(oxaprozin potassium) 600 mg Tablets
RISK OF SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL EVENTS
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in the treatment and may increase with duration of use [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- DAYPRO ALTATM is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
- NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious GI events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
DAYPRO ALTA (oxaprozin potassium) tablet is a member of the propionic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), available as tablets of 600 mg (678 mg of oxaprozin potassium equivalent to 600 mg of oxaprozin) for oral administration. The chemical name for oxaprozin potassium is 4,5-diphenyl-2-oxazolepropionic acid, potassium salt. The molecular weight is 331. Its molecular formula is C18H14NO3K, and it has the following chemical structure.
It has the following structural formula:
Oxaprozin potassium is a white to off white powder with a melting point of 215°C. It is slightly soluble in alcohol and very soluble in water. The PK in water is 9.7.
The inactive ingredients in DAYPRO ALTA include: microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, pregelatinized corn starch, stearic acid, colloidal silicon dioxide, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue #1 Aluminum Lake, and pharmaceutical glaze. Daypro ALTA 600 mg tablets are blue, capsule-shaped, film-coated, with Searle 1391 printed on one side.
DAYPRO ALTA is indicated:
- For relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis
- For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
General Dosing Instructions
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of DAYPRO ALTA and other treatment options before deciding to use DAYPRO ALTA. Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals.
After observing the response to initial therapy with DAYPRO ALTA, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.
Divided doses may be tried in patients unable to tolerate single doses. For osteoarthritis patients of low body weight or with milder disease, an initial dose of one 600 mg tablet once a day may be appropriate. The maximum total daily dose is 1200 mg.
For OA, the dosage is 1200 mg (two 600 mg tablets) given orally once a day.
For RA, the dosage is 1200 mg (two 600 mg tablets) given orally once a day.
Dosage Forms And Strengths
DAYPRO ALTA (oxaprozin potassium) tablets: 600 mg tablets, blue, capsule-shaped, film-coated, with Searle 1391 printed on one side.
Storage And Handling
DAYPRO ALTA 600 mg tablets are blue, capsule-shaped, film-coated, with Searle 1391 printed on one side.
|0025-5500-01||bottle of 100|
|0025-5500-03||bottle of 500|
|0025-5500-02||carton of 100 unit dose|
Store at room temperature 20ºC to 25ºC (68ºF to 77ºF); excursions permitted between 15ºC to 30ºC (59ºF to 86ºF) (see USP Controlled Room Temperature). Dispense in a tightly-closed container. Protect from moisture.
Manufacture by: Pfizer Inc., 235 East 42nd Street, New York, NY, 10017. Revised May 2016
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hepatotoxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypertension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Heart Failure and Edema [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Anaphylactic Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Serious Skin Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hematologic Toxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In patients taking DAYPRO ALTA (oxaprozin potassium tablets), oxaprozin, or other NSAIDs , the following are the most frequently reported adverse experiences occurring in approximately 1-10% of patients [see Clinical Studies]:
Gastrointestinal experiences including: abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gross gastrointestinal bleeding/perforation, GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal), heartburn, nausea, vomiting.
Non-gastrointestinal experiences including: abnormal renal function, anemia, confusion, depression, disturbance of sleep, dizziness, dysuria or frequency, edema, elevated liver enzymes, headaches, increased bleeding time, pruritus, rashes, sedation, somnolence, tinnitus.
Additional Adverse Experiences Reported In Less Than 1% Of Patients:
Body as a whole: anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death, fever, infection, sepsis, serum sickness.
Digestive system: alteration in taste, dry mouth, eructation, esophagitis, gastritis, glossitis, hematemesis, hemorrhoidal or rectal bleeding, hepatitis, jaundice, liver failure, pancreatitis, stomatitis.
Metabolic and nutritional: hyperglycemia, weight changes.
Skin and appendages: alopecia. angioedema, increased sweating, photosensitivity, pseudoporphyria, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’ssyndrome), urticaria.
Special senses: blurred vision, conjunctivitis, hearing impairment.
Urogenital system: acute interstitial nephritis, acute renal failure, cystitis, decreased menstrual flow, hematuria, increase in menstrual flow, nephrotic syndrome, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal insufficiency.
