Health Tea, Inca Tea, Java Coca, Mate-de-Coca, Mate de Coca, Peruvian Coca, Spadic, Thé Inca, Truxillo Coca.


Coca is a plant. It is the source of cocaine, which is an illegal drug that is used nasally, injected, or smoked for mind-altering effects. Cocaine is also an FDA-approved Schedule C-II drug. This means cocaine can be prescribed by a healthcare provider, but the process is strictly regulated. The worry about cocaine is that it is unsafe and highly addictive.

Despite safety concerns and illegality, the coca leaf is used to make medicine.

People chew coca leaves to relieve hunger and fatigue and to enhance physical performance.

Coca extracts are used for stimulating stomach function, causing sedation, and treating asthma, colds, and other ailments.

Coca tea is used for altitude sickness in the Peruvian Andes and elsewhere.

A form of cocaine that can be applied to the skin is available by prescription. It is used to numb eye, nose, and throat pain; and to narrow blood vessels.

In manufacturing, coca extract with the cocaine removed is used to flavor cola drinks and food products.

How does it work?

The cocaine found in coca can cause an increase in brain activity and have numbing (anesthetic) effects. Cocaine is highly addictive.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Uses & Effectiveness

Likely Ineffective for...

  • Improving physical performance. Coca increases heart rate, but doesn't seem to improve heart output or other bodily responses to physical exercise.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Cocaine dependence. Early research suggests that chewing coca leaf might improve mental health in people addicted to cocaine.
  • Stimulation of stomach function.
  • Asthma.
  • Colds.
  • Altitude sickness.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of coca for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Coca leaf without the cocaine (decocainized) is LIKELY SAFE for most people when used in normal food amounts. The cocaine contained in the coca leaf is LIKELY SAFE for use on the eye or skin when prescribed and monitored by a medical professional.

Cocaine is LIKELY UNSAFE when taken by mouth for medicinal uses and UNSAFE when taken by mouth or inhaled for recreational uses. Cocaine is illegal and can cause hyperactivity, restlessness, excitement, migraine headaches, seizures, strokes, heart attacks, aneurysms, high blood pressure, and liver and kidney failure.

As little as 1/4 of a teaspoon of cocaine can be deadly. Cocaine is highly addictive.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It's UNSAFE to inhale coca or take it by mouth if you are pregnant. The cocaine in coca might cause a miscarriage or birth defects. Coca use is also associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

It's also UNSAFE to inhale coca or take it by mouth if you are breast-feeding. Cocaine is excreted into breast milk, and harmful effects can occur in infants breast-fed by mothers who were recently exposed to cocaine.

Asthma: The cocaine in coca can make asthma worse. Don't use it.

Heart disease: The cocaine in coca can make heart disease worse. Don't use it.

Diabetes: Coca or the coca constituent cocaine might increase blood sugar levels in some people. Coca might affect blood sugar control in people with diabetes.

High blood pressure (hypertension): Coca or the coca constituent cocaine might increase blood pressure in some people. People prone to high blood pressure should avoid using.

History of stroke or at risk for stroke: If you have a history of stroke or are at high risk for having a stroke, do not use coca. The cocaine in coca increases the chance of dying from a broken blood vessel in the brain.

A condition called plasma pseudocholinesterase deficiency (PPD): People with PPD are more likely than others to have seizures and/or die after using cocaine.


AlcoholInteraction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.

Coca contains cocaine. Cocaine can affect your thinking. Alcohol can also affect your thinking. Do not take coca if you have been drinking alcohol.

NifedipineInteraction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.

Coca contains cocaine. Taking cocaine with nifedipine increases the risk of serious side effects such as seizure.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Coca might increase blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By increasing blood sugar, coca might decrease the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Coca might increase blood pressure. Antihypertensive medications are used to lower blood pressure. By increasing blood pressure, coca might decrease the effectiveness of antihypertensive medications. Monitor your blood pressure closely.

Some antihypertensive medications include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.


The appropriate dose of coca depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for coca. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Altman, A. J., Albert, D. M., and Fournier, G. A. Cocaine's use in ophthalmology: our 100-year heritage. Surv.Ophthalmol. 1985;29(4):300-306. View abstract.

Appelboom, T. [Consumption of coca in history]. Verh.K.Acad.Geneeskd.Belg. 1991;53(5):497-505. View abstract.

BAKER, B. T. and MAZESS, R. B. CALCIUM: UNUSUAL SOURCES IN THE HIGHLAND PERUVIAN DIET. Science 12-13-1963;142:1466-1467. View abstract.

Barnett, G., Hawks, R., and Resnick, R. Cocaine pharmacokinetics in humans. J Ethnopharmacol. 1981;3(2-3):353-366. View abstract.

Bastos, F. I., Caiaffa, W., Rossi, D., Vila, M., and Malta, M. The children of mama coca: coca, cocaine and the fate of harm reduction in South America. Int J Drug Policy 2007;18(2):99-106. View abstract.

