Dacogen

Last updated on RxList: 3/6/2020
Drug Description

DACOGEN®
(decitabine) for Injection

DESCRIPTION

DACOGEN (decitabine) for Injection contains decitabine (5-aza-2’-deoxycitidine), an analogue of the natural nucleoside 2’-deoxycytidine. Decitabine is a fine, white to almost white powder with the molecular formula of C8H12N4O4 and a molecular weight of 228.21. Its chemical name is 4-amino-1-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-1,3,5-triazin-2(1H)-one and it has the following structural formula:

DACOGEN® (decitabine) Structural Formula - Illustration

Decitabine is slightly soluble in ethanol/water (50/50), methanol/water (50/50) and methanol; sparingly soluble in water and soluble in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO).

DACOGEN (decitabine) for Injection is a white to almost white sterile lyophilized powder supplied in a clear colorless glass vial. Each 20 mL, single dose, glass vial contains 50 mg decitabine, 68 mg monobasic potassium phosphate (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) and 11.6 mg sodium hydroxide.

Indications & Dosage

INDICATIONS

DACOGEN is indicated for treatment of adult patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) including previously treated and untreated, de novo and secondary MDS of all French-American-British subtypes (refractory anemia, refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia) and intermediate-1, intermediate-2, and high-risk International Prognostic Scoring System groups.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Recommended Dosage

Pre-Medications And Baseline Testing
  • Consider pre-medicating for nausea with antiemetics.
  • Conduct baseline laboratory testing: complete blood count (CBC) with platelets, serum hepatic panel, and serum creatinine.
DACOGEN Regimen Options

Three Day Regimen

Administer DACOGEN at a dose of 15 mg/m² by continuous intravenous infusion over 3 hours repeated every 8 hours for 3 days. Repeat cycles every 6 weeks upon hematologic recovery (ANC at least 1,000/μL and platelets at least 50,000/μL) for a minimum of 4 cycles. A complete or partial response may take longer than 4 cycles. Delay and reduce dose for hematologic toxicity [see Dosage Modifications for Adverse Reactions].

Five Day Regimen

Administer DACOGEN at a dose of 20 mg/m² by continuous intravenous infusion over 1 hour daily for 5 days. Delay and reduce dose for hematologic toxicity [see Dosage Modifications for Adverse Reactions]. Repeat cycles every 4 weeks upon hematologic recovery (ANC at least 1,000/μL and platelets at least 50,000/μL) for a minimum of 4 cycles. A complete or partial response may take longer than 4 cycles.

Patients With Renal Or Severe Hepatic Impairment

Treatment with DACOGEN has not been studied in patients with pre-existing renal or hepatic impairment. For patients with pre-existing renal or hepatic impairment, consider the potential risks and benefits before initiating treatment with DACOGEN.

Dosage Modifications For Adverse Reactions

Hematologic Toxicity

If hematologic recovery from a previous DACOGEN treatment cycle requires more than 6 weeks, delay the next cycle of DACOGEN therapy and reduce DACOGEN dose temporarily by following this algorithm:

  • Recovery requiring more than 6, but less than 8 weeks: delay DACOGEN dosing for up to 2 weeks and reduce the dose temporarily to 11 mg/m² every 8 hours (33 mg/m²/day, 99 mg/m²/cycle) upon restarting therapy.
  • Recovery requiring more than 8, but less than 10 weeks: Perform bone marrow aspirate to assess for disease progression. In the absence of progression, delay DACOGEN dosing for up to 2 more weeks and reduce the dose to 11 mg/m² every 8 hours (33 mg/m²/day, 99 mg/m²/cycle) upon restarting therapy, then maintain or increase dose in subsequent cycles as clinically indicated.
Non-hematologic Toxicity

Delay subsequent DACOGEN treatment for any the following nonhematologic toxicities and do not restart until toxicities resolve:

  • Serum creatinine greater than or equal to 2 mg/dL
  • Alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin greater than or equal to 2 times upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • Active or uncontrolled infection

Preparation And Administration

DACOGEN is a cytotoxic drug. Follow special handling and disposal procedures.1

Aseptically reconstitute DACOGEN with room temperature (20°C to 25°C) 10 mL of Sterile Water for Injection, USP. Upon reconstitution, the final concentration of the reconstituted DACOGEN solution is 5 mg/mL. You must dilute the reconstituted solution with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection prior to administration. Temperature of the diluent (0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection) depends on time of administration after preparation.

For Administration Within 15 Minutes Of Preparation

If DACOGEN is intended to be administered within 15 minutes from the time of preparation, dilute the reconstituted solution with room temperature (20°C to 25°C) 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection to a final concentration of 0.1 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL. Discard unused portion.

For Delayed Administration

If DACOGEN is intended to be administered after 15 minutes of preparation, dilute the reconstituted solution with cold (2°C to 8°C) 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection to a final concentration of 0.1 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL. Store at 2°C to 8°C for up to 4 hours. Diluted stored solution must be used within 4 hours from the time of preparation. Discard unused portion.

Use the diluted, refrigerated solution within 4 hours from the time of preparation or discard.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if there is evidence of particulate matter or discoloration.

HOW SUPPLIED

Dosage Forms And Strengths

For Injection: 50 mg of decitabine as a sterile, white to almost white lyophilized powder in a single-dose vial for reconstitution.

Storage And Handling

DACOGEN for injection is a sterile, white to almost while lyophilized powder for intravenous use supplied as:

NDC 59148-046-70, 50 mg single-dose vial individually packaged in a carton.

Store vials at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

REFERENCES

1. OSHA Hazardous Drugs.” OSHA. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardousdrugs/index.html

Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc. Manufactured by Pharmachemie B.V. Haarlem, The Netherlands Manufactured for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc., Rockville, MD 20850 USA. Revised: Feb 2020

QUESTION

What is leukemia? See Answer
Side Effects & Drug Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:

  • Myelosuppression [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The safety of DACOGEN was studied in 3 single-arm studies (N = 66, N = 98, N = 99) and 1 controlled supportive care study (N = 83 DACOGEN, N = 81 supportive care). The data described below reflect exposure to DACOGEN in 83 patients in the MDS trial. In the trial, patients received 15 mg/m² intravenously every 8 hours for 3 days every 6 weeks. The median number of DACOGEN cycles was 3 (range 0 to 9).

Most Common Adverse Reactions: neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, fatigue, pyrexia, nausea, cough, petechiae, constipation, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia.

Adverse Reactions Most Frequently (≥ 1%) Resulting in Clinical Intervention and or Dose Modification in the Controlled Supportive Care Study in the DACOGEN Arm:

Table 1 presents all adverse reactions occurring in at least 5% of patients in the DACOGEN group and at a rate greater than supportive care.

Table 1 : Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 5% of Patients in the DACOGEN Group andat a Rate Greater than Supportive Care in the Controlled Trial in MDS

DACOGEN
N = 83 (%)
Supportive Care
N = 81 (%)
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Neutropenia75 (90)58 (72)
Thrombocytopenia74 (89)64 (79)
Anemia NOS68 (82)60 (74)
Febrile neutropenia24 (29)5 (6)
Leukopenia NOS23(28)11 (14)
Lymphadenopathy10(12)6 (7)
Thrombocythemia4 (5)1 (1)
Cardiac disorders
Pulmonary edema NOS5 (6)0 (0)
Eye disorders
Vision blurred5 (6)0 (0)
Gastrointestinal disorders
Nausea35 (42)13 (16)
Constipation29 (35)11 (14)
Diarrhea NOS28 (34)13 (16)
Vomiting NOS21 (25)7 (9)
Abdominal pain NOS12 (14)5 (6)
Oral mucosal petechiae11 (13)4 (5)
Stomatitis10 (12)5 (6)
Dyspepsia10 (12)1 (1)
Ascites8 (10)2 (2)
Gingival bleeding7 (8)5 (6)
Hemorrhoids7 (8)3 (4)
Loose stools6 (7)3 (4)
Tongue ulceration6 (7)2 (2)
Dysphagia5 (6)2 (2)
Oral soft tissue disorder NOS5 (6)1 (1)
Lip ulceration4 (5)3 (4)
Abdominal distension4 (5)1 (1)
Abdominal pain upper4 (5)1 (1)
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease4 (5)0 (0)
Glossodynia4 (5)0 (0)
General disorders and administrative site disorders
Pyrexia44 (53)23 (28)
Edema peripheral21 (25)13 (16)
Rigors18 (22)14 (17)
Edema NOS15 (18)5 (6)
Pain NOS11 (13)5 (6)
Lethargy10 (12)3 (4)
Tenderness NOS9 (11)0 (0)
Fall7 (8)3 (4)
Chest discomfort6 (7)3 (4)
Intermittent pyrexia5 (6)3 (4)
Malaise4 (5)1 (1)
Crepitations NOS4 (5)1 (1)
Catheter site erythema4 (5)1 (1)
Catheter site pain4 (5)0 (0)
Injection site swelling4 (5)0 (0)
Hepatobiliary disorders
Hyperbilirubinemia12 (14)4 (5)
Infections and infestations
Pneumonia NOS18 (22)11(14)
Cellulitis10 (12)6 (7)
Candidal infection NOS8 (10)1 (1)
Catheter related infection7 (8)0 (0)
Urinary tract infection NOS6 (7)1 (1)
Staphylococcal infection6 (7)0 (0)
Oral candidiasis5 (6)2 (2)
Sinusitis NOS4 (5)2 (2)
Bacteremia4 (5)0 (0)
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications
Transfusion reaction6 (7)3 (4)
Abrasion NOS4 (5)1 (1)
Investigations
Cardiac murmur NOS13 (16)9 (11)
Blood alkaline phosphatase NOS increased9 (11)7 (9)
Aspartate aminotransferase increased8 (10)7 (9)
Blood urea increased8 (10)1 (1)
Blood lactate dehydrogenase increased7 (8)5 (6)
Blood albumin decreased6 (7)0 (0)
Blood bicarbonate increased5 (6)1 (1)
Blood chloride decreased5 (6)1 (1)
Protein total decreased4 (5)3 (4)
Blood bicarbonate decreased4 (5)1 (1)
Blood bilirubin decreased4 (5)1 (1)
Metabolism and nutrition disorters
Hyperglycemia NOS27 (33)16 (20)
Hypoalbuminemia20 (24)14 (17)
Hypomagnesemia20 (24)6 (7)
Hypokalemia18 (22)10 (12)
Hyponatremia16 (19)13 (16)
Appetite decreased NOS13 (16)12 (15)
Anorexia13 (16)8 (10)
Hyperkalemia11 (13)3 (4)
Dehydration5 (6)4 (5)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Arthralgia17 (20)8 (10)
Pain in limb16 (19)8 (10)
Back pain14 (17)5 (6)
Chest wall pain6 (7)1 (1)
Musculoskeletal discomfort5 (6)0 (0)
Myalgia4 (5)1 (1)
Nervous system disorders
Headache23(28)11(14)
Dizziness15 (18)10 (12)
Hypoesthesia9 (11)1 (1)
Psychiatric disorders
Insomnia23(28)11 (14)
Confusional state10(12)3 (4)
Anxiety9 (11)8 (10)
Renal and urinary disorders
Dysuria5 (6)3 (4)
Urinary frequency4 (5)1 (1)
Respiratory, thoracic and Mediastinal disorders
Cough33 (40)25 (31)
Pharyngitis13 (16)6 (7)
Crackles lung12 (14)1 (1)
Breath sounds decreased8 (10)7 (9)
Hypoxia8 (10)4 (5)
Rales7 (8)2 (2)
Postnasal drip4 (5)2 (2)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Ecchymosis18 (22)12 (15)
Rash NOS16 (19)7 (9)
Erythema12 (14)5 (6)
Skin lesion NOS9 (11)3 (4)
Pruritis9 (11)2 (2)
Alopecia7 (8)1 (1)
Urticaria NOS5 (6)1 (1)
Swelling face5 (6)0 (0)
Vascular disorders
Petechiae32 (39)13 (16)
Pallor19 (23)10 (12)
Hypotension NOS5 (6)4 (5)
Hematoma NOS4 (5)3 (4)

In a single-arm MDS study (N=99), DACOGEN was dosed at 20 mg/m² intravenously, infused over one hour daily, for 5 consecutive days of a 4-week cycle. Table 2 presents all adverse reactions occurring in at least 5% of patients.

Table 2 : Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 5% of Patients in a Single-arm Study1

DACOGEN
N = 99 (%)
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Anemia31 (31)
Febrile neutropenia20 (20)
Leukopenia6 (6)
Neutropenia38 (38)
Pancytopenia5 (5)
Thrombocythemia5 (5)
Thrombocytopenia27 (27)
Cardiac disorders
Cardiac failure congestive5 (5)
Tachycardia8 (8)
Ear and labyrinth disorders
Ear pain6 (6)
Gastrointestinal disorders
Abdominal pain14 (14)
Abdominal pain upper6(6)
Constipation30 (30)
Diarrhea28 (28)
Dyspepsia10 (10)
Dysphagia5 (5)
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease5 (5)
Nausea40 (40)
Oral pain5 (5)
Stomatitis11 (11)
Toothache6 (6)
Vomiting16 (16)
General disorders and administration site conditions
Asthenia15 (15)
Chest pain6 (6)
Chills16 (16)
Fatigue46 (46)
Mucosal inflammation9 (9)
Edema5 (5)
Edema peripheral27 (27)
Pain5 (5)
Pyrexia36 (36)
Infections and infestations
Cellulitis9 (9)
Oral candidiasis6 (6)
Pneumonia20 (20)
Sinusitis6 (6)
Staphylococcal bacteremia8 (8)
Tooth abscess5 (5)
Upper respiratory tract infection10 (10)
Urinary tract infection7 (7)
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications
Contusion9 (9)
Investigations
Blood bilirubin increased6 (6)
Breath sounds abnormal5 (5)
Weight decreased9 (9)
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
Anorexia23 (23)
Decreased appetite8 (8)
Dehydration8 (8)
Hyperglycemia6 (6)
Hypokalemia12 (12)
Hypomagnesemia5 (5)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Arthralgia17 (17)
Back pain18 (18)
Bone pain6 (6)
Muscle spasms7 (7)
Muscular weakness5 (5)
Musculoskeletal pain5 (5)
Myalgia9 (9)
Pain in extremity18 (18)
Nervous system disorders
Dizziness21 (21)
Headache23 (23)
Psychiatric disorders
Anxiety9 (9)
Confusional state8 (8)
Depression9 (9)
Insomnia14 (14)
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Cough27 (27)
Dyspnea29 (29)
Epistaxis13 (13)
Pharyngolaryngeal pain8 (8)
Pleural effusion5 (5)
Sinus congestion5 (5)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Dry skin8 (8)
Ecchymosis9 (9)
Erythema5 (5)
Night sweats5 (5)
Petechiae12 (12)
Pruritus9 (9)
Rash11 (11)
Skin lesion5 (5)
Vascular disorders
Hypertension6 (6)
Hypotension11 (11)
1 In this single arm study, investigators reported adverse events based on clinical signs and symptoms rather than predefined laboratory abnormalities. Thus, not all laboratory abnormalities were recorded as adverse events.

No overall difference in safety was detected between patients > 65 years of age and younger patients in these MDS trials. No significant differences in safety were detected between males and females. Patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction were not studied. Insufficient numbers of non-White patients were available to draw conclusions in these clinical trials.

Serious adverse reactions that occurred in patients receiving DACOGEN not previously reported in Tables 1 and 2 include:

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of DACOGEN. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

  • Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis)
  • Differentiation syndrome

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Drug interaction studies with decitabine have not been conducted. In vitro studies in human liver microsomes suggest that decitabine is unlikely to inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 enzymes. In vitro metabolism studies have suggested that decitabine is not a substrate for human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. As plasma protein binding of decitabine is negligible (<1%), interactions due to displacement of more highly protein bound drugs from plasma proteins are not expected.

Warnings & Precautions

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Myelosuppression

Fatal and serious myelosuppression occurs in DACOGEN-treated patients. Myelosuppression (anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia) is the most frequent cause of DACOGEN dose reduction, delay, and discontinuation. Neutropenia of any grade occurred in 90% of DACOGEN-treated patients with grade 3 or 4 occurring in 87% of patients. Grade 3 or 4 febrile neutropenia occurred in 23% of patients. Thrombocytopenia of any grade occurred in 89% of patients with grade 3 or 4 occurring in 85% of patients. Anemia of any grade occurred in 82% of patients. Perform complete blood count with platelets at baseline, prior to each cycle, and as needed to monitor response and toxicity. Manage toxicity using dose- delay, dose-reduction, growth factors, and anti-infective therapies as needed [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Myelosuppression and worsening neutropenia may occur more frequently in the first or second treatment cycles and may not necessarily indicate progression of underlying MDS.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Based on findings from human data, animal studies and its mechanism of action, DACOGEN can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Nonclinical Toxicology]. In preclinical studies in mice and rats, decitabine caused adverse developmental outcomes including embryo-fetal lethality and malformations. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception while receiving DACOGEN and for 6 months following the last dose. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception while receiving treatment with DACOGEN and for 3 months following the last dose [see Use In Specific Populations].

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies with decitabine have not been conducted.

The mutagenic potential of decitabine was tested in several in vitro and in vivo systems. Decitabine increased mutation frequency in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, and mutations were produced in an Escherichia coli lac-I transgene in colonic DNA of decitabine-treated mice. Decitabine caused chromosomal rearrangements in larvae of fruit flies.

In male mice given IP injections of 0.15, 0.3 or 0.45 mg/m² decitabine (approximately 0.3% to 1% the recommended clinical dose) 3 times a week for 7 weeks, decitabine did not affect survival, body weight gain or hematological measures (hemoglobin and white blood cell counts). Testes weights were reduced, abnormal histology was observed and significant decreases in sperm number were found at doses ≥ 0.3 mg/m². In females mated to males dosed with ≥ 0.3 mg/m² decitabine, pregnancy rate was reduced and preimplantation loss was significantly increased.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Based on findings from human data, animal studies, and the mechanism of action, DACOGEN can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Nonclinical Toxicology]. Limited published data on DACOGEN use throughout the first trimester during pregnancy describe adverse developmental outcomes including major birth defects (structural abnormalities). In animal reproduction studies, administration of decitabine to pregnant mice and rats during organogenesis caused adverse developmental outcomes including malformations and embryo-fetal lethality starting at doses approximately 7% of the recommended human dose on a mg/m² basis (see Data). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the U.S. general population is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20% of clinically recognized pregnancies, respectively.

Data

Human Data

A single published case report of decitabine pregnancy exposure in a 39-year old woman with a hematologic malignancy described multiple structural abnormalities after 6 cycles of therapy in the 18th week of gestation. These abnormalities included holoprosencephaly, absence of nasal bone, mid-facial deformity, cleft lip and palate, polydactyly and rocker-bottom feet. The pregnancy was terminated.

Animal Data

In utero exposure to decitabine causes temporal related defects in the rat and/or mouse, which include growth suppression, exencephaly, defective skull bones, rib/sternabrae defects, phocomelia, digit defects, micrognathia, gastroschisis, micromelia. Decitabine inhibits proliferation and increases apoptosis of neural progenitor cells of the fetal CNS and induces palatal clefting in the developing murine fetus. Studies in mice have also shown that decitabine administration during osteoblastogenesis (day 10 of gestation) induces bone loss in offspring.

In mice exposed to single IP (intraperitoneal) injections (0, 0.9 and 3.0 mg/m², approximately 2% and 7% of the recommended daily clinical dose, respectively) over gestation days 8, 9, 10 or 11, no maternal toxicity was observed but reduced fetal survival was observed after treatment at 3 mg/m² and decreased fetal weight was observed at both dose levels. The 3 mg/m² dose elicited characteristic fetal defects for each treatment day, including supernumerary ribs (both dose levels), fused vertebrae and ribs, cleft palate, vertebral defects, hind-limb defects and digital defects of fore- and hind-limbs.

In rats given a single IP injection of 2.4, 3.6 or 6 mg/m² (approximately 5, 8, or 13% the daily recommended clinical dose, respectively) on gestation days 9-12, no maternal toxicity was observed. No live fetuses were seen at any dose when decitabine was injected on gestation day 9. A significant decrease in fetal survival and reduced fetal weight at doses greater than 3.6 mg/m² was seen when decitabine was given on gestation day 10. Increased incidences of vertebral and rib anomalies were seen at all dose levels, and induction of exophthalmia, exencephaly, and cleft palate were observed at 6.0 mg/m². Increased incidence of foredigit defects was seen in fetuses at doses greater than 3.6 mg/m². Reduced size and ossification of long bones of the fore-limb and hind-limb were noted at 6.0 mg/m².

The effect of decitabine on postnatal development and reproductive capacity was evaluated in mice administered a single 3 mg/m² IP injection (approximately 7% the recommended daily clinical dose) on day 10 of gestation. Body weights of males and females exposed in utero to decitabine were significantly reduced relative to controls at all postnatal time points. No consistent effect on fertility was seen when female mice exposed in utero were mated to untreated males. Untreated females mated to males exposed in utero showed decreased fertility at 3 and 5 months of age (36% and 0% pregnancy rate, respectively). Follow up studies indicated that treatment of pregnant mice with decitabine on gestation day 10 was associated with a reduced pregnancy rate resulting from effects on sperm production in the F1-generation.

Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no data on the presence of decitabine or its metabolites in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from DACOGEN in a breastfed child, advise women not to breastfeed while receiving DACOGEN and for at least 2 weeks after the last dose.

Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential

Pregnancy Testing

Conduct pregnancy testing of females of reproductive potential prior to initiating DACOGEN.

Contraception

Females

DACOGEN can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women [see Use In Specific Populations]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception while receiving DACOGEN and for 6 months following the last dose.

Males

Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception while receiving treatment with DACOGEN and for 3 months following the last dose [see Nonclinical Toxicology].

Infertility

Based on findings of decitabine in animals, male fertility may be compromised by treatment with DACOGEN. The reversibility of the effect on fertility is unknown [see Nonclinical Toxicology].

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of DACOGEN in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of patients exposed to DACOGEN in the controlled clinical trial, 61 of 83 patients were age 65 and over, while 21 of 83 patients were age 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Overdosage & Contraindications
ac

OVERDOSE

There is no known antidote for overdosage with DACOGEN. Higher doses are associated with increased myelosuppression including prolonged neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Standard supportive measures should be taken in the event of an overdose.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

None

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism Of Action

Decitabine is believed to exert its antineoplastic effects after phosphorylation and direct incorporation into DNA and inhibition of DNA methyltransferase, causing hypomethylation of DNA and cellular differentiation or apoptosis. Decitabine inhibits DNA methylation in vitro, which is achieved at concentrations that do not cause major suppression of DNA synthesis. Decitabine-induced hypomethylation in neoplastic cells may restore normal function to genes that are critical for the control of cellular differentiation and proliferation. In rapidly dividing cells, the cytotoxicity of decitabine may also be attributed to the formation of covalent adducts between DNA methyltransferase and decitabine incorporated into DNA. Non-proliferating cells are relatively insensitive to decitabine.

Pharmacodynamics

Decitabine has been shown to induce hypomethylation both in vitro and in vivo. However, there have been no studies of decitabine-induced hypomethylation and pharmacokinetic parameters.

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were evaluated in patients. Eleven patients received 20 mg/m² infused over 1 hour intravenously (treatment Option 2). Fourteen patients received 15 mg/m² infused over 3 hours intravenously (treatment Option 1). PK parameters are shown in Table 3. Plasma concentration-time profiles after discontinuation of infusion showed a biexponential decline. The clearance (CL) of decitabine was higher following treatment Option 2. Upon repeat doses, there was no systemic accumulation of decitabine or any changes in PK parameters. Population PK analysis (N=35) showed that the cumulative AUC per cycle for treatment Option 2 was 2.3-fold lower than the cumulative AUC per cycle following treatment Option 1.

Table 3 : Mean (CV% or 95% CI) Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Decitabine

DoseCmax (ng/mL)AUC 0-INF (ng•h/mL)T½ (h)CL (L/h/m²)AUC Cumulative*** (ng•h/mL)
15 mg/m² 3-hr infusion every 8 hours for 3 days (Option 1)*73.8 (66)163 (62)0.62 (49)125 (53)1332 (1010-1730)
20 mg/m² 1-hr infusion daily for 5 days (Option 2)**147 (49)115 (43)0.54 (43)210 (47)570 (470-700)
*N=14, **N=11, ***N=35 Cumulative AUC per cycle

The exact route of elimination and metabolic fate of decitabine is not known in humans. One of the pathways of elimination of decitabine appears to be deamination by cytidine deaminase found principally in the liver but also in granulocytes, intestinal epithelium and whole blood.

Specific Populations

Patients With Renal Impairment

There are no data on the use of DACOGEN in patients with renal impairment.

Patients With Hepatic Impairment

There are no data on the use of DACOGEN in patients with hepatic impairment.

Clinical Studies

Controlled Trial In Myelodysplastic Syndrome

A randomized open-label, multicenter, controlled trial evaluated 170 adult patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) meeting French-American-British (FAB) classification criteria and International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) High-Risk, Intermediate-2 and Intermediate-1 prognostic scores. Eighty-nine patients were randomized to DACOGEN therapy plus supportive care (only 83 received DACOGEN), and 81 to Supportive Care (SC) alone. Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) were not intended to be included. Of the 170 patients included in the study, independent review (adjudicated diagnosis) found that 12 patients (9 in the DACOGEN arm and 3 in the SC arm) had the diagnosis of AML at baseline. Baseline demographics and other patient characteristics in the Intent-to-Treat (ITT) population were similar between the 2 groups, as shown in Table 4.

Table 4 : Baseline Demographics and Other Patient Characteristics (ITT)

Demographic or Other Patient CharacteristicDACOGEN
N = 89
Supportive Care
N = 81
Age (years)
Mean (±SD)69±1067±10
Median (IQR)70 (65-76)70 (62-74)
(Range: min-max)(31-85)(30-82)
Sex n (%)
Male59 (66)57 (70)
Female30 (34)24 (30)
Race n (%)
White83 (93)76 (94)
Black4 (4)2 (2)
Other2 (2)3 (4)
Weeks Since MDS Diagnosis
Mean (±SD)86±13177±119
Median (IQR)29 (10-87)35 (7-98)
(Range: min-max)(2-667)(2-865)
Previous MDS Therapy n (%)
Yes27 (30)19 (23)
No62 (70)62 (77)
RBC Transfusion Status n (%)
Independent23 (26)27 (33)
Dependent66 (74)54 (67)
Platelet Transfusion Status n (%)
Independent69 (78)62 (77)
Dependent20 (22)19 (23)
IPSS Classification n (%)
Intermediate-128 (31)24 (30)
Intermediate-238 (43)36 (44)
High Risk23 (26)21 (26)
FAB Classification n (%)
RA12 (13)12 (15)
RARS7 (8)4 (5)
RAEB47 (53)43 (53)
RAEB-t17 (19)14 (17)
CMML6 (7)8 (10)

Patients randomized to the DACOGEN arm received DACOGEN intravenously infused at a dose of 15 mg/m² over a 3-hour period, every 8 hours, for 3 consecutive days. This cycle was repeated every 6 weeks, depending on the patient’s clinical response and toxicity. Supportive care consisted of blood and blood product transfusions, prophylactic antibiotics, and hematopoietic growth factors. The study endpoints were overall response rate (complete response + partial response) and time to AML or death. Responses were classified using the MDS International Working Group (IWG) criteria; patients were required to be RBC and platelet transfusion independent during the time of response. Response criteria are given in Table 5.

Table 5 : Response Criteria for the Controlled Trial in MDS*

Complete Response (CR) ≥ 8 weeksBone MarrowOn repeat aspirates:
  • < 5% myeloblasts
  • No dysplastic changes
Peripheral BloodIn all samples during response:
  • Hgb > 11 g/dL (no transfusions or erythropoietin
  • ANC ≥ 1500/μL (no growth factor)
  • Platelets ≥ 100,000/μL (no thrombopoietic agent)
  • No blasts and no dysplasia
Partial Response (PR) ≥ 8 weeksBone MarrowOn repeat aspirates:
  • ≥ 50% decrease in blasts over pretreatment values OR
  • Improvement to a less advanced MDS FAB classification
Peripheral BloodSame as for CR
*Cheson BD, Bennett JM, et al. Report of an International Working Group to Standardize Response Criteria for MDS. Blood. 2000; 96:3671-3674.

The overall response rate (CR+PR) in the ITT population was 17% in DACOGEN-treated patients and 0% in the SC group (p<0.001) (see Table 6). The overall response rate was 21% (12/56) in DACOGEN-treated patients considered evaluable for response (i.e., those patients with pathologically confirmed MDS at baseline who received at least 2 cycles of treatment). The median duration of response (range) for patients who responded to DACOGEN was 288 days (116-388) and median time to response (range) was 93 days (55-272). All but one of the DACOGEN-treated patients who responded did so by the fourth cycle. Benefit was seen in an additional 13% of DACOGEN-treated patients who had hematologic improvement, defined as a response less than PR lasting at least 8 weeks, compared to 7% of SC patients. DACOGEN treatment did not significantly delay the median time to AML or death versus supportive care.

Table 6 : Analysis of Response (ITT)

ParameterDACOGEN
N=89
Supportive Care
N=81
Overall Response Rate (CR+PR)†15 (17%)**0 (0%)
Complete Response (CR)8 (9%)0 (0%)
Partial Response (PR)7 (8%)0 (0%)
Duration of Response
Median time to (CR+PR) response - Days (range)93 (55-272)NA
Median Duration of (CR+PR) response - Days (range)288 (116-388)NA
**p-value <0.001 from two-sided Fisher's Exact Test comparing DACOGEN vs. Supportive Care.
† In the statistical analysis plan, a p-value of ≤ 0.024 was required to achieve statistical significance.

All patients with a CR or PR were RBC and platelet transfusion independent in the absence of growth factors.

Responses occurred in patients with an adjudicated baseline diagnosis of AML.

Single-arm Studies In Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Three open-label, single-arm, multicenter studies were conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of DACOGEN in MDS patients with any of the FAB subtypes. In one study conducted in North America, 99 patients with IPSS Intermediate-1, Intermediate-2, or high-risk prognostic scores received DACOGEN 20 mg/m² as an intravenous infusion over 1-hour daily, on days 1-5 of week 1 every 4 weeks (1 cycle). The results were consistent with the results of the controlled trial and are summarized in Table 8.

Table 7 : Baseline Demographics and Other Patient Characteristics (ITT)

Demographic or Other Patient CharacteristicDACOGEN N = 99
Age (years)
Mean (±SD)71±9
Median (Range: min-max)72 (34-87)
Sex n (%)
Male71(72)
Female28 (28)
Race n (%)
White86 (87)
Black6 (6)
Asian4 (4)
Other3 (3)
Days From MDS Diagnosis to First Dose
Mean (±SD)444±626
Median (Range: min-max)154 (7-3079)
Previous MDS Therapy n (%)
Yes27(27)
No72 (73)
RBC Transfusion Status n (%)
Independent33 (33)
Dependent66 (67)
Platelet Transfusion Status n (%)
Independent84 (85)
Dependent15 (15)
IPSS Classification n (%)
Low Risk1 (1)
Intermediate-152 (53)
Intermediate-223 (23)
High Risk23 (23)
FAB Classification n (%)
RA20 (20)
RARS17 (17)
RAEB45 (45)
RAEB-t6 (6)
CMML11 (11)

Table 8 : Analysis of Response (ITT)*

ParameterDACOGEN
N=99
Overall Response Rate (CR+PR)16 (16%)
Complete Response (CR)15 (15%)
Partial Response (PR)1 (1%)
Duration of Response
Median time to (CR+PR) response - Days (range)162 (50-267)
Median Duration of (CR+PR) response - Days (range)443 (72-722†)
* Cheson BD, Bennett JM, et al. Report of an International Working Group to Standardize Response Criteria for MDS. Blood. 2000; 96:3671-3674.
† indicates censored observation

Medication Guide
e

PATIENT INFORMATION

Myelosuppression

Advise patients of the risk of myelosuppression and to report any symptoms of infection, anemia, or bleeding to their healthcare provider as soon as possible. Advise patients for the need for laboratory monitoring [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to inform their healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].

Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception while receiving DACOGEN and for 6 months after last dose [see Use In Specific Populations].

Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception while receiving treatment with DACOGEN and for 3 months after the last dose [see Use In Specific Populations and Nonclinical Toxicology].

Lactation

Advise women to avoid breastfeeding while receiving DACOGEN and for at least 2 weeks after the last dose [see Use In Specific Populations].

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