Other Name(s):

American Dill, Aneth, Aneth Odorant, Anethi Fructus, Anethi Herba, Anethum graveolens, Anethum sowa, Dill Herb, Dill Oil, Dill Weed, Dillweed, Dilly, Eneldo, European Dill, Faux Anis, Fenouil Bâtard, Fenouil Puant, Huile d'Aneth, Indian Dill, Madhura, Peucedanum graveolens, Satahva, Shatpushpa, Sotapa, Sowa.


Dill is a plant that has a long history as a culinary spice. But it has also been used as a magic weapon and a medicine. During the Middle Ages, people used dill to defend against witchcraft and enchantments. More recently, people have used dill seeds and the parts of the plant that grow above the ground as medicine.

Dill is used for digestion problems including loss of appetite, intestinal gas (flatulence), liver problems, and gallbladder complaints. It is also used for urinary tract disorders including kidney disease and painful or difficult urination.

Other uses for dill include treatment of fever and colds, cough, bronchitis, hemorrhoids, infections, spasms, nerve pain, genital ulcers, menstrual cramps, and sleep disorders.

Dill seed is sometimes applied to the mouth and throat for pain and swelling (inflammation).

In foods, dill is used as a culinary spice.

In manufacturing, dill oil is used as a fragrance in cosmetics, soaps, and perfumes.

How does it work?

Some chemicals contained in dill seed might help relax muscles. Other chemicals might be able to fight bacteria and increase urine production like a “water pill.”


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • High cholesterol. Early research suggests that taking dill tablets by mouth for 6 weeks while following a cholesterol-lowering diet does not lower cholesterol or blood fats called triglycerides in people with high cholesterol and clogged heart arteries (coronary artery disease, CAD).
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Infections.
  • Digestive tract problems.
  • Urinary tract problems.
  • Spasms.
  • Intestinal gas (flatulence).
  • Sleep disorders.
  • Fever.
  • Colds.
  • Cough.
  • Bronchitis.
  • Liver problems.
  • Gallbladder problems.
  • Sore mouth and throat.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of dill for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Dill is LIKELY SAFE when consumed as a food. Dill is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth as a medicine.

When applied to the skin, dill can sometimes cause skin irritation. Fresh dill juice can also cause the skin to become extra sensitive to the sun. This might put you at greater risk for sunburns and skin cancer. Avoid sunlight. Wear sunblock and protective clothing outside, especially if you are light-skinned.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It's POSSIBLY UNSAFE to use dill as a medicine if you are pregnant. Dill seed can start menstruation and that might lead to a miscarriage.

There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking dill as a medicine if you are breast-feeding. It's best to stick to food amounts.

Allergy to plants in the carrot family: Dill may cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to plants in the carrot family. Some of these include asafoetida, caraway, celery, coriander, and fennel.

Diabetes: Dill extract might lower blood sugar in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully, if you have diabetes and use dill extract in amounts larger than the amounts normally found in food.

Surgery: Dill extract might lower blood sugar. There is concern that using dill extract might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking dill extract at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


LithiumInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Dill might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking dill might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Dill extract might lower blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking dill extract along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.


The appropriate dose of dill depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for dill. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Amer, A. and Mehlhorn, H. Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae). Parasitol.Res. 2006;99(4):466-472. View abstract.

Amer, A. and Mehlhorn, H. Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions. Parasitol.Res. 2006;99(4):473-477. View abstract.

Aycicek, H., Oguz, U., and Karci, K. Determination of total aerobic and indicator bacteria on some raw eaten vegetables from wholesalers in Ankara, Turkey. Int.J Hyg.Environ.Health 2006;209(2):197-201. View abstract.

Bahramikia, S. and Yazdanparast, R. Efficacy of different fractions of Anethum graveolens leaves on serum lipoproteins and serum and liver oxidative status in experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemic rat models. Am.J Chin Med. 2009;37(4):685-699. View abstract.

Baumgartner, A., Grand, M., Liniger, M., and Iversen, C. Detection and frequency of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) in different categories of ready-to-eat foods other than infant formula. Int.J Food Microbiol. 12-31-2009;136(2):189-192. View abstract.