Bayer, I. The monitoring of trade in and control of psychotropic substances to guard against their diversion. Bull.Narc. 1983;35(4):3-13. View abstract.

Bedford, J. A., Turner, C. E., and elSohly, H. N. Comparative lethality of coca and cocaine. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1982;17(5):1087-1088. View abstract.

Bedford, J. A., Turner, C. E., and elSohly, H. N. Local anesthetic effects of cocaine and several extracts of the coca leaf (E. coca). Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1984;20(5):819-821. View abstract.

Bernal, M. H., Solomon, K. R., and Carrasquilla, G. Toxicity of formulated glyphosate (glyphos) and cosmo-flux to larval and juvenile colombian frogs 2. Field and laboratory microcosm acute toxicity. J Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2009;72(15-16):966-973. View abstract.

Bernal, M. H., Solomon, K. R., and Carrasquilla, G. Toxicity of formulated glyphosate (glyphos) and cosmo-flux to larval Colombian frogs 1. Laboratory acute toxicity. J Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2009;72(15-16):961-965. View abstract.

Bieri, S., Ilias, Y., Bicchi, C., Veuthey, J. L., and Christen, P. Focused microwave-assisted extraction combined with solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the selective analysis of cocaine from coca leaves. J Chromatogr.A 4-21-2006;1112(1-2):127-132. View abstract.

Biscoping, J. and Bachmann-Mennenga, M. B. [Local anesthetics from ester to isomer]. Anasthesiol.Intensivmed.Notfallmed.Schmerzther. 2000;35(5):285-292. View abstract.

Bolognesi, C., Carrasquilla, G., Volpi, S., Solomon, K. R., and Marshall, E. J. Biomonitoring of genotoxic risk in agricultural workers from five colombian regions: association to occupational exposure to glyphosate. J Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2009;72(15-16):986-997. View abstract.

Borghelli, R. F., Stirparo, M. A., Andrade, J. H., Centofanti, M. H., and Barros, R. E. [Lesions of the oral mucosa caused by the use of coca leaves (Erythroxyloncoca) in 20 year old men in the Province of Jujuy (Argentina)]. Rev.Asoc.Odontol.Argent 1973;61(7):250-254. View abstract.

Borghelli, R. F., Stirparo, M., Andrade, J., Barros, R., Centofanti, M., and de Estevez, O. T. Leukoedema in addicts to coca leaves in Humahuaca, Argentina. Community Dent.Oral Epidemiol. 1975;3(1):40-43. View abstract.

Brachet, A., Christen, P., Gauvrit, J. Y., Longeray, R., Lanteri, P., and Veuthey, J. L. Experimental design in supercritical fluid extraction of cocaine from coca leaves. J Biochem.Biophys.Methods 7-5-2000;43(1-3):353-366. View abstract.

Brain, P. F. and Coward, G. A. A review of the history, actions, and legitimate uses of cocaine. J Subst.Abuse 1989;1(4):431-451. View abstract.

Brain, R. A. and Solomon, K. R. Comparison of the hazards posed to amphibians by the glyphosate spray control program versus the chemical and physical activities of coca production in Colombia. J Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2009;72(15-16):937-948. View abstract.

Buck, A. A., Anderson, R. I., and Macrae, A. A. Epidemiology of poly-parasitism. IV. Combined effects on the state of health. Tropenmed.Parasitol. 1978;29(3):253-268. View abstract.

Burczynski, F. J., Boni, R. L., Erickson, J., and Vitti, T. G. Effect of Erythroxylum coca, cocaine and ecgonine methyl ester as dietary supplements on energy metabolism in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;16(2-3):153-166. View abstract.

Caffrey, R. J. Counter-attack on cocaine trafficking: the strategy of drug law enforcement. Bull.Narc. 1984;36(2):57-63. View abstract.

Cagliotti, C. N. Co-operation between South American countries in the struggle against drug abuse and illicit drug trafficking. Bull.Narc. 1987;39(1):61-67. View abstract.

Calatayud, J. and Gonzalez, A. History of the development and evolution of local anesthesia since the coca leaf. Anesthesiology 2003;98(6):1503-1508. View abstract.

Cartmell, L. W., Aufderhide, A., and Weems, C. Cocaine metabolites in pre-Columbian mummy hair. J Okla.State Med Assoc. 1991;84(1):11-12. View abstract.

Casale, J. F. and Moore, J. M. Detection and determination of pseudococaine in coca leaves and illicit cocaine samples. J Forensic Sci 1994;39(6):1537-1543. View abstract.

Casale, J. F., Toske, S. G., and Colley, V. L. Alkaloid content of the seeds from Erythroxylum Coca var. Coca. J Forensic Sci 2005;50(6):1402-1406. View abstract.

Chahud, Isee A., Ayala, Espinoza L., Makino, Makino R., Espejo, Romero H., and Horna, E. [Total lipids and lipoproteins in indigenous Indians who do or do not ingest coca]. Rev.Clin.Esp. 10-31-1968;111(2):161-164. View abstract.