See Table 1 for clinically significant drug interactions with oxaprozin potassium [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Table 1: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Oxaprozin Potassium
|Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for signs of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|Clinical Impact:||Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. DAYPRO ALTA is not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection.|
|ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers|
|Clinical Impact:||Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of oxaprozin potassium with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.|
|Clinical Impact:||NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction) because NSAID administration may result in increased plasma levels of methotrexate, especially in patients receiving high doses of methotrexate.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.|
|NSAIDs and Salicylates|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of oxaprozin potassium with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|Intervention:||The concomitant use of oxaprozin potassium with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).|
During concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity.
NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed.
In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of corticosteroids with DAYPRO ALTA may increase the risk of GI ulceration or bleeding.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA with corticosteroids for signs of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|Clinical Impact:||While oxaprozin does alter the pharmacokinetics of glyburide, coadministration of oxaprozin to type II non-insulin dependent diabetic patients did not affect the area under the glucose concentration curve nor the magnitude or duration of control.|
|Intervention||During concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA and glyburide, monitor patients’ blood glucose in the beginning phase of cotherapy.|
Laboratory Test Interactions
False-positive urine immunoassay screening tests for benzodiazepines have been reported in patients taking oxaprozin. This is due to lack of specificity of the screening tests. False-positive test results may be expected for several days following discontinuation of oxaprozin therapy. Confirmatory tests, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, will distinguish oxaprozin from benzodiazepines.
Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as oxaprozin, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10–14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG.
Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.
Avoid the use of DAYPRO ALTA in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If DAYPRO ALTA is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
NSAIDs, including DAYPRO ALTA cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occurred in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2%-4% of patients treated for one year. However, even short-term NSAID therapy is not without risk.
Risk Factors For GI Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding who used NSAIDs had a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients without these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include longer duration of NSAID therapy; concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, aspirin, anticoagulants, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); smoking; use of alcohol; older age; and poor general health status. Most postmarketing reports of fatal GI events occurred in elderly or debilitated patients. Additionally, patients with advanced liver disease and/or coagulopathy are at increased risk for GI bleeding.
Strategies To Minimize The GI Risks In NSAID-Treated Patients:
- Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration.
- Avoid administration of more than one NSAID at a time.
- Avoid use in patients at higher risk unless benefits are expected to outweigh the increased risk of bleeding. For such patients, as well as those with active GI bleeding, consider alternate therapies other than NSAIDs.
- Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy.
- If a serious GI adverse event is suspected, promptly initiate evaluation and treatment, and discontinue DAYPRO ALTA until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out.
- In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, monitor patients more closely for evidence of GI bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Elevations of ALT or AST (three or more times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have been reported in approximately 1% of NSAID-treated patients in clinical trials. In addition, rare, sometimes fatal, cases of severe hepatic injury, including fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported.
Elevations of ALT or AST (less than three times ULN) may occur in up to 15% of patients treated with NSAIDs including oxaprozin potassium.
Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms). If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue DAYPRO ALTA immediately, and perform a clinical evaluation of the patient.
NSAIDs, including DAYPRO ALTA, can lead to new onset of hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Monitor blood pressure (BP) during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Heart Failure And Edema
The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.
Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of oxaprozin may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions (e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Avoid the use of DAYPRO ALTA in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If DAYPRO ALTA is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure
Renal Toxicity And Hyperkalemia
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors or ARBs, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of DAYPRO ALTA in patients with advanced renal disease. The renal effects of DAYPRO ALTA may hasten the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with preexisting renal disease.
Correct volume status in dehydrated or hypovolemic patients prior to initiating DAYPRO ALTA. Monitor renal function in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, heart failure, dehydration, or hypovolemia during use of DAYPRO ALTA [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Avoid the use of DAYPRO ALTA in patients with advanced renal disease unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening renal function. If DAYPRO ALTA is used in patients with advanced renal disease, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.
Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of NSAIDs even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemic-hypoaldosteronism state.
Oxaprozin potassium has been associated with anaphylactic reactions in patients with and without known hypersensitivity to oxaprozin and in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Seek emergency help if an anaphylactic reaction occurs.
Exacerbation Of Asthma Related To Aspirin Sensitivity
A subpopulation of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma which may include chronic rhinosinusitis complicated by nasal polyps; severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm; and/or intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs. Because cross-reactivity between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, DAYPRO ALTA is contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. When DAYPRO ALTA is used in patients with preexisting asthma (without known aspirin sensitivity), monitor patients for changes in the signs and symptoms of asthma.
Serious Skin Reactions
NSAIDs, including oxaprozin potassium, can cause serious skin adverse reactions such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions, and to discontinue the use of DAYPRO ALTA at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. DAYPRO ALTA is contraindicated in patients with previous serious skin reactions to NSAIDs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Premature Closure Of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus
Oxaprozin may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including DAYPRO ALTA, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester) [see Use In Specific Populations].
Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with DAYPRO ALTA has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.
NSAIDs, including DAYPRO ALTA, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders or concomitant use of warfarin, other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Masking Of Inflammation And Fever
The pharmacological activity of DAYPRO ALTA in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.
Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a CBC and a chemistry profile periodically [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Inform patients, families, or their caregivers of the following information before initiating therapy with DAYPRO ALTA and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy.
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
Advise patients to report symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis to their health care provider. In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, inform patients of the increased risk for and the signs and symptoms of GI bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, diarrhea, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop DAYPRO ALTA and seek immediate medical therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Heart Failure And Edema
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). Instruct patients to seek immediate emergency help if these occur [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Serious Skin Reactions
Advise patients to stop DAYPRO ALTA immediately if they develop any type of rash and to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise females of reproductive potential who desire pregnancy that NSAIDs, including DAYPRO ALTA, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation [see Use In Specific Populations].
Inform pregnant women to avoid use of DAYPRO ALTA and other NSAIDs starting at 30 weeks gestation because of the risk of the premature closing of the fetal ductus arteriosus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
Avoid Concomitant Use Of NSAIDs
Inform patients that the concomitant use of DAYPRO ALTA with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in “over the counter” medications for treatment of colds, fever, or insomnia.
Use Of NSAIDS And Low-Dose Aspirin
Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with DAYPRO ALTA until they talk to their healthcare provider [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice, oxaprozin administration for 2 years was associated with the exacerbation of liver neoplasms (hepatic adenomas and carcinomas) in male CD mice, but not in female CD mice or rats treated with up to 216 mg/kg via the diet (1.2-times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 1800 mg based on body surface. The significance of this species-specific finding to man is unknown.
Oxaprozin did not genotoxic in the Ames test, forward mutation in yeast and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, DNA repair testing in CHO cells, micronucleus testing in mouse bone marrow, chromosomal aberration testing in human lymphocytes, or cell transformation testing in mouse fibroblast.
Impairment Of Fertility
Oxaprozin administration was not associated with impairment of fertility in male and female rats at oral doses up to 200 mg/kg/day (1.1-times the maximum recommended human daily dose [MRHD] of 1800 mg based on body surface area comparison). However, testicular degeneration was observed in beagle dogs treated with 37.5 mg/kg/day (0.7-times the MRHD based on body surface area) of oxaprozin for 42 days or 6 months, a finding not confirmed in other species. The clinical relevance of this finding is not known.
Use In Specific Populations
Use of NSAIDs, including DAYPRO ALTA, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including DAYPRO ALTA, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester).
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of DAYPRO ALTA in pregnant women.
Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In the general U.S. population, all clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2-4% for major malformations, and 15-20% for pregnancy loss. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of oxaprozin to pregnant rabbits at doses 0.1-times the maximum daily human dose (based on body surface area) resulted in evidence of teratogenicity; however, oral administration of oxaprozin to pregnant mice and rats during organogenesis at doses equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose revealed no evidence of teratogenicity or embryotoxicity. In rat reproduction studies in which oxaprozin was administered through late gestation failure to deliver and a reduction in live birth index was observed at doses equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as oxaprozin potassium, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss.
Labor or Delivery
There are no studies on the effects of DAYPRO ALTA during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDS, including oxaprozin potassium, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.
Teratology studies with oxaprozin potassium were performed in mice, rats, and rabbits in pregnant animals administered oral doses up to 200 mg/kg/day, 200 mg/kg/day, and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. In rabbits, malformations were observed at doses greater than or equal to 7.5 mg/kg/day of oxaprozin (0.1-times the maximum recommended human daily dose [MRHD] of 1800 mg based on body surface area). However, in mice and rats, no drug-related developmental abnormalities or embryo-fetal toxicity were observed at doses up to 50 and 200 mg/kg/day of oxaprozin, respectively (0.1-times and 1.1-times the MRHD based on body surface area, respectively).
In fertility/reproductive studies in rats, 200 mg/kg/day oxaprozin was orally administered to female rats for 14 days prior to mating through lactation day (LD) 2, or from gestation day (GD) 15 through LD 2 and the females were mated with males treated with 200 mg/kg/day oxaprozin for 60 days prior to mating. Oxaprozin administration resulted in failure to deliver and a reduction in live birth index at 200 mg/kg/day (1.1-times the MRHD based on body surface area comparison).
Lactation studies have not been conducted with Daypro Alta. It is not known whether Daypro Alta is excreted in human milk. Daypro Alta should be administered to lactating women only if clearly indicated. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for DAYPRO ALTA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the DAYPRO ALTA or from the underlying maternal condition.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including DAYPRO ALTA, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin-mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including DAYPRO ALTA, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.
Testicular degeneration was observed in beagle dogs treated with 37.5 mg/kg/day (0.7-times the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area) of oxaprozin for 42 days or 6 months [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
DAYPRO ALTA has not been investigated in patients <16 years of age. Safety and effectiveness of DAYPRO ALTA in pediatric patients have not been established.
Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Age was not shown to have an effect on the pharmacokinetics of DAYPRO ALTA following 600, 1200 and 1800 rug doses or on the incidence of adverse reactions reported [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. In a controlled 6-month clinical trial of 803 patients (322 of whom received DAYPRO ALTA), about 40% of whom were elderly, there was basically no difference detected in terms of the total number of subjects reporting adverse events with respect to age. As with any NSAID, the elderly are likely to tolerate adverse reactions less well than younger patients. Caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older), and extra care should be taken when choosing a dose.
Oxaprozin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to DAYPRO ALTA may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10-times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.
For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-2221222).
DAYPRO ALTA is contraindicated in the following patients:
- Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to oxaprozin potassium or any components of the drug product [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Mechanism Of Action
DAYPRO ALTA, the potassium salt of oxaprozin, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which dissociates into the active moiety oxaprozin in vivo. Oxaprozin has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.
Oxaprozin is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. Oxaprozin concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Because oxaprozin potassium is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.
General Pharmacokinetic Characteristics
In dose proportionality studies utilizing 600, 1200 and 1800 mg doses, the pharmacokinetics of oxaprozin in healthy subjects demonstrated nonlinear kinetics of both the total and unbound drug in opposite directions, i.e., dose exposure related increase in the clearance of total drug and decrease in the clearance of the unbound drug. Concentration dependent changes in the protein binding also resulted in changes in the oxaprozin volume of distribution, which increased for the total drug but decreased for the unbound drug. The pharmacokinetic parameters of oxaprozin in healthy subjects receiving a single dose or multiple once-daily doses of 1200 mg are presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Oxaprozin Pharmacokinetic Parameters with DAYPRO ALTA Dosing (1200 mg) [Mean (%CV)]
|Healthy Adults (18-42 years; N=12-24)|
|Total Drug||Unbound Drug|
|Tmax (hr)||1.67 (65)||2.13 (64)||1.71 (63)||1.59 (38)|
|Oral Clearance (L/hr/70 kg)||0.125 (15)||0.289 (17)||123 (20)||86.7 (33)|
|Apparent Volume of Distribution at Steady State (Vd/F; L/70 kg)||10.14 (11)||16.24 (38)||7741 (18)||2067 (38)|
|Elimination Half-life (hr)||57.0 (15)||38.0 (29)||44.8 (23)||16.4 (11)|
|Tmax = time to reach the maximum plasma concentration of oxaprozin.|
After oral administration, DAYPRO ALTA dissociates into free oxaprozin which is 95% absorbed. Peak plasma concentration occurs at about 1 hour and 45 minutes after single dose administration (see Table 2). When DAYPRO ALTA is administered with food, the peak concentration of oxaprozin is delayed by about 45 minutes, but the extent of absorption is unchanged. Antacids do not significantly affect the extent and rate of oxaprozin absorption.
The apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) of total oxaprozin is approximately 10-16 L/70 kg. Oxaprozin potassium is 99% bound to plasma proteins, primarily to albumin. At therapeutic drug concentrations, the plasma protein binding of oxaprozin is saturable, resulting in a higher proportion of the free drug as the total drug concentration is increased. With increases in single doses or following repetitive once-daily dosing, the apparent volume of distribution and clearance of total drug increased, while that of unbound drug decreased due to the effects of nonlinear protein binding. Oxaprozin is expected to be excreted in human milk based on its physical-chemical properties, however, the amount of oxaprozin excreted in breast milk has not been evaluated.
Several oxaprozin metabolites excreted in human urine or feces are considered not to have significant pharmacologic activity. Oxaprozin is primarily metabolized by the liver, by both microsomal oxidation (65%) and glucuronic acid conjugation (35%). Ester and ether glucuronides are the major conjugated metabolites of oxaprozin. A small amount (<5%) of active phenolic metabolites is produced, but the contribution to overall activity is limited.
Sixty-five percent (65%) of the dose is excreted into the urine and 35% in the feces as metabolites. Renal elimination of oxaprozin metabolites is a major pathway of elimination. Biliary excretion of unchanged oxaprozin is a minor pathway. After multiple doses of DAYPRO ALTA (1200mg QD), post-steady state mean elimination half-lives of total oxaprozin and protein unbound oxaprozin were 38.0 and 16.4 hrs, respectively (see Table 2).
Pediatric: DAYPRO ALTA has not been investigated in patients <16 years of age.
Geriatric: As with any NSAID, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older). No dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly for pharmacokinetic reasons, although many elderly may need a reduced dose due to low body weight or disorders associated with aging.
Gender: No differences in pharmacokinetic parameters have been observed between male and female subjects in studies of DAYPRO ALTA.
Race: Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been identified in studies of DAYPRO ALTA.
Hepatic Impairment: Approximately 95% of oxaprozin is metabolized by the liver. However, patients with well-compensated cirrhosis do not require reduced doses of oxaprozin as compared to patients with normal hepatic function. Nevertheless, monitor patients with severe hepatic dysfunction closely for adverse reactions.
Renal Impairment: Oxaprozin’s renal clearance decreased proportionally with creatinine clearance (CrCl), but since only about 5% of oxaprozin dose is excreted unchanged in the urine, the decrease in total body clearance becomes clinically important only in those subjects with highly decreased CrCl. Oxaprozin is not significantly removed from the blood in patients undergoing hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) due to its high protein binding. Oxaprozin plasma protein binding may decrease in patients with severe renal deficiency. Dosage adjustment may be necessary in patients with renal impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Cardiac Failure: Well-compensated cardiac failure does not affect the plasma protein binding or the pharmacokinetics of oxaprozin.
Drug Interaction Studies
ACE inhibitors (enalapril): Oxaprozin potassium has been shown to alter the pharmacokinetics of enalapril (significant decrease in dose-adjusted AUC0-24 and Cmax) and its active metabolite enalaprilat (significant increase in dose-adjusted AUC0-24) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Aspirin: When oxaprozin was administered with aspirin, the protein binding of oxaprozin was reduced, although the clearance of free oxaprozin was not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known. An in vitro study showed that oxaprozin significantly interfered with the anti-platelet activity of aspirin [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Beta-blockers (metoprolol): Subjects receiving 1200 mg DAYPRO once daily with 100 mg metoprolol twice daily exhibited statistically significant but transient increases in sitting and standing blood pressures after 14 days [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Glyburide: Oxaprozin altered the pharmacokinetics of glyburide; however, coadministration of oxaprozin to type II non-insulin dependent diabetic patients did not affect the area under the glucose concentration curve nor the magnitude or duration of control [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine): The total clearance of oxaprozin was reduced by 20% in subjects who concurrently received therapeutic doses of cimetidine or ranitidine; no other pharmacokinetic parameter was affected. A change of clearance of this magnitude lies within the range of normal variation and is unlikely to produce a clinically detectable difference in the outcome of therapy.
Lithium: Oxaprozin has produced an elevation in plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20% [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Other drugs: The coadministration of oxaprozin and antacids, acetaminophen, or conjugated estrogens resulted in no statistically significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters in single- and/or multiple-dose studies. The interaction of oxaprozin with cardiac glycosides has not been studied.
Osteoarthritis: DAYPRO ALTA 1200 mg once daily was evaluated for the relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis in a 6-month placebo-controlled study versus oxaprozin acid in over 300 patients. In this trial, treatment with DAYPRO ALTA resulted in improvement in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) osteoarthritis index, a composite of pain, stiffness, and functional measures in OA. DAYPRO ALTA demonstrated significant reduction in joint pain compared to placebo and was found to be comparable to 1200 mg once daily of oxaprozin acid.
With respect to GI events, DAYPRO ALTA appeared to be less well tolerated than oxaprozin acid in this study. The rates for symptomatic ulcers (2.2%) and nausea (13%) for DAYPRO ALTA treated patients were higher than the rates observed with oxaprozin acid (0% and 6%, respectively) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Rheumatoid arthritis: Oxaprozin, the active component of DAYPRO ALTA (oxaprozin potassium tablets), was evaluated for the relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in placebo and active controlled clinical trials in a total of 646 patients. Oxaprozin was given in single or divided daily doses of 600 to 1800 mg/day and was found to be comparable to 2600 to 3900 mg/day of aspirin.
PATIENT INFORMATIONMedication Guide for Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?
NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:
- Increased risk of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This risk may happen early in treatment and may increase:
- with increasing doses of NSAIDs
- with longer use of NSAIDs
- Increased risk of bleeding, ulcers, and tears (perforation) of the esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), stomach and intestines:
- anytime during use
- without warning symptoms
- that may cause death
- past history of stomach ulcers, or stomach or intestinal bleeding with use of NSAIDs
- taking medicines called “corticosteroids”, “anticoagulants”, “SSRIs” or “SNRIs”
- increasing doses of NSAIDs
- longer use of NSAIDs
- drinking alcohol
- older age
- poor health
- advanced liver disease
- bleeding problems
NSAIDs should only be used:
- exactly as prescribed
- at the lowest dose possible for your treatment
- for the shortest time needed
What are NSAIDs?
Who should not take NSAIDs?
Do not take NSAIDs:
- if you have had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAIDs.
- right before or after heart bypass surgery.
Before taking NSAIDS, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
- have liver or kidney problems
- have high blood pressure
- have asthma
- are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Talk to your healthcare provider if you are considering taking NSAIDs during pregnancy. You should not take NSAIDs after 29 weeks of pregnancy.
- are breastfeeding or plan to breast feed.
What are the possible side effects of NSAIDs?
NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:
See “What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?
- new or worse high blood pressure
- heart failure
- liver problems including liver failure
- kidney problems including kidney failure
- low red blood cells (anemia)
- life-threatening skin reactions
- life-threatening allergic reactions
- asthma attacks in people who have asthma
- bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine
- Other side effects of NSAIDs include: stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, gas, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness.
Get emergency help right away if you get any of the following symptoms:
- shortness of breath or trouble breathing
- chest pain
- weakness in one part or side of your body
- slurred speech
- swelling of the face or throat
Stop taking your NSAID and call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms:
- more tired or weaker than usual
- your skin or eyes look yellow
- indigestion or stomach pain
- flu-like symptoms
- vomit blood
- there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar
- unusual weight gain
- skin rash or blisters with fever
- swelling of the arms, legs, hands and feet
If you take too much of your NSAID, call your healthcare provider or get medical help right away.
These are not all the possible side effects of NSAIDs. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist about NSAIDs.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Other information about NSAIDs
- Aspirin is an NSAID but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines.
- Some NSAIDs are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days.
General information about the safe and effective use of NSAIDs
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use NSAIDs for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give NSAIDs to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.
If you would like more information about NSAIDs, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about NSAIDs that is written for health professionals.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.