Bonnlander, B. and Winterhalter, P. 9-Hydroxypiperitone beta-D-glucopyranoside and other polar constituents from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb. J Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48(10):4821-4825. View abstract.

Buch, J. G., Dikshit, R. K., and Mansuri, S. M. Effect of certain volatile oils on ejaculated human spermatozoa. Indian J Med Res 1988;87:361-363. View abstract.

Cankur, O., Yathavakilla, S. K., and Caruso, J. A. Selenium speciation in dill (Anethum graveolens L.) by ion pairing reversed phase and cation exchange HPLC with ICP-MS detection. Talanta 11-15-2006;70(4):784-790. View abstract.

Cenizo, V., Andre, V., Reymermier, C., Sommer, P., Damour, O., and Perrier, E. LOXL as a target to increase the elastin content in adult skin: a dill extract induces the LOXL gene expression. Exp.Dermatol. 2006;15(8):574-581. View abstract.

Chaubey, M. K. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J Oleo.Sci 2008;57(3):171-179. View abstract.

Chiu, A. M. and Zacharisen, M. C. Anaphylaxis to dill. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000;84(5):559-560. View abstract.

de Sousa, D. P., Farias Nobrega, F. F., and de Almeida, R. N. Influence of the chirality of (R)-(-)- and (S)-(+)-carvone in the central nervous system: a comparative study. Chirality 5-5-2007;19(4):264-268. View abstract.

Delaquis, P. J., Stanich, K., Girard, B., and Mazza, G. Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils. Int.J Food Microbiol. 3-25-2002;74(1-2):101-109. View abstract.

Egan, C. L. and Sterling, G. Phytophotodermatitis: a visit to Margaritaville. Cutis 1993;51(1):41-42. View abstract.

Elgayyar, M., Draughon, F. A., Golden, D. A., and Mount, J. R. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms. J Food Prot. 2001;64(7):1019-1024. View abstract.

Faria, J. M., Nunes, I. S., Figueiredo, A. C., Pedro, L. G., Trindade, H., and Barroso, J. G. Biotransformation of menthol and geraniol by hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens: effect on growth and volatile components. Biotechnol.Lett. 2009;31(6):897-903. View abstract.

Fatope, M Marwah R Onifade A Ochei J Al Mahroqi Y. C NMR Analysis and Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Oman Dill Herb Oil. Pharmaceutical Biology 2006;44(1):44-49.

Fischer, F. C. and Gijbels, M. J. cis- and trans-Neocnidilide; 1H- and 13C-NMR Data of Some Phthalides. Planta Med 1987;53(1):77-80. View abstract.

Freeman, G. L. Allergy to fresh dill. Allergy 1999;54(5):531-532. View abstract.

Fukuoka, M., Yoshihira, K., Natori, S., Sakamoto, K., Iwahara, S., Hosaka, S., and Hirono, I. Characterization of mutagenic principles and carcinogenicity of dill weed and seeds. J Pharmacobiodyn. 1980;3(5):236-244. View abstract.

Gao, Y. Y., Di Pascuale, M. A., Li, W., Baradaran-Rafii, A., Elizondo, A., Kuo, C. L., Raju, V. K., and Tseng, S. C. In vitro and in vivo killing of ocular Demodex by tea tree oil. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89(11):1468-1473. View abstract.

Glaze, L. E. Collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from whole, cracked, or flaked and ground spices. J Assoc.Off Anal.Chem. 1975;58(3):447-450. View abstract.

Glowniak, K. and Doraczynska, A. [An investigation of benzine extract obtained from dill fruits (Anethum graveolens L.)]. Ann.Univ Mariae.Curie Sklodowska Med. 1982;37:251-257. View abstract.

Gomez-Coronado, D. J., Ibanez, E., Ruperez, F. J., and Barbas, C. Tocopherol measurement in edible products of vegetable origin. J Chromatogr.A 10-29-2004;1054(1-2):227-233. View abstract.

Gruncharov, V. and Tashev, T. [Studying the cholagogic and choleretic action of Bulgarian dill oil]. Vutr.Boles. 1972;11(5):45-51. View abstract.

Gruncharov, V. and Tashev, T. [The choleretic effect of Bulgarian dill oil in white rats]. Eksp.Med.Morfol. 1973;12(3):155-161. View abstract.

Gundling K, Kojuri J Vosoughi A Akrami M. Bacteriostatic effect of dill, fennel, caraway and cinnamon extracts against Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine 2005;15(2-3):47-55.

Hajhashemi, V. and Abbasi, N. Hypolipidemic activity of Anethum graveolens in rats. Phytother.Res 2008;22(3):372-375. View abstract.

Hegde, V. L. and Venkatesh, Y. P. Anaphylaxis following ingestion of mango fruit. J Investig.Allergol.Clin Immunol. 2007;17(5):341-344. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Karimi, G. R., and Ameri, M. Effects of Anethum graveolens L. seed extracts on experimental gastric irritation models in mice. BMC.Pharmacol. 12-19-2002;2:21. View abstract.

Hussein, K. T. Evaluation of the efficacy of dill apiol and pyriproxyfen in the treatment and control of Xenopsylla cheopis flea Roths (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J Egypt.Soc.Parasitol. 2005;35(3):1027-1036. View abstract.

Ibrahim, Y. K. and Ogunmodede, M. S. Growth and survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in some aromatic waters. Pharm Acta Helv. 1991;66(9-10):286-288. View abstract.

Ishikawa, T., Kudo, M., and Kitajima, J. Water-soluble constituents of dill. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 2002;50(4):501-507. View abstract.

Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Stoyanova, A. S., Georgiev, E. V., and Damianova, S. T. Composition, quality control, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of long-time stored dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seeds from Bulgaria. J Agric.Food Chem. 6-18-2003;51(13):3854-3857. View abstract.

Johannessen, G. S., Loncarevic, S., and Kruse, H. Bacteriological analysis of fresh produce in Norway. Int.J Food Microbiol. 8-25-2002;77(3):199-204. View abstract.

KALITZKI, M. [Studies in the changes in composition of ethereal oils from Mentha piperita and from Anethum graveolens with special reference to drying technic.]. Pharmazie 1954;9(1):61-82. View abstract.

KALITZKI, M. [Studies on the changes in the composition of ethereal oil of Mentha piperita and Anethum graveolens with special reference to the drying process.]. Pharmazie 1954;9(2):155-166. View abstract.

Kartnig, V., Moeckel, H., and Maunz, B. [The occurrence of cumarins and sterols in tissue-cultures of roots of Anethum graveolens and Pimpinella anisum (author's transl)]. Planta Med 1975;27(1):1-13. View abstract.

Kaur, G. J. and Arora, D. S. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi. BMC.Complement Altern.Med. 2009;9:30. View abstract.

Khalaf, A. F. Enzyme activity in the flesh fly Parasarcophaga dux Thomson influenced by dill compounds, myristicin and apiol. J Egypt.Soc.Parasitol. 2004;34(1):255-264. View abstract.

Khalaf, A. F. Toxicological efficacy of some indigenous dill compounds against the flesh fly, Parasarcophaga dux Thomson. J Egypt.Soc.Parasitol. 2004;34(1):227-237. View abstract.

Kojuri, J., Vosoughi, A. R., and Akrami, M. Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients. Lipids Health Dis. 2007;6:5. View abstract.

Kordyum, E. L., Popova, A. F., and Mashinsky, A. L. Influence of orbital flight conditions on formation of genitals in Muscari racemosum and Anethum graveolens. Life Sci.Space Res 1979;17:301-304. View abstract.

Kovac-Besovic, E. E. and Duric, K. Thin layer chromatography-application in qualitative analysis on presence of coumarins and flavonoids in plant material. Bosn.J Basic Med.Sci. 2003;3(3):19-26. View abstract.

Kowalska-Pylka, H., Kot, A., Wiercinski, J., Kursa, K., Walkuska, G., and Cybulski, W. [Lead, cadmium, copper and zinc content in vegetables, gooseberry fruit and soil from gardening plots of Lublin]. Rocz.Panstw.Zakl.Hig. 1995;46(1):3-12. View abstract.