Chande, M. Bolivia and USA wage war on the coca leaf farmers. Lancet 11-16-2002;360(9345):1573. View abstract.

Chen, H., Xia, Z., Pedersen-Bjergaard, S., Svensmark, B., and Lauritsen, F. R. Analysis of semivolatile pharmaceuticals and pollutants in organic micro extracts using hot cell membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Anal.Chem. 5-15-2009;81(10):4010-4014. View abstract.

Chiu, Y. C., Brecht, K., DasGupta, D. S., and Mhoon, E. Myocardial infarction with topical cocaine anesthesia for nasal surgery. Arch.Otolaryngol.Head Neck Surg. 1986;112(9):988-990. View abstract.

Cohen, S. Recent developments in the abuse of cocaine. Bull.Narc. 1984;36(2):3-14. View abstract.

Colatrella, N. and Daniel, T. E. Crack eye syndrome. J Am.Optom.Assoc. 1999;70(3):193-197. View abstract.

Cooks, R. G., Kondrat, R. W., Youssefi, M., and McLaughlin, J. L. Mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy (MIKE) spectrometry and the direct analysis of coca. J Ethnopharmacol. 1981;3(2-3):299-312. View abstract.

Cooper, Z. D., Narasimhan, D., Sunahara, R. K., Mierzejewski, P., Jutkiewicz, E. M., Larsen, N. A., Wilson, I. A., Landry, D. W., and Woods, J. H. Rapid and robust protection against cocaine-induced lethality in rats by the bacterial cocaine esterase. Mol.Pharmacol. 2006;70(6):1885-1891. View abstract.

Dagnino, J. Coca leaf and local anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2004;100(5):1322. View abstract.

Das, G. Cocaine abuse in North America: a milestone in history. J Clin.Pharmacol. 1993;33(4):296-310. View abstract.

Davalos, L. M., Bejarano, A. C., and Correa, H. L. Disabusing cocaine: pervasive myths and enduring realities of a globalised commodity. Int J Drug Policy 2009;20(5):381-386. View abstract.

Determining alkaloids in coca leaves. Analytical Chemistry 1995;67(17):527A.

Devine, P. J., Anis, N. A., Wright, J., Kim, S., Eldefrawi, A. T., and Eldefrawi, M. E. A fiber-optic cocaine biosensor. Anal.Biochem. 5-1-1995;227(1):216-224. View abstract.

Dobkin de, Rios M. and Cardenas, M. Plant hallucinogens, shamanism and Nazca ceramics. J Ethnopharmacol. 1980;2(3):233-246. View abstract.

Dourojeanni, M. Environmental impact of coca cultivation and cocaine production in the Amazon region of Peru. Bull.Narc. 1992;44(2):37-53. View abstract.

elSohly, M. A., Arafat, E. S., Jones, A. B., Vincent, P. G., Engelke, B. F., Hilton, J. L., and Gentner, W. A. Study of the concentration of the herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid in coca leaves and paste obtained from plants treated with this herbicide. Bull.Narc. 1984;36(2):65-77. View abstract.

Evans, W. C. The comparative phytochemistry of the genus Erythroxylon. J Ethnopharmacol. 1981;3(2-3):265-277. View abstract.

Fairley, H. B. [Anesthesia in the Inca empire]. Rev.Esp.Anestesiol.Reanim. 2007;54(9):556-562. View abstract.

Favier, R., Caceres, E., Koubi, H., Sempore, B., Sauvain, M., and Spielvogel, H. Effects of coca chewing on hormonal and metabolic responses during prolonged submaximal exercise. J.Appl.Physiol 1996;80(2):650-655. View abstract.

Fierens, E. [Archeological and artistic sources of coca consumption in pre-hispanic America]. Verh.K.Acad.Geneeskd.Belg. 1991;53(5):463-485. View abstract.

FIKENSCHER, L. H. [Nicotine, a new alkaloid from the coca plant]. Pharm Weekbl. 10-18-1958;93(21):932-933. View abstract.

Fjeldsa, J., Alvarez, M. D., Lazcano, J. M., and Leon, B. Illicit crops and armed conflict as constraints on biodiversity conservation in the Andes region. Ambio. 2005;34(3):205-211. View abstract.

Flores, Agreda R. Basic elements for a national comprehensive plan for drug abuse control in Peru. Bull.Narc. 1987;39(2):37-49. View abstract.

Galarza, Guzman M., Penaloza, Imana R., Echalar, Afcha L., Aguilar, Valerio M., Spielvogel, H., and Sauvain, M. [Effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test]. Medicina (B Aires) 1997;57(3):261-264. View abstract.

Griffin, W. J. and Lin, G. D. Chemotaxonomy and geographical distribution of tropane alkaloids. Phytochemistry 2000;53(6):623-637. View abstract.

Grzybowski, A. [The history of cocaine in medicine and its importance to the discovery of the different forms of anaesthesia]. Klin.Oczna 2007;109(1-3):101-105. View abstract.

Grzybowski, A. Cocaine and the eye: a historical overview. Ophthalmologica 2008;222(5):296-301. View abstract.

Hanna, J. M. Further studies on the effects of coca chewing on exercise. Hum.Biol. 1971;43(2):200-209. View abstract.

Hanna, J. M. The effects of coca chewing on exercise in the Quechua of Peru. Hum.Biol. 1970;42(1):1-11. View abstract.

Harland, E. C., Murphy, J. C., Elsohly, H., Greubel, D., Turner, C. E., and Watson, E. S. Biological effects of nonalkaloid-containing fractions of Erythroxylon coca. J Pharm Sci 1982;71(6):677-679. View abstract.

Hayase, T., Yamamoto, Y., and Yamamoto, K. Antidotal effects of buprenorphine on the behavioral alterations accompanying cocaine and combined cocaine-ethanol toxicity. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2002;71(1-2):19-27. View abstract.

Hayase, T., Yamamoto, Y., and Yamamoto, K. Protective effects of cannabinoid receptor ligands analogous to anandamide against cocaine toxicity. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 2001;36(6):596-608. View abstract.

Hayase, T., Yamamoto, Y., and Yamamoto, K. Stress-related behavioral alterations accompanying cocaine toxicity: the effects of mixed opioid drugs. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 2000;35(6):402-414. View abstract.

Hayase, T., Yamamoto, Y., Yamamoto, K., Abiru, H., Nishitani, Y., and Fukui, Y. Effects of ethanol and/or cardiovascular drugs on cocaine- and methamphetamine-induced fatal toxicities in mice. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 1999;34(5):475-490. View abstract.

Hayase, T., Yamamoto, Y., Yamamoto, K., Abiru, H., Nishitani, Y., and Fukui, Y. Relationship between cocaine-induced hepatotoxic neurobehavioral & biochemical changes in mice: the antidotal effects of buprenorphine. Life Sci 5-26-2000;67(1):45-52. View abstract.

Hayase, T., Yamamoto, Y., Yamamoto, K., and Fukui, Y. Comparison of effect of ethanol and anticonvulsants on cardiovascular drug-modified cocaine toxicity. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2000;67(1):151-159. View abstract.

Henderson, G. L., Harkey, M. R., Zhou, C., and Jones, R. T. Cocaine and metabolite concentrations in the hair of South American coca chewers. J.Anal.Toxicol. 1992;16(3):199-201. View abstract.

Hewitt, A. J., Solomon, K. R., and Marshall, E. J. Spray droplet size, drift potential, and risks to nontarget organisms from aerially applied glyphosate for coca control in Colombia. J Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2009;72(15-16):921-929. View abstract.

Hirschmuller, A. [E. Merck and cocaine. On Sigmund Freud's cocaine studies and their relation to the Darmstadt industry]. Gesnerus 1995;52(1-2):116-132. View abstract.

Homstedt, B., Lindgren, J. E., Rivier, L., and Plowman, T. Cocaine in blood of coca chewers. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1979;1(1):69-78. View abstract.

Hurtado-Gumucio, J. Coca leaf chewing as therapy for cocaine maintenance. Ann.Med.Interne (Paris) 2000;151 Suppl B:B44-B48. View abstract.

Husain, M. Provisions in the laws of Pakistan to combat serious drug-related offences. Bull.Narc. 1984;36(3):15-17. View abstract.

Indriati, E. and Buikstra, J. E. Coca chewing in prehistoric coastal Peru: dental evidence. Am.J.Phys.Anthropol. 2001;114(3):242-257. View abstract.

Jbilo, O., Bartels, C. F., Chatonnet, A., Toutant, J. P., and Lockridge, O. Tissue distribution of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase messenger RNA. Toxicon 1994;32(11):1445-1457. View abstract.

Jekel, J. F., Allen, D. F., Podlewski, H., Clarke, N., Dean-Patterson, S., and Cartwright, P. Epidemic free-base cocaine abuse. Case study from the Bahamas. Lancet 3-1-1986;1(8479):459-462. View abstract.

Jenkins, A. J., Llosa, T., Montoya, I., and Cone, E. J. Identification and quantitation of alkaloids in coca tea. Forensic Sci.Int. 2-9-1996;77(3):179-189. View abstract.

Jeri, F. R. Coca-paste smoking in some Latin American countries: a severe and unabated form of addiction. Bull.Narc. 1984;36(2):15-31. View abstract.

Jeri, F. R., Sanchez, C. C., Del Pozo, T., Fernandez, M., and Carbajal, C. Further experience with the syndromes produced by coca paste smoking. Bull.Narc. 1978;30(3):1-11. View abstract.

Jeri, F. R., Sanchez, C., Del Pozo, T., and Fernandez, M. The syndrome of coca paste. J.Psychoactive Drugs 1992;24(2):173-182. View abstract.

Johnson, E. L. Diurnal fluctuations of cocaine and potential precursors in leaves of Erythroxylum coca. Z.Naturforsch.C. 1993;48(11-12):863-866. View abstract.

Jozsa, L. [Dental care, dental diseases and dentistry in antiquity]. Orvostort.Kozl. 2009;55(1-4):43-57. View abstract.

Kaplan, C. D., Husch, J. A., and Bieleman, B. The prevention of stimulant misuse. Addiction 1994;89(11):1517-1521. View abstract.

Keller, K. B. and Lemberg, L. The cocaine-abused heart. Am.J Crit Care 2003;12(6):562-566. View abstract.

Khan, I. Convention on psychotropic substances, 1971. The role and responsibilities of the World Health Organization. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol. 1979;3(1-3):11-14. View abstract.

Klein, C., Balash, Y., Pollak, L., Hiss, J., and Rabey, M. J. Body packer: cocaine intoxication, causing death, masked by concomitant administration of major tranquilizers. Eur.J Neurol. 2000;7(5):555-558. View abstract.

Klepinger, L. L., Kuhn, J. J., and Thomas, J., Jr. Prehistoric dental calculus gives evidence for coca in early coastal Ecuador. Nature 10-6-1977;269(5628):506-507. View abstract.

Landry, M. J. An overview of cocaethylene, an alcohol-derived, psychoactive, cocaine metabolite. J Psychoactive Drugs 1992;24(3):273-276. View abstract.

Lange, R. A. and Hillis, L. D. Cardiovascular complications of cocaine use. N.Engl.J Med 8-2-2001;345(5):351-358. View abstract.

Langsjoen, O. M. Dental effects of diet and coca-leaf chewing on two prehistoric cultures of northern Chile. Am.J.Phys.Anthropol. 1996;101(4):475-489. View abstract.

Laure, J. [Status of dentition in Bolivia according to altitude, sex and age]. Arch.Latinoam.Nutr. 1991;41(3):336-349. View abstract.

LeBelle, M. J., Callahan, S. A., Latham, D. J., and Lauriault, G. Identification and determination of norcocaine in illicit cocaine and coca leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Analyst 1988;113(8):1213-1215. View abstract.

Lippi, G., Plebani, M., and Cervellin, G. Cocaine in acute myocardial infarction. Adv.Clin.Chem. 2010;51:53-70. View abstract.

Lydon, J. and Darlington, L. Herbicide residues in leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca plants treated with soil-applied tebuthiuron and hexazinone. J.Environ.Sci.Health B 1998;33(5):581-594. View abstract.

Lynch, J. D. and Arroyo, S. B. Risks to Colombian amphibian fauna from cultivation of coca (Erythroxylum coca): a geographical analysis. J Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2009;72(15-16):974-985. View abstract.

Marshall, E. J., Solomon, K. R., and Carrasquilla, G. Coca (Erythroxylum coca) Control is Affected by Glyphosate Formulations and Adjuvants. J Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2009;72(15-16):930-936. View abstract.

Mazor, S. S., Mycyk, M. B., Wills, B. K., Brace, L. D., Gussow, L., and Erickson, T. Coca tea consumption causes positive urine cocaine assay. Eur.J Emerg.Med 2006;13(6):340-341. View abstract.

Middleton, R. M. and Kirkpatrick, M. B. Clinical use of cocaine. A review of the risks and benefits. Drug Saf 1993;9(3):212-217. View abstract.

Moller, M. R., Fey, P., and Rimbach, S. Identification and quantitation of cocaine and its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, in hair of Bolivian coca chewers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J.Anal.Toxicol. 1992;16(5):291-296. View abstract.

Moore, J. M. and Casale, J. F. In-depth chromatographic analyses of illicit cocaine and its precursor, coca leaves. J Chromatogr.A 7-15-1994;674(1-2):165-205. View abstract.

Moore, J. M. and Cooper, D. A. The application of capillary gas chromatography-electron capture detection in the comparative analyses of illicit cocaine samples. J Forensic Sci 1993;38(6):1286-1304. View abstract.

Moore, J. M., Casale, J. F., Klein, R. F., Cooper, D. A., and Lydon, J. Determination and in-depth chromatographic analyses of alkaloids in South American and greenhouse-cultivated coca leaves. J Chromatogr.A 1-21-1994;659(1):163-175. View abstract.

Moore, J. M., Cooper, D. A., Lurie, I. S., Kram, T. C., Carr, S., Harper, C., and Yeh, J. Capillary gas chromatographic-electron capture detection of coca-leaf-related impurities in illicit cocaine: 2,4-diphenylcyclobutane-1,3-dicarboxylic acids, 1,4-diphenylcyclobutane-2,3-dicarboxylic acids and their alkaloidal precursors, the truxillines. J Chromatogr. 12-11-1987;410(2):297-318. View abstract.

Morales, E. Coca and cocaine in Peru: an international policy assessment. Int.J.Addict. 1990;25(3A):295-316. View abstract.

Nappo, S. A., Galduroz, J. C., Raymundo, M., and Carlini, E. A. Changes in cocaine use as viewed by key informants: a qualitative study carried out in 1994 and 1999 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Psychoactive Drugs 2001;33(3):241-253. View abstract.

Nathanson, J. A., Hunnicutt, E. J., Kantham, L., and Scavone, C. Cocaine as a naturally occurring insecticide. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 10-15-1993;90(20):9645-9648. View abstract.

Navarro, R., Yupanqui, M., Geng, J., Valdivia, G., Giron, M., Rojas, M., Rodriguez, E., and Beletti, A. Development of a program of behavior modification directed to the rehabilitation of drug-dependent patients: treatment and follow-up of 223 cases. Int J Addict. 1992;27(4):391-408. View abstract.

Novak, M., Salemink, C. A., and Khan, I. Biological activity of the alkaloids of Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense. J Ethnopharmacol. 1984;10(3):261-274. View abstract.

Penny, M. E., Zavaleta, A., Lemay, M., Liria, M. R., Huaylinas, M. L., Alminger, M., McChesney, J., Alcaraz, F., and Reddy, M. B. Can coca leaves contribute to improving the nutritional status of the Andean population? Food Nutr.Bull. 2009;30(3):205-216. View abstract.

Perez-Gomez, A. The ambulatory treatment of noncompulsive users of psychoactive substances. J Subst.Abuse Treat. 1993;10(3):317-321. View abstract.

Pfeilsticker, K. and Siddiqui, I. R. [Isolation of the Derivatives from Coca-Powder Fumigated by Ethylene Oxide 1,2-14 C and their Structure Suggested on the Basis of I. R. and Mass-Spectrometry]. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1-30-1976;160(1):19-27. View abstract.

Pizarro, F., Olivares, M., Hertrampf, E., and Walter, T. [Factors which modify the nutritional state of iron: tannin content of herbal teas]. Arch.Latinoam.Nutr 1994;44(4):277-280. View abstract.

Prance, G. The poisons and narcotics of the Amazonian Indians. J R.Coll.Physicians Lond 1999;33(4):368-376. View abstract.

Reisner, L. Biologic poisons for pain. Curr.Pain Headache Rep. 2004;8(6):427-434. View abstract.

Rerat, C., Sauvain, M., Rop, P. P., Ruiz, E., Bresson, M., and Viala, A. Liquid chromatographic analysis of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in plasma of traditional coca chewers from Bolivia during exercise. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1997;56(3):173-178. View abstract.

Richter, F., Leichsenring, A., Haschke, W., Kiyatkin, E. A., and Belij, V. P. Activation-induced changes in evoked and slow brain potentials: effects of cocaine in awake rabbit. Int J Neurosci. 1991;56(1-4):151-159. View abstract.

Rivera, M. A., Aufderheide, A. C., Cartmell, L. W., Torres, C. M., and Langsjoen, O. Antiquity of coca-leaf chewing in the south central Andes: a 3,000 year archaeological record of coca-leaf chewing from northern Chile. J Psychoactive Drugs 2005;37(4):455-458. View abstract.

Rivier, L. Analysis of alkaloids in leaves of cultivated Erythroxylum and characterization of alkaline substances used during coca chewing. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1981;3(2-3):313-335. View abstract.

Rojas, M. R. Attitudes and values of Peruvian coca growers. Subst.Use.Misuse. 2002;37(5-7):687-713. View abstract.

Ruetsch, Y. A., Boni, T., and Borgeat, A. From cocaine to ropivacaine: the history of local anesthetic drugs. Curr.Top.Med Chem. 2001;1(3):175-182. View abstract.

Saignes, Thierry. CAPOCHE, POTOSI Y LA COCA: EL CONSUMO POPULAR DE ESTIMULANTES EN EL SIGLO XVII. Revista de Indias 1988;48(182/183):207-235.

Schindler, C. W. and Goldberg, S. R. Accelerating cocaine metabolism as an approach to the treatment of cocaine abuse and toxicity. Future.Med.Chem. 2012;4(2):163-175. View abstract.

SCHWAB, R. S., DELORME, T. L., and ZIMMERMAN, K. Observations on the effects of chewing cocaine wax or coca leaves on muscular fatigue. Trans.Am.Neurol.Assoc. 1952;56(77th Meeting):256-259. View abstract.

Serra-vega, J. Andean settlers rush for Amazonia. Earthwatch. 1990;(39):7-9. View abstract.

Sharkey, J., Ritz, M. C., Schenden, J. A., Hanson, R. C., and Kuhar, M. J. Cocaine inhibits muscarinic cholinergic receptors in heart and brain. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1988;246(3):1048-1052. View abstract.

Sherret, L. FUTILITY IN ACTION: COCA FUMIGATION IN COLOMBIA. Journal of Drug Issues 2005;35(1):151.

Siegel, R. K. Cocaine and sexual dysfunction: the curse of mama coca. J.Psychoactive Drugs 1982;14(1-2):71-74. View abstract.

Siegel, R. K. New patterns of cocaine use: changing doses and routes. NIDA Res.Monogr 1985;61:204-220. View abstract.

Silva, M. I., Cito, M. C., Vasconcelos, P. F., Vasconcelos, S. M., and Sousa, F. C. [Cocaine: historical background, neurobiology of the addiction and relapse and therapeutic perspectives]. Acta Med Port. 2010;23(2):247-258. View abstract.

Solomon, K. R., Anadon, A., Carrasquilla, G., Cerdeira, A. L., Marshall, J., and Sanin, L. H. Coca and poppy eradication in Colombia: environmental and human health assessment of aerially applied glyphosate. Rev.Environ.Contam Toxicol. 2007;190:43-125. View abstract.

Solomon, K. R., Marshall, E. J., and Carrasquilla, G. Human health and environmental risks from the use of glyphosate formulations to control the production of coca in Colombia: overview and conclusions. J Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2009;72(15-16):914-920. View abstract.

Spielvogel, H., Caceres, E., Koubi, H., Sempore, B., Sauvain, M., and Favier, R. Effects of coca chewing on metabolic and hormonal changes during graded incremental exercise to maximum. J.Appl.Physiol 1996;80(2):643-649. View abstract.

Spielvogel, H., Rodriguez, A., Sempore, B., Caceres, E., Cottet-Emard, J. M., Guillon, L., and Favier, R. Body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular adjustments during submaximal exercise: influence of chewing coca leaves. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1997;75(5):400-406. View abstract.

Springfield, A. C., Cartmell, L. W., Aufderheide, A. C., Buikstra, J., and Ho, J. Cocaine and metabolites in the hair of ancient Peruvian coca leaf chewers. Forensic Sci.Int. 1993;63(1-3):269-275. View abstract.

Stolberg, V. B. The use of coca: prehistory, history, and ethnography. J.Ethn.Subst.Abuse 2011;10(2):126-146. View abstract.

Strano-Rossi, S., Colamonici, C., and Botre, F. Parallel analysis of stimulants in saliva and urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: perspectives for "in competition" anti-doping analysis. Anal.Chim.Acta 1-14-2008;606(2):217-222. View abstract.

Toppozada, A. R., Wright, J., Eldefrawi, A. T., Eldefrawi, M. E., Johnson, E. L., Emche, S. D., and Helling, C. S. Evaluation of a fiber optic immunosensor for quantitating cocaine in coca leaf extracts. Biosens.Bioelectron. 1997;12(2):113-124. View abstract.

Tricot, J. P. [Cocaine: half a century of therapeutic use (1880-1930)]. Verh.K.Acad.Geneeskd.Belg. 1991;53(5):487-496. View abstract.

Turner, C. E., Ma, C. Y., and elSohly, M. A. Constituents in Erythroxylum coca I: gas chromatographic analysis of cocaine from three locations in Peru. Bull.Narc. 1979;31(1):71-76. View abstract.

Turner, C. E., Ma, C. Y., and elSohly, M. A. Constituents of Erythroxylon coca. II. Gas-chromatographic analysis of cocaine and other alkaloids in coca leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 1981;3(2-3):293-298. View abstract.

Turner, M., McCrory, P., and Johnston, A. Time for tea, anyone? Br.J Sports Med 2005;39(10):e37. View abstract.

Vagts, D. A., Boklage, C., and Galli, C. [Intraoperative ventricular fibrillation in a patient with chronic cocaine abuse--a case report]. Anaesthesiol.Reanim. 2004;29(1):19-24. View abstract.

Valentine, J. L., Fremming, B. D., Chappell, R. H., and Stephen, P. M. Effects of extended feeding of decocainized erythroxylon coca leaves on growth and selected organs in rats and rabbits. Hum.Toxicol. 1988;7(1):21-26. View abstract.

van, Dun M. The drugs industry and peasant self-defence in a Peruvian cocaine enclave. Int.J.Drug Policy 2012;23(6):442-448. View abstract.

Vasica, G. and Tennant, C. C. Cocaine use and cardiovascular complications. Med J Aust. 9-2-2002;177(5):260-262. View abstract.

Vee, G. L., Fink, G. B., and Constantine, G. H., Jr. Anorexic activity of cocaine and coca extract in naive and cocaine tolerant rats. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1983;18(4):515-517. View abstract.

Vina, A., Echavarria, F. R., and Rundquist, D. C. Satellite change detection analysis of deforestation rates and patterns along the Colombia-Ecuador border. Ambio. 2004;33(3):118-125. View abstract.

Vitzthum, V. J., von Dornum, M., and Ellison, P. T. Brief communication: effect of coca-leaf chewing on salivary progesterone assays. Am.J.Phys.Anthropol. 1993;92(4):539-544. View abstract.

Wahrig, B. ["Fabulous things". Drug narratives about coca and cocaine in the 19th century]. Ber.Wiss. 2009;32(4):345-364. View abstract.

Watson, E. S., Murphy, J. C., elSohly, H. N., elSohly, M. A., and Turner, C. E. Effects of the administration of coca alkaloids on the primary immune responses of mice: interaction with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and ethanol. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 1983;71(1):1-13. View abstract.

Wawersik, J. History of anesthesia in Germany. J Clin.Anesth. 1991;3(3):235-244. View abstract.

Weil, A. T. Coca leaf as a therapeutic agent. Am.J.Drug Alcohol Abuse 1978;5(1):75-86. View abstract.

Weil, A. T. The therapeutic value of coca in contemporary medicine. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1981;3(2-3):367-376. View abstract.

Zimmerman, J. L. Cocaine intoxication. Crit Care Clin 2012;28(4):517-526. View abstract.

Alexandrakis G, Tse DT, Rosa RH Jr, Johnson TE. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction and orbital cellulitis associated with chronic intranasal cocaine abuse. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117:1617-22. View abstract.

Bedford JA, Lovell DK, Turner CE, et al. The anorexic and actometric effects of cocaine and two coca extracts. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1980;13:403-8.. View abstract.

Bedford JA, Nail GL, et al. Comparative stimulus properties of two fractions of the coca leaf (E. coca). Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1981;15:907-9.. View abstract.

Bolla KI, Funderburk FR, Cadet JL. Differential effects of cocaine and cocaine alcohol on neurocognitive performance. Neurology 2000;54:2285-92. View abstract.

Buck AA, Sasaki TT, Hewitt JJ, Macrae AA. Coca chewing and health. An epidemiologic study among residents of a Peruvian village. Am J Epidemiol 1968;88:159-77.. View abstract.

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at:

ElSohly MA, Brenneisen R, Jones AB. Coca paste: chemical analysis and smoking experiments. J Forensic Sci 1991;36:93-103.. View abstract.

Engelke BF, Gentner WA. Determination of cocaine in "Mate de Coca" herbal tea. J Pharm Sci 1991;80:96.. View abstract.

Favier R, Caceres E, Guillon L, et al. Coca chewing for exercise: hormonal and metabolic responses of nonhabitual chewers. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:1901-7.. View abstract.

Favier R, Caceres E, Sempore B, et al. Fluid regulatory hormone response to exercise after coca-induced body fluid shifts. J Appl Physiol 1997;83:376-82.. View abstract.

Galarza Guzman M, Penaloza Imana R, Echalar Afcha L, et al. Effects of coca chewing on glucose tolerance test. Medicina (B Aires) 1997;57(3):261-4. View abstract.

Heesch CM, Wilhelm CR, Ristich J, et al. Cocaine activates platelets and increases the formation of circulating platelet containing microaggregates in humans. Heart 2000;83:688-95. View abstract.

Jackson GF, Saady JJ, Poklis A. Urinary excretion of benzoylecgonine following ingestion of Health Inca Tea. Forensic Sci Int 1991;49:57-64.. View abstract.

Mazor SS, Mycyk MB, Willis BK, et al. Coca tea consumption causes positive urine cocaine assay. Eur J Emerg Med 2006;13(6):340-1. View abstract.

McEvoy AW, Kitchen ND, Thomas DG. Intracerebral haemorrhage in young adults: the emerging importance of drug misuse. BMJ 2000;320:1322-4. View abstract.

Mendelson J, Tolliver B, Delucchi K, Berger P. Capsaicin increases the lethality of cocaine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;65:(abstract PII-27).

Potter SM, Zelazo PR, Stack DM, Papageorgiou AN. Adverse effects of fetal cocaine exposure on neonatal auditory information processing. Pediatrics 2000;105:E40.. View abstract.

Roldan CA, Aliabadi D, Crawford MH. Prevalence of heart disease in asymptomatic chronic cocaine users. Cardiology 2001;95:25-30.. View abstract.

Rome LA, Lippmann ML, Dalsey WC, et al. Prevalence of cocaine use and its impact on asthma exacerbation in an urban population. Chest 2000;117:1324-9. View abstract.

Sauvain M, Rerat C, Moretti C, et al. A study of the chemical composition of Erythroxylum coca var. coca leaves collected in two ecological regions of Bolivia. J Ethnopharmacol 1997;56:179-91.. View abstract.

Spielvogel H, Rodriguez A, Sempore B, et al. Body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular adjustments during submaximal exercise: influence of chewing coca leaves. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1997;75(5):400-6. View abstract.

Turner M, McCrory P, Johnston A. Time for tea, anyone? Br J Sports Med 2005;39(10):e37. View abstract.

Vitzthum VJ, von Dornum M, Ellison PT. Brief communication: effect of coca-leaf chewing on salivary progesterone assays. Am J Phys Anthropol 1993;92(4):539-44. View abstract.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors