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Dextrose

Medical and Pharmacy Editor:

Brand Name: D50W, DGlucose, Glucose

Generic Name: Dextrose

Drug Class: Glucose-Elevating Agents; Metabolic and Endocrine, Other

What Is Dextrose and How Does It Work?

Dextrose is a prescription sterile, nonpyrogenic solution for fluid replenishment and caloric supply for intravenous and/or oral administration and as treatment of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).

Dextrose is available under the following different brand names: D50W, DGlucose, and Glucose.

Dosages of Dextrose:

Adult and Pediatric Dosages

Intravenous solution

  • 2.5%
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • 20%
  • 30%
  • 50%
  • 70%

Oral liquid

  • 55%

Dosage Considerations – Should be Given as Follows:

Adults

Low blood sugar (Hypoglycemia)

  • Intravenously: 10-25 g (20-50 ml 50% solution or 40-100 ml of 25%)
  • Orally: 4-20 g as a single dose; may repeat after 15 minutes if self-monitoring of blood glucose shows continued hypoglycemia

Pediatrics

  • Dilute before intravenous (IV) administration, may give more concentrated solution peripherally in emergency (12.5-25%)
  • Infants under 6 months:
    • 0.25-0.5 g/kg/dose (1-2 ml/kg/dose of 25% solution) intravenously; not to exceed 25 g/dose
  • Infants over 6 months and children:
    • 0.5-1 g/kg up to 25 g (2-4 ml/kg/dose of 25% solution) intravenously; not to exceed 25 g/dose
  • Adolescents
    • Intravenously: 10-25 g (20-50 ml 50% solution or 40-100 ml of 25%)
    • Orally: 4-20 g as a single dose; may repeat after 15 minutes if self-monitoring of blood glucose shows continued hypoglycemia

What Are Side Effects Associated with Using Dextrose?

Side effects of dextrose include:

This document does not contain all possible side effects and others may occur. Check with your physician for additional information about side effects.

What Other Drugs Interact with Dextrose?

If your doctor has directed you to use this medication, your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with your doctor, health care provider or pharmacist first.

Dextrose has no known severe interactions with other drugs.

Dextrose has no known serious interactions with other drugs.

Dextrose has no known moderate interactions with other drugs.

Mild interactions of dextrose include:

This information does not contain all possible interactions or adverse effects. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share this information with your doctor and pharmacist. Check with your health care professional or doctor for additional medical advice, or if you have health questions, concerns or for more information about this medicine.

What Are Warnings and Precautions for Dextrose?

Warnings

  • This medication contains dextrose. Do not take D50W, DGlucose, or Glucose if you are allergic to dextrose or any ingredients contained in this drug.
  • Keep out of reach of children. In case of overdose, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately.

Contraindications

  • Documented hypersensitivity; severe dehydration

Effects of Drug Abuse

  • No information available

Short-Term Effects

  • See "What Are Side Effects Associated with Using Dextrose?"

Long-Term Effects

  • See "What Are Side Effects Associated with Using Dextrose?"

Cautions

  • Use caution in diabetes mellitus or carbohydrate intolerance.
  • Give 5% or 10% dextrose to avoid reactive low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) when highly concentrated dextrose infusion is abruptly withdrawn.
  • An unexpected rise in blood glucose level in a stable patient may be an early symptom of infection; monitor for signs and symptoms of infection and laboratory parameters.
  • Significant low blood potassium levels (hypokalemia) may occur from administration of potassium-free intravenous (IV) dextrose solutions.
  • Significant low blood sodium levels (hyponatremia) or water intoxication may occur from low sodium or sodium-free intravenous (IV) dextrose solution.
  • Use caution in patients with diabetes mellitus; reduce the rate of infusion to reduce the possibilities of causing high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and excess sugar in the urine (glycosuria).
  • Increased serum osmolality and possible bleeding on the brain (intracerebral hemorrhage) may occur from rapid or excessive dextrose administration.
  • Rebound low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) may occur following abrupt withdrawal.
  • Hypertonic solutions (greater than 10%) may cause clotting of the blood (thrombosis) when infused through peripheral veins; best to infuse through a central venous catheter.
  • Monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged use.
  • Caution advised, to avoid air embolism, when infusing medication.
  • Monitor glucose levels and for possible high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) when treating pediatric patients.
  • Dextrose injection contains aluminum that may be toxic; patients with impaired kidney (renal) function, and preterm infants, at higher risk; limit aluminum to less than 4 mcg/kg/day.
  • Parenteral nutrition associated with liver disease; increased risk in patients who receive parenteral nutrition for extended periods of time, especially preterm infants; monitor liver function tests, if abnormalities occur consider discontinuation or dosage reduction.
  • Monitor blood glucose and administer insulin as needed.

Pregnancy and Lactation

  • Intravenous dextrose is generally acceptable for use during pregnancy. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
  • Use dextrose (oral) during pregnancy with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies are not available, or neither animal nor human studies were done.
  • Maternal and fetal hyperglycemia may occur during labor and delivery; monitor.
  • The excretion of dextrose in milk is unknown; use with caution when breastfeeding.
  • Intravenous dextrose is generally acceptable for use during pregnancy.
  • Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
  • Use dextrose (oral) during pregnancy with caution if benefits outweigh risks.
  • Animal studies show risk and human studies are not available, or neither animal nor human studies were done.
  • Maternal and fetal hyperglycemia may occur during labor and delivery; monitor.
  • The excretion of dextrose in milk is unknown; use with caution when breastfeeding.
Reviewed on 5/15/2017

Medscape. Dextrose.
https://reference.medscape.com/drug/d50w-dglucose-dextrose-342705#0
FDA. Dextrose Injection Monograph.
https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2014/017521s068lbl.pdf

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