Women with PCO are at a higher risk for high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer of the uterus (endometrial cancer). Much of this risk can be reversed by exercise and weight loss. It is also important for women with PCO to have regular periods -- if a woman does not have regular periods, her risk of cancer of the uterus (endometrial cancer) rises -- so medication is generally prescribed to induce regular periods.
For acne or excess hair growth, a water pill (diuretic) called spironolactone can help. For PCO women who desire pregnancy, a medication called clomiphene (CLOMID) can be used to induce ovulation (cause egg production).
No one is sure what causes PCO. However, the ovaries of women with PCO contain a number of small cysts. Hence, the name poly (many) cystic ovarian disease. The name "Stein-Leventhal" is after the late American gynecologists Irving F. Stein, Sr. and Michael Leo Leventhal.