Lavilla, I., Filgueiras, A. V., and Bendicho, C. Comparison of digestion methods for determination of trace and minor metals in plant samples. J Agric.Food Chem. 1999;47(12):5072-5077. View abstract.

Lazutka, J. R., Mierauskiene, J., Slapsyte, G., and Dedonyte, V. Genotoxicity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster. Food Chem Toxicol. 2001;39(5):485-492. View abstract.

Lee, I. M., Martini, M., Bottner, K. D., Dane, R. A., Black, M. C., and Troxclair, N. Ecological implications from a molecular analysis of phytoplasmas involved in an aster yellows epidemic in various crops in Texas. Phytopathology 2003;93(11):1368-1377. View abstract.

Lis-Balchin, M. and Hart, S. A preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth muscle in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 1997;58(3):183-187. View abstract.

Lopez, P., Sanchez, C., Batlle, R., and Nerin, C. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. J Agric.Food Chem 8-24-2005;53(17):6939-6946. View abstract.

Madani H, Mahmoodabady NA Vahdati A. Effects of hydroalchoholic [sic] extract of Anethum graveolens (DILL) on plasma glucose an [sic] lipid levels in diabetes induced rats. Iranian Journal of Diabetes & Lipid Disorders 2006;5(2):E13.

Mazyad, S. A., El Serougi, A. O., and Morsy, T. A. The efficacy of the volatile oils of three plants for controlling Lucilia sericata. J Egypt.Soc.Parasitol. 1999;29(1):91-100. View abstract.

Miller, E. C., Swanson, A. B., Phillips, D. H., Fletcher, T. L., Liem, A., and Miller, J. A. Structure-activity studies of the carcinogenicities in the mouse and rat of some naturally occurring and synthetic alkenylbenzene derivatives related to safrole and estragole. Cancer Res 1983;43(3):1124-1134. View abstract.

Monteseirin, J., Perez-Formoso, J. L., Hernandez, M., Sanchez-Hernandez, M. C., Camacho, M. J., Bonilla, I., Chaparro, A., and Conde, J. Contact urticaria from dill. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48(5):275. View abstract.

Monteseirin, J., Perez-Formoso, J. L., Sanchez-Hernandez, M. C., Hernandez, M., Camacho, M. J., Bonilla, I., Guardia, P., and Conde, J. Occupational contact dermatitis to dill. Allergy 2002;57(9):866-867. View abstract.

Murphy, E. W., Marsh, A. C., and Willis, B. W. Nutrient content of spices and herbs. J Am.Diet.Assoc. 1978;72(2):174-176. View abstract.

Nakano, Y., Matsunaga, H., Saita, T., Mori, M., Katano, M., and Okabe, H. Antiproliferative constituents in Umbelliferae plants II. Screening for polyacetylenes in some Umbelliferae plants, and isolation of panaxynol and falcarindiol from the root of Heracleum moellendorffii. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 1998;21(3):257-261. View abstract.

NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of d-Carvone (CAS No. 2244-16-8) in B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). Natl.Toxicol.Program.Tech.Rep.Ser 1990;381:1-113. View abstract.

O'Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 12-21-2005;11(47):7499-7507. View abstract.

Orhan, I., Kartal, M., Kan, Y., and Sener, B. Activity of essential oils and individual components against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. Z.Naturforsch.C. 2008;63(7-8):547-553. View abstract.

Ozcan, M. Effect of spice hydrosols on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 strain. J Med.Food 2005;8(2):275-278. View abstract.

Panda, S. The effect of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) on corticosteroid induced diabetes mellitus: involvement of thyroid hormones. Phytother.Res 2008;22(12):1695-1697. View abstract.

Peng, Y., Shi, J., Tan, P., and Jing, X. [Microscopic and TLC identification on the fruits of ten species plants for Umbelliferae]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 1998;21(10):500-503. View abstract.

Pestemer, W. and Mann, W. [Herbicide residues in some herbs (author's transl)]. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1980;171(4):272-277. View abstract.

Phillips, D. H., Reddy, M. V., and Randerath, K. 32P-post-labelling analysis of DNA adducts formed in the livers of animals treated with safrole, estragole and other naturally-occurring alkenylbenzenes. II. Newborn male B6C3F1 mice. Carcinogenesis 1984;5(12):1623-1628. View abstract.

Rafii, F. and Shahverdi, A. R. Comparison of essential oils from three plants for enhancement of antimicrobial activity of nitrofurantoin against enterobacteria. Chemotherapy 2007;53(1):21-25. View abstract.

Randerath, K., Haglund, R. E., Phillips, D. H., and Reddy, M. V. 32P-post-labelling analysis of DNA adducts formed in the livers of animals treated with safrole, estragole and other naturally-occurring alkenylbenzenes. I. Adult female CD-1 mice. Carcinogenesis 1984;5(12):1613-1622. View abstract.

Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M., Yoshinari, T., Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M., Rezaee, M. B., Nagasawa, H., and Sakuda, S. Dillapiol and Apiol as specific inhibitors of the biosynthesis of aflatoxin G1 in Aspergillus parasiticus. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2007;71(9):2329-2332. View abstract.

Robertson, L. J. and Gjerde, B. Occurrence of parasites on fruits and vegetables in Norway. J Food Prot. 2001;64(11):1793-1798. View abstract.

Robertson, N. L. Identification and characterization of a new virus in the genus Potyvirus from wild populations of Angelica lucida L. and A. genuflexa Nutt., family Apiaceae. Arch Virol. 2007;152(9):1603-1611. View abstract.

Rychlik, M. Quantification of free coumarin and its liberation from glucosylated precursors by stable isotope dilution assays based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection. J Agric.Food Chem 2-13-2008;56(3):796-801. View abstract.

Sadeghian S, Neyestani TR Shirazi MH Ranjbarian P. Bacteriostatic effect of dill, fennel, caraway and cinnamon extracts against Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine 2005;15(2-3):47-55.

Sakiroglu, H., Ozturk, A. E., Pepe, A. E., and Erat, M. Some kinetic properties of polyphenol oxidase obtained from dill (Anethum graveolens). J Enzyme Inhib.Med.Chem. 2008;23(3):380-385. View abstract.

Satyanarayana, S., Sushruta, K., Sarma, G. S., Srinivas, N., and Subba Raju, G. V. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of spicy food additives--evaluation and comparison with ascorbic acid in in-vitro systems. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2004;4(2):1-10. View abstract.

Scheffer, J. J., Tio, K. H., and Baerheim, Svendsen A. Isolation of dill seed oil by hydrodistillation following solvent extraction. Planta Med. 1981;42(6):138. View abstract.

Shah, C. S., Qadry, J. S., and Chauhan, M. G. Constituents of two varieties of Indian dill. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1971;23(6):448-450. View abstract.

Shankaracharya, N B. Studies on chemical and technological aspects of Indian dill seed (Anethum Sowa. Rxb). Journal of Food Science and Technology 2000;37(4):368-372.

Shcherbanovsky, L. R. and Kapelev, I. G. [Volatile oil of Anethum Graveolens L. as an inhibitor of yeast and lactic acid bacteria]. Prikl.Biokhim.Mikrobiol. 1975;11(3):476-477. View abstract.

Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P., Pandey, S. K., Singh, U. K., and Singh, R. K. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices. Phytother.Res 2002;16(7):680-682. View abstract.

Singh, U. P., Singh, D. P., Maurya, S., Maheshwari, R., Singh, M., Dubey, R. S., and Singh, R. B. Investigation on the phenolics of some spices having pharmacotherapeuthic properties. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2004;4(4):27-42. View abstract.

Solodovnichenko, N. M. [Morphological and anatomical characteristics of the fruits of the dill and the localization of coumarins in them]. Farm.Zh. 1974;(1):87-92. View abstract.

Souri, E., Amin, G., Farsam, H., and Andaji, S. The antioxidant activity of some commonly used vegetables in Iranian diet. Fitoterapia 2004;75(6):585-588. View abstract.

Stannard, J. The multiple uses of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) in medieval medicine. Wurzbg.Medizinhist.Forsch. 1982;24:411-424. View abstract.

Stavri, M. and Gibbons, S. The antimycobacterial constituents of dill (Anethum graveolens). Phytother.Res 2005;19(11):938-941. View abstract.

Suprunov, N. I., Kurlianchik, I. A., and Deren'ko, S. A. [Dynamics of accumulation of essential oils in specimens of Anethum graveolens of different geographic origin]. Farm.Zh. 1976;(6):52-54. View abstract.

Swieca. Monteseirín Herba Polonica. 2008;54:59-69.

Tamme, T., Reinik, M., Roasto, M., Juhkam, K., Tenno, T., and Kiis, A. Nitrates and nitrites in vegetables and vegetable-based products and their intakes by the Estonian population. Food Addit.Contam 2006;23(4):355-361. View abstract.

Teuber, H. and Herrmann, K. [Flavonol glycosides of leaves and fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens L.). II. Phenolics of spices (author's transl)]. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 8-30-1978;167(2):101-104. View abstract.

Tirranen, L. S., Borodina, E. V., Ushakova, S. A., Rygalov, V. Y., and Gitelson, J. I. Effect of volatile metabolites of dill, radish and garlic on growth of bacteria. Acta Astronaut. 2001;49(2):105-108. View abstract.

Tomar, S. S. and Dureja, P. New minor constituents from Anethum sowa. Fitoterapia 2001;72(1):76-77. View abstract.

Tuntipopipat, S., Muangnoi, C., and Failla, M. L. Anti-inflammatory activities of extracts of Thai spices and herbs with lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. J Med.Food 2009;12(6):1213-1220. View abstract.

Wahba, N. M., Ahmed, A. S., and Ebraheim, Z. Z. Antimicrobial effects of pepper, parsley, and dill and their roles in the microbiological quality enhancement of traditional Egyptian Kareish cheese. Foodborne.Pathog.Dis. 2010;7(4):411-418. View abstract.

Wulf, L. W., Nagel, C. W., and Branen, A. L. High-pressure liquid chromatographic separation of the naturally occurring toxicants myristicin, related aromatic ethers and falcarinol. J Chromatogr. 11-21-1978;161:271-278. View abstract.

Yazdanparast, R. and Alavi, M. Antihyperlipidaemic and antihypercholesterolaemic effects of Anethum graveolens leaves after the removal of furocoumarins. Cytobios 2001;105(410):185-191. View abstract.

Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R. and Wasowicz, E. Estimation of the main dill seeds odorant carvone by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography. Nahrung 2002;46(5):357-359. View abstract.

Zheljazkov, V. D. and Warman, P. R. Application of high-Cu compost to dill and peppermint. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-5-2004;52(9):2615-2622. View abstract.

Zheljazkov, V. D. and Warman, P. R. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops. Environ.Pollut. 2004;131(2):187-195. View abstract.

Zheljazkov, V. D., Craker, L. E., Xing, B., Nielsen, N. E., and Wilcox, A. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils. Sci.Total Environ. 6-1-2008;395(2-3):51-62. View abstract.

Zhou, G. D., Moorthy, B., Bi, J., Donnelly, K. C., and Randerath, K. DNA adducts from alkoxyallylbenzene herb and spice constituents in cultured human (HepG2) cells. Environ.Mol.Mutagen. 2007;48(9):715-721. View abstract.

Zlatev. Rivista Italiana Essenze, Profumi, Piante Officinali, Aromi, Saponi, Cosmetici, Aerosol (Italy). 1976;58:553-555.

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182

Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.

Garcia-Gonzalez JJ, Bartolome-Zavala B, Fernandez-Melendez S, et al. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and food allergy because of aniseed sensitization. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;88:518-22. . View abstract.

Schamschula, R. G., Sugar, E., Un, P. S., Duppenthaler, J. L., Toth, K., and Barmes, D. E. Aluminium, calcium and magnesium content of Hungarian foods and dietary intakes by children aged 3.9 and 14 years. Acta Physiol Hung 1988;72(2):237-251. View abstract.

Sifton D, ed. The PDR family guide to natural medicines & healing therapies. New York, NY:Three Rivers Press, 1999.

Zheng GQ, Kenney PM, Lam LK. Anethofuran, carvone, and limonene: potential cancer chemopreventive agents from dill weed oil and caraway oil. Planta Med 1992;58:338-41. View abstract.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors