- What other names is Cumin known by?
- What is Cumin?
- Is Cumin effective?
- How does Cumin work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Cumin.
Anis Âcre, Black Cumin Seed Oil, Comino, Cumin de Malte, Cuminum cyminum, Cuminum odorum, Cummin, Huile de Graines de Cumin Noir, Jeeraka, Svetajiraka, Zira.
Cumin is an herb. The seeds of the plant are used to make medicine.
People take cumin for digestion problems including diarrhea, colic, bowel spasms, and gas. Cumin is also used to increase urine flow to relieve bloating (as a diuretic); to start menstruation; and to increase sexual desire (as an aphrodisiac).
In spices, foods, and beverages, cumin is used as a flavoring component.
In other manufacturing processes, cumin oil is used as a fragrance in cosmetics.
There isn't enough information to know if cumin is effective for the conditions people use it for, including: diarrhea, colic, gas, bowel spasms, and others.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Bowel spasms.
- Fluid retention.
- Menstrual problems.
- Increasing sexual desire.
- Other conditions.
It's not known how cumin might work on the conditions for which people use it.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking cumin if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Bleeding disorders. Cumin might slow blood clotting. In theory, cumin might make bleeding disorders worse.
Surgery: Cumin might lower blood sugar levels. Some experts worry that it might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop using cumin at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Cumin might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking cumin along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Cumin might slow blood clotting. Taking cumin along with medications that also slow blood clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
RifampinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Cumin might increase how much rifampin the body absorbs. Taking cumin along with rifampin might increase the effects and side effects of rifampin.
The appropriate dose of cumin depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for cumin. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Abraham, S. K., Singh, S. P., and Kesavan, P. C. In vivo antigenotoxic effects of dietary agents and beverages co-administered with urethane: assessment of the role of glutathione S-transferase activity. Mutat.Res 3-16-1998;413(2):103-110. View abstract.
Al Bataina, B. A., Maslat, A. O., and Al Kofahil, M. M. Element analysis and biological studies on ten oriental spices using XRF and Ames test. J Trace Elem.Med Biol. 2003;17(2):85-90. View abstract.
Anliker, M. D., Borelli, S., and Wuthrich, B. Occupational protein contact dermatitis from spices in a butcher: a new presentation of the mugwort-spice syndrome. Contact Dermatitis 2002;46(2):72-74. View abstract.
Aruna K, Rukkumani R, Varma PS, and et al. Role of Cuminum cyminum on ethanol and preheated sunflower oil induced lipid peroxidation. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants (J HERBS SPICES MEDICINAL PLANT) 2005;11(4):103-114.
Aruna, K. and Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products. Food Chem.Toxicol 1992;30(11):953-956. View abstract.
Aruna, K. and Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. Plant products as protective agents against cancer. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1990;28(11):1008-1011. View abstract.
Aruna, K., Rukkumani, R., Varma, P. S., and Menon, V. P. Therapeutic role of Cuminum cyminum on ethanol and thermally oxidized sunflower oil induced toxicity. Phytother.Res. 2005;19(5):416-421. View abstract.
Balachandran, B., Sivaswamy, S. N., and Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. Genotoxic effects of some foods & food components in Swiss mice. Indian J Med Res 1991;94:378-383. View abstract.
Banerjee, S., Sharma, R., Kale, R. K., and Rao, A. R. Influence of certain essential oils on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and acid-soluble sulfhydryls in mouse liver. Nutr Cancer 1994;21(3):263-269. View abstract.
Beddows, C. G., Jagait, C., and Kelly, M. J. Preservation of alpha-tocopherol in sunflower oil by herbs and spices. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2000;51(5):327-339. View abstract.
Boxer, M., Roberts, M., and Grammer, L. Cumin anaphylaxis: a case report. J.Allergy Clin.Immunol. 1997;99(5):722-723. View abstract.
Boyraz, N. and Ozcan, M. Antifungal effect of some spice hydrosols. Fitoterapia 2005;76(7-8):661-665. View abstract.
Bukhari, S. B., Iqbal, S., and Bhanger, M. I. Antioxidant potential of commercially available cumin (Cuminum cyminuml inn) in Pakistan. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2009;60(3):240-247. View abstract.
Charles, G. D., Linscombe, V. A., Tornesi, B., Mattsson, J. L., and Gollapudi, B. B. An in vitro screening paradigm for extracts of whole foods for detection of potential toxicants. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2002;40(10):1391-1402. View abstract.
Chaubey, M. K. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J Oleo.Sci 2008;57(3):171-179. View abstract.
Chauhan, P. S., Satti, N. K., Suri, K. A., Amina, M., and Bani, S. Stimulatory effects of Cuminum cyminum and flavonoid glycoside on Cyclosporine-A and restraint stress induced immune-suppression in Swiss albino mice. Chem.Biol.Interact. 4-15-2010;185(1):66-72. View abstract.
Clarke, D. B., Barnes, K. A., and Lloyd, A. S. Determination of unusual soya and non-soya phytoestrogen sources in beer, fish products and other foods. Food Addit.Contam 2004;21(10):949-962. View abstract.
Coureaud, G., Schaal, B., Hudson, R., Orgeur, P., and Coudert, P. Transnatal olfactory continuity in the rabbit: behavioral evidence and short-term consequence of its disruption. Dev.Psychobiol. 2002;40(4):372-390. View abstract.
Derakhshan, S., Sattari, M., and Bigdeli, M. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed essential oil and alcoholic extract on the morphology, capsule expression and urease activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Int.J.Antimicrob.Agents 2008;32(5):432-436. View abstract.
Desage, M., Schaal, B., Soubeyrand, J., Orgeur, P., and Brazier, J. L. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method to characterise the transfer of dietary odorous compounds into plasma and milk. J Chromatogr.B Biomed.Appl. 4-12-1996;678(2):205-210. View abstract.
Dhandapani, S., Subramanian, V. R., Rajagopal, S., and Namasivayam, N. Hypolipidemic effect of Cuminum cyminum L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacol.Res 2002;46(3):251-255. View abstract.
El Ghawi, U. M., Al Sadeq, A. A., Bejey, M. M., and Alamin, M. B. Determination of selenium in Libyan food items using pseudocyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2005;107(1):61-72. View abstract.
El Kady, I. A., El Maraghy, S. S., and Eman, Mostafa M. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in different spices in Egypt. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 1995;40(3):297-300. View abstract.
Elshafie, A. E., Al Rashdi, T. A., Al Bahry, S. N., and Bakheit, C. S. Fungi and aflatoxins associated with spices in the Sultanate of Oman. Mycopathologia 2002;155(3):155-160. View abstract.
Eseverri, J. L., Cozzo, M., Castillo, M., and Marin, A. [Round Table: Immunological urticaria mediated by IgE]. Allergol.Immunopathol.(Madr.) 1999;27(2):104-111. View abstract.
Esiyok, D., Otles, S., and Akcicek, E. Herbs as a food source in Turkey. Asian Pac.J Cancer Prev. 2004;5(3):334-339. View abstract.
Farag, R. S. and el Khawas, K. H. Influence of gamma-irradiation and microwaves on the antioxidant property of some essential oils. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1998;49(2):109-115. View abstract.
Farag, S. E. and Abo-Zeid, M. Degradation of the natural mutagenic compound safrole in spices by cooking and irradiation. Nahrung 1997;41(6):359-361. View abstract.
Futrell, J. M. and Rietschel, R. L. Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests. Cutis 1993;52(5):288-290. View abstract.
Gacche RN, Dhole NA, and Jadhav AD. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory related activities of certain botanicals frequently used in Ayurveda and other indigenous systems of medication. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism (AUST J MED HERBALISM) 2008;20(1):27-35.
Gagandeep, Dhanalakshmi, S., Mendiz, E., Rao, A. R., and Kale, R. K. Chemopreventive effects of Cuminum cyminum in chemically induced forestomach and uterine cervix tumors in murine model systems. Nutr Cancer 2003;47(2):171-180. View abstract.
Garcia, S., Iracheta, F., Galvan, F., and Heredia, N. Microbiological survey of retail herbs and spices from Mexican markets. J Food Prot. 2001;64(1):99-103. View abstract.
Haghparast, A., Shams, J., Khatibi, A., Alizadeh, A. M., and Kamalinejad, M. Effects of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae) on acquisition and expression of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Neurosci.Lett. 8-1-2008;440(2):134-139. View abstract.
Haroun, E. M., Mahmoud, O. M., and Adam, S. E. Effect of feeding Cuminum cyminum fruits, Thymus vulgaris leaves or their mixture to rats. Vet.Hum.Toxicol. 2002;44(2):67-69. View abstract.
Hasan, H. A. and Mahmoud, A. L. Inhibitory effect of spice oils on lipase and mycotoxin production. Zentralbl.Mikrobiol. 1993;148(8):543-548. View abstract.
Hashim, S., Aboobaker, V. S., Madhubala, R., Bhattacharya, R. K., and Rao, A. R. Modulatory effects of essential oils from spices on the formation of DNA adduct by aflatoxin B1 in vitro. Nutr.Cancer 1994;21(2):169-175. View abstract.
Heikes, D. L., Scott, B., and Gorzovalitis, N. A. Quantitation of volatile oils in ground cumin by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. J AOAC Int 2001;84(4):1130-1134. View abstract.
Iacobellis, N. S., Lo, Cantore P., Capasso, F., and Senatore, F. Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils. J Agric.Food Chem 1-12-2005;53(1):57-61. View abstract.
Irkin, R. and Korukluoglu, M. Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice. Foodborne.Pathog.Dis. 2009;6(3):387-394. View abstract.
Ishikawa, T., Takayanagi, T., and Kitajima, J. Water-soluble constituents of cumin: monoterpenoid glucosides. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 2002;50(11):1471-1478. View abstract.
Jagtap, A. G. and Patil, P. B. Antihyperglycemic activity and inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation by Cuminum cyminum in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Food Chem.Toxicol. 5-6-2010; View abstract.
Jalali-Heravi, M., Zekavat, B., and Sereshti, H. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with resolution methods to characterize the essential oil components of Iranian cumin and caraway. J Chromatogr.A 3-2-2007;1143(1-2):215-226. View abstract.
Janahmadi, M., Niazi, F., Danyali, S., and Kamalinejad, M. Effects of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae) on pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptiform activity in F1 neurones of Helix aspersa. J Ethnopharmacol. 3-8-2006;104(1-2):278-282. View abstract.
Janus, C. Stability of preference for odors after short-term exposure in young spiny mice. Dev.Psychobiol. 1993;26(1):65-79. View abstract.
Janus, C. The development of olfactory preferences for artificial odors briefly experienced by the precocial spiny mouse young. Behav.Neural Biol. 1989;52(3):430-436. View abstract.
Kamble VA and Patil SD. Spice derived essential oils: effective antifungal and possible therapeutic agents. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants (J HERBS SPICES MEDICINAL PLANT) 2008;14(3-4):129-143.
Khafagy, S. M., Sarg, T. M., Abdel Salam, N. A., and Gabr, O. Isolation of two flavone glycosides from the fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. grown in Egypt. Pharmazie 1978;33(5):296-297. View abstract.
Kitajima, J., Ishikawa, T., Fujimatu, E., Kondho, K., and Takayanagi, T. Glycosides of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol from the fruits of anise, coriander and cumin. Phytochemistry 2003;62(1):115-120. View abstract.
Komy, Z. R. Determination of acidic sites and binding toxic metal ions on cumin surface using nonideal competitive adsorption model. J Colloid Interface Sci 2-15-2004;270(2):281-287. View abstract.
Kreydiyyeh, S. I., Usta, J., and Copti, R. Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum. Food Chem Toxicol 2000;38(9):755-762. View abstract.
Krishnakantha, T. P. and Lokesh, B. R. Scavenging of superoxide anions by spice principles. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 1993;30(2):133-134. View abstract.
Kumar, P. A., Reddy, P. Y., Srinivas, P. N., and Reddy, G. B. Delay of diabetic cataract in rats by the antiglycating potential of cumin through modulation of alpha-crystallin chaperone activity. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20(7):553-562. View abstract.
Lee, H. S. Cuminaldehyde: Aldose Reductase and alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitor Derived from Cuminum cyminum L. Seeds. J Agric.Food Chem. 4-6-2005;53(7):2446-2450. View abstract.
Lucchesi, M. E., Chemat, F., and Smadja, J. Solvent-free microwave extraction : an innovative tool for rapid extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs and spices. J Microw.Power Electromagn.Energy 2004;39(3-4):135-139. View abstract.
Mabrouk, S. S. and El Shayeb, N. M. Inhibition of aflatoxin formation by some spices. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1980;171(5):344-347. View abstract.
Maiga, A., Diallo, D., Bye, R., and Paulsen, B. S. Determination of some toxic and essential metal ions in medicinal and edible plants from Mali. J.Agric.Food Chem. 3-23-2005;53(6):2316-2321. View abstract.
Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. Estrogenic activity of Cuminum cyminum in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1987;25(7):442-444. View abstract.
Martin, G. N. Human electroencephalographic (EEG) response to olfactory stimulation: two experiments using the aroma of food. Int.J.Psychophysiol. 1998;30(3):287-302. View abstract.
Martinez-Tome, M., Jimenez, A. M., Ruggieri, S., Frega, N., Strabbioli, R., and Murcia, M. A. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean spices compared with common food additives. J Food Prot. 2001;64(9):1412-1419. View abstract.
Martins, M. L., Martins, H. M., and Bernardo, F. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal. Food Addit.Contam 2001;18(4):315-319. View abstract.
Moreira, P. L., Lourencao, T. B., Pinto, J. P., and Rall, V. L. Microbiological quality of spices marketed in the city of Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Food Prot. 2009;72(2):421-424. View abstract.
Murphy, E. W., Marsh, A. C., and Willis, B. W. Nutrient content of spices and herbs. J Am.Diet.Assoc. 1978;72(2):174-176. View abstract.
Nair, S., Nagar, R., and Gupta, R. Antioxidant phenolics and flavonoids in common Indian foods. J Assoc Physicians India 1998;46(8):708-710. View abstract.
Nalini, N., Manju, V., and Menon, V. P. Effect of spices on lipid metabolism in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. J Med.Food 2006;9(2):237-245. View abstract.
Nickavar, B. and Abolhasani, F. A. Screening of antioxidant properties of seven Umbelliferae fruits from Iran. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 2009;22(1):30-35. View abstract.
Ninfali, P., Mea, G., Giorgini, S., Rocchi, M., and Bacchiocca, M. Antioxidant capacity of vegetables, spices and dressings relevant to nutrition. Br.J.Nutr. 2005;93(2):257-266. View abstract.
Nostro, A., Cellini, L., Di Bartolomeo, S., Di Campli, E., Grande, R., Cannatelli, M. A., Marzio, L., and Alonzo, V. Antibacterial effect of plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori. Phytother.Res. 2005;19(3):198-202. View abstract.
O'Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 12-21-2005;11(47):7499-7507. View abstract.
Otoom, S. A., Al Safi, S. A., Kerem, Z. K., and Alkofahi, A. The use of medicinal herbs by diabetic Jordanian patients. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):31-41. View abstract.
Ozbek H, Ozturk M, Ozturk A, and et al. Determination of lethal doses of volatile and fixed oils of several plants. Eastern Journal of Medicine (EAST J MED) 2004;9(1):4-6.
Ozcan, M. Effect of spice hydrosols on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 strain. J Med.Food 2005;8(2):275-278. View abstract.
Ozcan, M. M., Sagdic, O., and Ozkan, G. Inhibitory effects of spice essential oils on the growth of Bacillus species. J Med Food 2006;9(3):418-421. View abstract.
Park, I. K., Kim, J. N., Lee, Y. S., Lee, S. G., Ahn, Y. J., and Shin, S. C. Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae). J Econ.Entomol. 2008;101(1):139-144. View abstract.
Peighami-Ashnaei, S., Farzaneh, M., Sharifi-Tehrani, A., and Behboudi, K. Effect of essential oils in control of plant diseases. Commun.Agric.Appl.Biol.Sci 2009;74(3):843-847. View abstract.
Platel, K., Rao, A., Saraswathi, G., and Srinivasan, K. Digestive stimulant action of three Indian spice mixes in experimental rats. Nahrung 2002;46(6):394-398. View abstract.
Pradeep, K. U., Geervani, P., and Eggum, B. O. Influence of spices on utilization of sorghum and chickpea protein. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1991;41(3):269-276. View abstract.
Rodriguez, M., Alvarez, M., and Zayas, M. [Microbiological quality of spices consumed in Cuba]. Rev Latinoam.Microbiol. 1991;33(2-3):149-151. View abstract.
Rodriguez-Romo, L. A., Heredia, N. L., Labbe, R. G., and Garcia-Alvarado, J. S. Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in spices used in Mexico by dot blotting using a DNA probe. J Food Prot. 1998;61(2):201-204. View abstract.
Roychowdhury, T., Uchino, T., Tokunaga, H., and Ando, M. Survey of arsenic in food composites from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40(11):1611-1621. View abstract.
Sachin, B. S., Sharma, S. C., Sethi, S., Tasduq, S. A., Tikoo, M. K., Tikoo, A. K., Satti, N. K., Gupta, B. D., Suri, K. A., Johri, R. K., and Qazi, G. N. Herbal modulation of drug bioavailability: enhancement of rifampicin levels in plasma by herbal products and a flavonoid glycoside derived from Cuminum cyminum. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(2):157-163. View abstract.
Sambaiah, K. and Srinivasan, K. Effect of cumin, cinnamon, ginger, mustard and tamarind in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Nahrung 1991;35(1):47-51. View abstract.
Saraswat, M., Muthenna, P., Suryanarayana, P., Petrash, J. M., and Reddy, G. B. Dietary sources of aldose reductase inhibitors: prospects for alleviating diabetic complications. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(4):558-565. View abstract.
Saraswat, M., Reddy, P. Y., Muthenna, P., and Reddy, G. B. Prevention of non-enzymic glycation of proteins by dietary agents: prospects for alleviating diabetic complications. Br.J Nutr. 2009;101(11):1714-1721. View abstract.
Satyanarayana, S., Sushruta, K., Sarma, G. S., Srinivas, N., and Subba Raju, G. V. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of spicy food additives--evaluation and comparison with ascorbic acid in in-vitro systems. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2004;4(2):1-10. View abstract.
Sekine, T., Sugano, M., Majid, A., and Fujii, Y. Antifungal effects of volatile compounds from black zira (Bunium persicum) and other spices and herbs. J Chem.Ecol. 2007;33(11):2123-2132. View abstract.
Shayegh, S., Rasooli, I., Taghizadeh, M., and Astaneh, S. D. Phytotherapeutic inhibition of supragingival dental plaque. Nat Prod Res 3-20-2008;22(5):428-439. View abstract.
Shirke, S. S. and Jagtap, A. G. Effects of methanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum on total serum cholesterol in ovariectomized rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2009;41(2):92-93. View abstract.
Shirke, S. S., Jadhav, S. R., and Jagtap, A. G. Methanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibits ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. Exp.Biol.Med (Maywood.) 2008;233(11):1403-1410. View abstract.
Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P., Pandey, S. K., Singh, U. K., and Singh, R. K. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices. Phytother.Res 2002;16(7):680-682. View abstract.
Singh, U. P., Singh, D. P., Maurya, S., Maheshwari, R., Singh, M., Dubey, R. S., and Singh, R. B. Investigation on the phenolics of some spices having pharmacotherapeuthic properties. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2004;4(4):27-42. View abstract.
Sivaswamy, S. N., Balachandran, B., Balanehru, S., and Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1991;29(8):730-737. View abstract.
Srinivasan, K. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2005;56(6):399-414. View abstract.
Srivastava, K. C. Extracts from two frequently consumed spices--cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa)--inhibit platelet aggregation and alter eicosanoid biosynthesis in human blood platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1989;37(1):57-64. View abstract.
Suttinun, O., Muller, R., and Luepromchai, E. Trichloroethylene cometabolic degradation by Rhodococcus sp. L4 induced with plant essential oils. Biodegradation. 2009;20(2):281-291. View abstract.
Takayanagi, T., Ishikawa, T., and Kitajima, J. Sesquiterpene lactone glucosides and alkyl glycosides from the fruit of cumin. Phytochemistry 2003;63(4):479-484. View abstract.
Toghrol, F. and Daneshpejouh, H. Estimation of free amino acids, protein and amino acid compositions of cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum) of Iran. J Trop.Pediatr.Environ Child Health 1974;20(3):109-111. View abstract.
Topal, U., Sasaki, M., Goto, M., and Otles, S. Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2008;59(7-8):619-634. View abstract.
Uma, Pradeep K., Geervani, P., and Eggum, B. O. Common Indian spices: nutrient composition, consumption and contribution to dietary value. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr 1993;44(2):137-148. View abstract.
Vasudevan, K., Vembar, S., Veeraraghavan, K., and Haranath, P. S. Influence of intragastric perfusion of aqueous spice extracts on acid secretion in anesthetized albino rats. Indian J.Gastroenterol. 2000;19(2):53-56. View abstract.
Yan, J. H., Tang, K. W., Zhong, M., and Deng, N. H. [Determination of chemical components of volatile oil from Cuminum cyminum L. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry]. Se.Pu. 2002;20(6):569-572. View abstract.
Zare, M., Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M., Ranjbar-Bahadori, S., Allameh, A., and Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M. Comparative study of the major Iranian cereal cultivars and some selected spices in relation to support Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Iran Biomed.J 2008;12(4):229-236. View abstract.
Zhai, Y., Sun, S., Wang, Z., Cheng, J., Sun, Y., Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., and Yu, A. Microwave extraction of essential oils from dried fruits of Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cuminum cyminum L. using ionic liquid as the microwave absorption medium. J Sep.Sci 2009;32(20):3544-3549. View abstract.
Zhang, Y. J., Chen, C. J., Lee, C. S., Haghighi, B., Yang, G. Y., Wang, L. W., Feitelson, M., and Santella, R. Aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts and hepatitis B virus antigens in hepatocellular carcinoma and non-tumorous liver tissue. Carcinogenesis 1991;12(12):2247-2252. View abstract.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Nalini N, Sabitha K, Viswanathan P, Menon VP. Influence of spices on the bacterial (enzyme) activity in experimental colon cancer. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:15-24. View abstract.
Roman-Ramos R, Flores-Saenz JL, Alarcon-Aguilar FJ. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of some edible plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;48:25-32. View abstract.